Ådalen shootings

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The peaceful part of the demonstration in Adalen 1led0513adalen.jpg
The peaceful part of the demonstration in Ådalen

The Ådalen shootings (Swedish : skotten i Ådalen) was a series of events in and around the sawmill district of Ådalen, Kramfors Municipality, Ångermanland, Sweden, in May 1931. During a protest on 14 May, five people were killed by bullets fired by troops called in as reinforcements by the police.

Swedish language North Germanic language spoken in Sweden

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden, and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier for Swedish speakers to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era. It has the most speakers of the North Germanic languages.

Ådalen valley in Sweden

Ådalen is the river valley of the Ångerman River, downstream Junsele, in Sweden. It often refers to the broad, densely populated, fjord-like mouth of the river, in Kramfors Municipality, and is known for the May 1931 Ådalen shootings.

Kramfors Municipality Municipality in Västernorrland County, Sweden

Kramfors Municipality is a municipality in Västernorrland County, northern Sweden. Its seat is located in the town Kramfors.

Contents

Background

As a response to a drawn-out industrial conflict over pay reductions at the pulp factory at Långrör, workers at other plants went on a sympathy strike. [1] The owner of the Graninge company, Gerhard Versteegh, hired around 60 strike-breakers, who arrived in the village of Lunde in Ådalen on 12 May. The workers held a protest rally in Kramfors and marched to the Sandviken plant north of the town, where they approached and attacked some of the strike-breakers. [2] Since the police had not been able to stop the attack, the County Administrative Board asked for the deployment of members of the military from Sollefteå to protect the strike-breakers. When the troops arrived in the late evening of 13 May, they were met by protesters, allegedly throwing stones. [1]

Strikebreaker

A strikebreaker is a person who works despite an ongoing strike. Strikebreakers are usually individuals who were not employed by the company prior to the trade union dispute, but rather hired after or during the strike to keep the organization running. "Strikebreakers" may also refer to workers who cross picket lines to work.

Lunde, Sweden Place in Ångermanland, Sweden

Lunde is a locality situated in Kramfors Municipality, Västernorrland County, Sweden with 399 inhabitants in 2010.

Sollefteå Place in Ångermanland, Sweden

Sollefteå is a locality and the seat of Sollefteå Municipality in Västernorrland County, Sweden with 8,562 inhabitants in 2010.

Confrontation

On 14 May the unions held another rally, during which the attending workers decided to stop all work in the timber and pulp industries in Ådalen—a general strike. [3] After the meeting, several thousand participants marched to the strike-breakers' quarters in Lunde, where the troops had been ordered to defend the strike-breakers. When they arrived in the village, a patrol of mounted troops tried unsuccessfully to stop them. [1] In the confusion that followed, at least one man fell off his horse and another drew his pistol and fired warning shots while the patrol withdrew. The military commander, Capt. Nils Mesterton, said later that he believed the demonstrators carried weapons since he heard shots as well as seeing some of the mounted patrol bleeding. [4] At a distance of less than 100 metres he, in accordance with orders from the present policeman in charge, ordered his troops to fire, which they did, aiming as planned at the ground halfway between the line and the demonstrators. However, ricochets hit the gathered demonstrators, who scattered, and the captain ordered the machine gun fired. Five people were shot to death: Oskar Berggren, Erik Bergström, Evert Nygren, Sture Larsson and Eira Söderberg, a 20-year-old bystander. Five people were injured. An inquiry later concluded that there was no evidence that the workers were in fact armed. [4]

A trade union, also called a labour union or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals, such as protecting the integrity of their trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits, and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with employers. The most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment". This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies.

General strike strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates

A general strike is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates. General strikes are characterised by the participation of workers in a multitude of workplaces, and tend to involve entire communities. General strikes first occurred in the mid-19th century, and have characterised many historically important strikes.

Nils Mesterton Swedish military officer

Carl Fredrik Nils Mesterton was a Swedish Army officer who became known as the military commander on the scene at the Ådalen shootings in Sweden on 14 May 1931.

On that same day the County Administrative Board had decided to prohibit the strike-breakers from working. Their decision did not reach the demonstrators until after the shooting. It is widely believed that the confrontation could have been avoided if the news had reached the marchers earlier. The Swedish Employers' Association later asked the Swedish Parliamentary Ombudsmen to review the decision. [1]

Confederation of Swedish Enterprise organization

The Confederation of Swedish Enterprise or Swedish Enterprise is a major employers' organization for private sector and business sector companies in Sweden. It has 49 member associations representing 60,000 member companies with more than 1.6 million employees.

Aftermath

The events spawned a raging national debate, deeply divided along political lines. The political left called the shootings "murder", while the right claimed that the military had been forced to open fire to defend themselves and the "willing workers" from the rage of the demonstrators. [1] [5] The publishers of several left-wing newspapers were convicted for violations against the limitations in the Freedom of the Press Act. [4] Major demonstrations took place in Stockholm. [5]

Stockholm Capital city in Södermanland and Uppland, Sweden

Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries; 960,031 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area. The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Mälaren flows into the Baltic Sea. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago. The area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, and was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is also the capital of Stockholm County.

