Çanakkale

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Çanakkale
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A view of city center
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Çanakkale
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Çanakkale
Coordinates: 40°09′21″N26°24′49″E / 40.15583°N 26.41361°E / 40.15583; 26.41361 Coordinates: 40°09′21″N26°24′49″E / 40.15583°N 26.41361°E / 40.15583; 26.41361
Country Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey
Province Çanakkale
Government
  MayorÜlgür Gökhan (CHP)
Area
[1]
  District937.82 km2 (362.09 sq mi)
Population
 (2012) [2]
   Urban
111,137
  District
143,041
  District density150/km2 (400/sq mi)
Vehicle registration 17
Website www.canakkale.bel.tr

Çanakkale (pronounced [tʃaˈnakkale] ) is a city and seaport in Turkey, in Çanakkale Province, on the southern coast of the Dardanelles at their narrowest point. The population of the town is 186,116 (2014 estimate). [3]

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Çanakkale Province Province of Turkey in West Marmara

Çanakkale Province is a province of Turkey, located in the northwestern part of the country. It takes its name from the city of Çanakkale.

Dardanelles strait in northwestern Turkey

The Dardanelles, also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (; Greek: Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey. One of the world's narrowest straits used for international navigation, the Dardanelles connects the Sea of Marmara with the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, while also allowing passage to the Black Sea by extension via the Bosphorus. The Dardanelles is 61 kilometres (38 mi) long, and 1.2 to 6 kilometres wide, averaging 55 metres (180 ft) deep with a maximum depth of 103 metres (338 ft) at its narrowest point abreast the city of Çanakkale.

Contents

Çanakkale is the finishing point every year for an organised swim across the Hellespont from Eceabat. This event emulates the swim in 1810 by Lord Byron, who was himself emulating the legendary swim by Leander in the story of Hero and Leander.

Eceabat District in Marmara, Turkey

Eceabat, formerly Maydos, is a town and district of Çanakkale Province in the Marmara region of Turkey, located on the eastern shore of the Gelibolu Peninsula, on the Dardanelles Strait. According to the 2010 census, population of the district is 9,154 of which 5,380 live in the town of Eceabat. The district covers an area of 468 km2 (181 sq mi), and the town lies at an elevation of 0 m (0 ft).

Lord Byron English poet and a leading figure in the Romantic movement

George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, known simply as Lord Byron, was an English poet, peer, and politician who became a revolutionary in the Greek War of Independence, and is considered one of the historical leading figures of the Romantic movement of his era. He is regarded as one of the greatest English poets and remains widely read and influential. Among his best-known works are the lengthy narrative poems Don Juan and Childe Harold's Pilgrimage; many of his shorter lyrics in Hebrew Melodies also became popular.

Hero and Leander mythical character

Hero and Leander is the Greek myth relating the story of Hero, a priestess of Aphrodite who dwelt in a tower in Sestos on the European side of the Hellespont, and Leander, a young man from Abydos on the opposite side of the strait. Leander fell in love with Hero and would swim every night across the Hellespont to spend time with her. Hero would light a lamp at the top of her tower to guide his way.

The city is the nearest major town to the site of ancient Troy. The wooden horse from the 2004 movie Troy is exhibited on the seafront.

Troy Homeric ancient city in northwest Asia Minor

Troy was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, just south of the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida. The present-day location is known as Hisarlik. It was the setting of the Trojan War described in the Greek Epic Cycle, in particular in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. Metrical evidence from the Iliad and the Odyssey suggests that the name Ἴλιον (Ilion) formerly began with a digamma: Ϝίλιον (Wilion); this is also supported by the Hittite name for what is thought to be the same city, Wilusa.

Name

Çanakkale is the name for a site earlier known as Kale-I-Sultaniye, which was adopted as the official term for the town in 1890, though current a century earlier. [4] Çanakkale was an Ottoman fortress called Kale-i Sultaniye (Ottoman Turkish : قلعة سلطانيه) or Sultaniye kalesi (Fortress of the Sultan). From the late 17th century it also became known for its fine-glazed pottery, Çanakkale ceramics, compared by one traveler to Delftware hence the later name Çanak kalesi 'pot fortress'. The Greek Byzantine name for Çanakkale چینک قله was Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia, [5] from which the English name Dardanelles is derived.

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Asia, Europe and Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Ottoman Turkish, or the Ottoman language, is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. During the peak of Ottoman power, Arabic and Persian vocabulary accounted for up to 88% of the Ottoman vocabulary, while words of foreign origin heavily outnumbered native Turkish words.

Canakkale ceramics date back to the 17th century. They were born from Iznik ceramics, which were known as the pinnacle of the Turkish art of ceramics and very popular in the Ottoman Empire during the 14th and 15th centuries. Iznik ceramics were sculpted using earthenware, a clay-based putty substance, and on rare occasions, beige-colored clay. They also contained blue and white decorations, with brush strokes easily visible, sharing characteristics with traditional pottery and elite craftsmanship of the Ottoman era. When they became the favorite style of ceramics, Canakkale ceramics adopted these elements for their own design.

