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|Founded||Late 17th century|
|Time zone||UTC-7 (MST)|
Álamos Municipality is a municipality in south-western Sonora, Mexico.
Sonora, officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.
The Municipality of Álamos derives its name from the álamo ('poplar') tree. Several impressive specimens are found in one of its two principal plazas, the Alameda. The nearby hamlet, El Sabinito, located within the Municipality, also derives its name from a tree, the sabino ('Montezuma cypress').
The area was named by the conquistador Francisco Vásquez de Coronado. His expedition of 1540 camped at the confluence of the two major arroyos (Escondido and the Aduana) of present-day Álamos and made reference to local geographical landmarks, including two large rock formations on Mount Alamos known as Los Frailes, 'the monks' in English.
Conquistador is a term widely used to refer to the knights, soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire. During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to the Americas, Oceania, Africa, and Asia, conquering territory and opening trade routes. They colonized much of the world for Spain and Portugal in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries.
The church records of Álamos date to 1682, but it was founded on December 8, 1685, by the Spanish soldier, Domingo Terán de los Ríos, after the discovery of the silver mines at Promontorios, La Aduana, Las Cabras, La Quintera, and others of lesser importance nearby.Rios in 1686 became governor of Sonora and Sinaloa, where he was successful in quelling Indian disturbances.
Domingo Terán de los Ríos served as the first governor of Spanish Texas from 1691 to 1692.
A major expedition led by Juan Bautista de Anza II departed Álamos in 1775 to discover a route to Alta California. The Anza expedition had nearly 300 members, of which about half were from Álamos. The trek was financed by the wealthy silver mine owners of Álamos, and it established the Presidio of Monterey.
Alta California, known sometimes unofficially as Nueva California, California Septentrional, California del Norte or California Superior, began in 1804 as a province of New Spain. Along with the Baja California peninsula, it had previously comprised the province of Las Californias, but was split off into a separate province in 1804. Following the Mexican War of Independence, it became a territory of Mexico in April 1822 and was renamed "Alta California" in 1824. The claimed territory included all of the modern US states of California, Nevada and Utah, and parts of Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico.
Álamos became the capital of what was then the state of Occidental in the early 1800s. Occidental encompassed today's state of Sonora, the northern portion of the state of Sinaloa, and some of Baja California and southern Arizona. Álamos was the northernmost “Silver City” in Mexico. While it has much in common, architecturally, with Mexico's other “Silver Cities,” Álamos has not succumbed to large-scale commercialism and has managed to retain the charm and pace of earlier times.
Sinaloa, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities and its capital city is Culiacán Rosales.
Baja California, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Baja California, is a state in Mexico. It is the northernmost and westernmost of the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Before becoming a state in 1952, the area was known as the North Territory of Baja California. It has an area of 70,113 km2 (27,071 sq mi), or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico and comprises the northern half of the Baja California Peninsula, north of the 28th parallel, plus oceanic Guadalupe Island. The mainland portion of the state is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by Sonora, the U.S. state of Arizona, and the Gulf of California, and on the south by Baja California Sur. Its northern limit is the U.S. state of California.
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western and the Mountain states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico; its other neighboring states are Nevada and California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest.
Álamos is known as “La Ciudad de los Portales” (portales are tall, arched, covered verandas or walkways fronting many of the cobble-stoned streets or calles). Álamos boasts numerous buildings exhibiting classic Andalusian architecture from Mexico's Colonial period, including numerous mansions, the Plaza de Armas, the Church of La Purísima Concepción, La Capilla and the Palacio Municipal (“city hall”).
The great wealth created by the silver mines from the surrounding mining towns of La Aduana, Minas Nuevas, and others enabled the founders and residents of Álamos to build scores of colonial Spanish mansions throughout the town; most of them went into ruin in the early 20th Century but in the late 1940s, a number of Americans and Canadians began buying and restoring the houses.
Álamos is located in the southeastern part of Sonora, and 396 km (246 mi) from state capital Hermosillo, 54 km (34 mi) from Navojoa via Sonora State Highway 162, and 663 km (412 mi) from the northern border town of Nogales. The State of Chihuahua is on the east, and the State of Sinaloa on the south. The population of the municipality is 24,493 and its area is 6,947.27 square kilometres or 2,682 square miles.
Álamos has a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh) bordering on a tropical savanna climate, with three seasons: a hot, dry season from April to June, a hot, humid wet season from July to October, and a warm, generally dry “winter” from November to March. Occasionally the dry winter pattern is interrupted by the passage of frontal cloudbands: 220 millimetres (8.66 in) fell during January 1981, including 168 millimetres (6.61 in) between the fifth and the seventh of that month, and over 120 millimetres (4.72 in) in January 1979. During the hot early summer, temperatures can reach extreme heights; the record being 49.5 °C (121.1 °F) on 16 June 1976.