The County Governor was tried in court but acquitted. Capt. Mesterton and Capt. Beckman were initially convicted in a court martial, but were acquitted on appeal and that verdict was confirmed by the supreme court. Sgt. Rask and Sgt. Tapper, who were manning the machine gun, were also put on trial since repositioning had been performed with a loaded weapon, which was against army regulations. [6] Rask was acquitted while Tapper was found guilty and sentenced to three days' confined arrest with loss of pay. On the other hand, several demonstrators had to face severe sentences: Axel Nordström, considered to be the leader, was sentenced to two and half years' imprisonment with hard labor. No damages were awarded to the wounded demonstrators or to the families of the five dead. [5]

Penal labour work that prisoners are required to perform

Penal labour is a generic term for various kinds of unfree labour which prisoners are required to perform, typically manual labour. The work may be light or hard, depending on the context. Forms of sentence involving penal labour have included involuntary servitude, penal servitude and imprisonment with hard labour. The term may refer to several related scenarios: labour as a form of punishment, the prison system used as a means to secure labour, and labour as providing occupation for convicts. These scenarios can be applied to those imprisoned for political, religious, war, or other reasons as well as to criminal convicts.

At common law, damages are a remedy in the form of a monetary award to be paid to a claimant as compensation for loss or injury. To warrant the award, the claimant must usually show that a breach of duty has caused foreseeable loss. To be recognised at law, the loss must involve damage to property, or mental or physical injury; pure economic loss is rarely recognised for the award of damages.

The government, under the liberal Prime Minister Carl Gustaf Ekman, replaced the County Governor and launched an investigation into the event. [6] The investigation, with representatives from both employers and trade unions, later concluded that the military was highly unfit to uphold public order in similar situations. [7] The use of the military against civilians was more strictly regulated, but the legislation was on the books until it was repealed by the 1969 Riksdag. However, there was broad political agreement not to use military force against civilians. [8] The Ådalen shootings were still a concern in the discussions after the 9/11 events in the US, when military support to the police was considered. Therefore, the subsequent legislation that allowed the military to take part in anti-terrorism actions contained several safeguards. The military must be under command of the police, as they were in Ådalen in 1931, and legislation specifically says that the military cannot be used against demonstrations. [7] [9] There was still concern that these safeguards would not be enough. [10] [11] [12]

At the time of the 1931 events, it was not possible to call in police reinforcements from outside the county. [12] Thus, army assistance was the only recourse available to a county governor when the county's police force would be insufficient to deal with large-scale events. The shootings highlighted the inadequacy of this state of affairs. One effect of the Ådalen shootings was the formation of a national police force in 1933. [6]

The leadership of the Social Democratic banned members to attend the funerals of the killed protesters as they were regarded as collaborators with the revolutionary communist party.

Coverage in film

In 1969 well-known Swedish filmmaker Bo Widerberg told the story of the events in his film Ådalen 31 (released as Adalen Riots in the US). Partly thanks to the film and partly through the persistent use of the events in political debate, the Ådalen shootings are still well known in Sweden, and are sometimes referred to in connection with violent clashes between demonstrators and police such as the 2001 EU summit protests in Gothenburg. [6]

The incident is also mentioned several times in the 1979 Swedish comedy film Repmånad . [13]

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Nandorf, Tove (2006-05-13). "75 år sedan skotten i Ådalen" [75 years ago since the shooting in Ådalen]. Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  2. Johansson, Roger. "Om strejkbrytarna i Ådalen 1931" [About the strikebreakers in Ådalen 1931] (in Swedish). Arbetetsmarknad.se. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  3. Lidén, Svante (2011-05-14). "Massakern i Ådalen har tonats ner" [The massacre in Ådalen has been toned down]. Aftonbladet (in Swedish). Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  4. 1 2 3 Lundin, Sara (30 October 2011). "Skotten i Ådalen −31" [Ådalen shootings −31] (in Swedish). Sveriges Radio . Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  5. 1 2 3 Olsson, Per (10 May 2011). "Dödsskotten i Ådalen den 14 maj 1931 ekar ännu" [The shootings in Ådalen on May 14, 1931 still echoes] (in Swedish). Socialist Justice Party . Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Hultström, Jonas (14 May 2011). "Skotten i Ådalen förändrade Sverige för alltid" [Ådalen shootings changed Sweden forever] (in Swedish). Sveriges Radio . Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  7. 1 2 "Regeringens proposition 2005/06:111 – Försvarsmaktens stöd till polisen vid terrorismbekämpning" [Government Bill 2005/06: 111 – The Armed Forces support to police in counter-terrorism] (in Swedish). Riksdagsförvaltningen. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  8. Ådalen 1931 Retrieved 9 May 2015
  9. "Lag (2006:343) om Försvarsmaktens stöd till polisen vid terrorismbekämpning" [Act (2006: 343) of the Armed Forces support to police in counter-terrorism] (in Swedish). Lagen.nu. Retrieved 13 November 2010.
  10. Andersen, Ivar (13 May 2006). "Lagen kan användas mot allt som inte passar sig" [The law can be used against anything that does not fit in]. Stockholms Fria Tidning (in Swedish). Retrieved 13 November 2010.
  11. Svanebro, Karin (10 May 2006). "Militären föreslås få bruka tvång och våld mot civila" [The military proposes to use force and violence against civilians]. Stockholms Fria Tidning (in Swedish). Retrieved 13 November 2010.
  12. 1 2 Thurfjell, Karin (14 May 2011). "Skotten som formade Sverige" [The shots that shaped Sweden]. Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  13. "Repmånad eller Hur man gör pojkar av män (1979)" (in Swedish). Swedish Film Database . Retrieved 9 May 2015.

Coordinates: 62°53′N17°52′E / 62.883°N 17.867°E / 62.883; 17.867