|Climate data for Álamos (1951-2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||41.5|
|Average high °C (°F)||27.8|
|Average low °C (°F)||9.2|
|Record low °C (°F)||0.0|
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||35.0|
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||2.4||1.4||1.2||0.3||0.4||2.2||12.8||11.0||6.8||3.1||1.6||2.2||45.4|
|Source: Servicio Meteorólogico Nacional|
After a heyday lasting from the late 1600s until the early 1900s, when the silver mines closed, the economy of Alamos went into a serious decline. Only a few hundred people remained in the once vibrant city due to a major decline in silver prices, ongoing unrest in the country with a revolution in progress, and the exodus of business owners and people of wealth. Vacant mansions went into disrepair until foreigners began restoring homes in 1946 after three decades of abandonment, bringing employment to locals with building and housekeeping skills. The area's top industries for decades were ranching and tourism. The present-day economy includes copper and silver mines. About 16 km to the northwest is the Adolfo Ruiz Cortinez Dam and Reservoir known as “El Mocúzarit”, whose waters irrigate 80,000 acres (320 km2). Cattle ranching is seasonal and declining due to impoverished grazing lands. Numerous chicken and pig farms, called “granjas,” contribute substantially to the economy.
Álamos was named a “Pueblo Mágico” in 2005. “Pueblo Magico” is a designation given by the Mexican Secretariat of Tourism to towns that offer a 'magical' experience by reason of their natural beauty, cultural riches and historical relevance.
Álamos has many festivals and fiestas year-round. Most notable is the Festival of Dr. Alfonso Ortiz Tirado (“FAOT”), attended by many national and international musicians and celebrities. Dr. Alfonso Ortiz Tirado, born in this community in 1894, achieved recognition for being “El Tenor de las Américas.” An impressive exhibit of Ortiz Tirado is found in the Museo Costumbrista, located in front of and to the east of the Plaza de Armas. The annual Festival Alfonso Ortiz Tirado is a nine-day event that takes places in Álamos annually in late January. The annual film festival is usually held in March. Several professional hunting lodges operate in the Alamos area, attracting dove hunters from various areas of the world. Álamos has more recently been the location for film production, including a European Endemol production and more than 180 episodes of the 'novela' (soap opera) 'La Fuerza del Destino'.
The Sierra de Álamos Ecological Reserve offers serious “birding” opportunities. The creek of Cuchujaqui, which is in the ecological reserve is the most species-rich subtropical area in the Northern Hemisphere.[ citation needed ] Cuchujaqui is the subject of international scientific study and the southern migration destination of hundreds of different species of birds.
The presence of a jet-rated airport in Alamos (XALA) attracts aviators from Mexico, the U.S. and Canada. There is also charter service available to some areas of the Copper Canyon. The village has more than 20 hotels and B&B's.
The name Álamos has been used for a crater on the planet Mars by the International Astronomical Union, although not specifically commemorating the town.
Hermosillo, formerly called Pitic, is a city located centrally in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora. It is the capital and largest city as well as the main economic center for the state and region. As of 2015, the city has a population of 812,229 inhabitants, making it the 16th largest city in Mexico. The recent city population spur is due to its recent strong industrialization, especially in the automotive industry.
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Alfonso Ortiz Tirado was an opera singer and medical doctor born in Álamos, Sonora, Mexico. His musical talent was apparent early in life, but he studied at the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria and university to become a doctor. He specialized in gynecology as well as general medicine, and eventually became the personal physician of Frida Kahlo and performed surgery on Agustín Lara. As a musician, he studied under José Pierson and soon afterward had a successful international career as an opera singer, earning the label of “tenor of the Americas.” He was often cast for productions of L'elisir d'amore and Madame Butterfly. He earned a large sum of money doing this, and used it to establish a children’s hospital in Mexico City. Ortiz died in 1960, and was interred at the Panteón Frances de la Piedad. The Festival de Canto Operístico Tirado in the state of Sonora was named after him.
Tirado is a given name and a surname. Notable people with the name include:
Rio Cuchujaqui, Arroyo Cuchujaqui or Arroyo de Alamos, is a tributary river of the Fuerte River, in the Álamos Municipality of Sonora and in El Fuerte Municipality, Sinaloa, Mexico. It has its source in the Sierra de Álamos a range in the Sierra Madre Occidental in the Álamos Municipality of Sonora. Its mouth is at its confluence with the Fuerte River, just below Tehueco in Sinaloa. Its course is interrupted in Sinaloa by the Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez dam and its reservoir atbuilt between 1964 and 1970.
Casanate, is a town in Álamos Municipality in the Mexican state of Sonora, in northwestern Mexico. It is 48.5 kilometers south southeast of Álamos and 26.7 kilometers Northwest of El Fuerte, in Sinaloa. It lies on the left bank of the Rio Cuchujaqui at an elevation of 140 meters. Its population at the time of its last census was 69 persons, 37 males and 32 females.
El Chinal is an town of the Álamos Municipality located in the southeast of the Mexican state of Sonora, close to the boundary with the states of Chihuahua and Sinaloa. It is located 57.2 km southeast of Álamos and 47.8 kilometers Northwest of El Fuerte, in Sinaloa. It lies northwest of Casanate in valley among the hills east of the Rio Cuchujaqui at an elevation of 243 meters.
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