From around 1920, the British began to call Çanakkale Chanak and Kale Sultanie in their reporting. [6]

British people citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, British Overseas Territories, Crown Dependencies, and their descendants

The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies. British nationality law governs modern British citizenship and nationality, which can be acquired, for instance, by descent from British nationals. When used in a historical context, "British" or "Britons" can refer to the Celtic Britons, the indigenous inhabitants of Great Britain and Brittany, whose surviving members are the modern Welsh people, Cornish people, and Bretons. It may also refer to citizens of the former British Empire.

Legends

Ancient Abydos, where the story of Hero and Leander takes place, is to the north of Çanakkale.

History

The Trojan horse that appeared in the 2004 film, now on display in Canakkale 612CanakkaleCavalloTroia.JPG
The Trojan horse that appeared in the 2004 film, now on display in Çanakkale
View of the harbour in Canakkale Canakkale harbour.jpg
View of the harbour in Çanakkale
Canakkale ferry line across the Dardanelles ChanakkaleFerry.jpg
Çanakkale ferry line across the Dardanelles
Canakkale fortress Canakkale fortress.jpg
Çanakkale fortress

The first inhabitants of the area, which hosted many civilizations, lived on the Biga Peninsula in the Last Chalcolithic Age c. 6000 years ago. However, very little is known about the identity and lifestyle of these early settlers. According to some excavations and research, the earliest settlements in the region were established at Kumtepe. It is supposed that Kumkale was established in 4000 BC and Troy between 3500–3000 BC.

Aeolian Greeks settled on the land in the 8th century BC and established trade colonies in the region called Aeolis. The region came under the control of the Lydians in the 7th century BC and under the control of the Persians in the 6th century BC. Aeolis went under the control of the Ancient Macedonian army as Alexander the Great defeated the Persians by the Granicus River of the region in the Battle of the Granicus on his way to Asia. The region came under the reign of the Kingdom of Pergamon in the 2nd century BC.

Çanakkale itself was built as a fortress in 1462 by Mehmed II Fatih, who gave it the name Kale-I Sultaniye, since one of the Sultan's sons had collaborated in its construction. [4] Sited on a bay at the narrowest point of the strait, it, together with another nearby fort, Kilid Bahr, provided an excellent position for controlling traffic through the Dardanelles. The two forts were quickly called in the travel literature "The Castles", and a town developed to the north-east, settled by Armenian refugees and Spanish Jews.

From the Renaissance period onwards, after their expulsion from Spain, Jewish refugees settled in Çanakkale and formed a sizeable community which thrived by supplying Mediterranean shipping in the region with provisions and acting as consular agents for many European nations. Down to the late 19th century they retained Spanish as a mother-tongue. Some 1,805 Jews were registered there in 1890, out of a population of 10,862, the rest being Muslims (3,551), Orthodox Greeks (2,577), Armenians (956) and assorted foreigners (2,173)., [4]

The western part of the Biga Peninsula where ancient Troy is situated was called Troas. Alexandria Troas, an important settlement of the region, was a free trade port and a rich trade center during Roman times. Later in the 2nd century AD, the region was attacked by Goths from Thrace. During the 7th and 8th centuries, in order to attack Constantinople the Arabs passed the strait a few times and came up to Sestos. At the beginning of the 14th century the Karasids dominated the Anatolian part of the strait. During the first half of that century Demirhan Bey from Karasids attempted to dominate the region. The Ottomans gained control of Gallipoli in 1367.

In 1915, during the First World War, British Empire and France attempted to secure the waterway through the Straits and ultimately capture Constantinople. Known as The Gallipoli Campaign, or the Dardanelles Campaign, in Turkey it is referred to as the Battle of Çanakkale (Turkish : Çanakkale Savaşı), during March 1915 when the Royal Navy failed to force the Dardanelles and suffered severe losses. During a series of operations, HMS Triumph, HMS Ocean, HMS Goliath, HMS Irresistible and the French battleship Bouvet were all sunk. The French submarine Q84 Joule and the Australian submarine AE2 were also destroyed and several other important ships were crippled too. Most of the damage was inflicted by mines, though a German U-Boat and Turkish small craft contributed too.

As of 1920, the city was estimated to have a population of approximately 22,000. An active port city, it was a stopping point for vessels traveling through the strait, as it had been in the ancient past. It was described as lacking quality accommodations and resources for those passing through by the British who visited the region. Exported goods from the city included wine, hides, pottery, ceramic tiles and grain. [6]

Notable people from Çanakkale

Education

The service of education throughout the city is above the country average. There are 13 high schools and a college within the boundaries of the city. Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University has 12 faculties, 4 institutes, 9 4-year colleges, 14 vocational schools and serves more than 52,000 students in the all area. 30 percent of the city population are college graduates.

Transportation

Çanakkale has one airport, which is 3 km from the city centre, serving since 1995. Anadolu Jet, a trademark of Turkish Airlines, and Borajet have daily flights from Istanbul and Ankara.

Çanakkale is linked to north, east, and south by paved highways. Buses run to Istanbul and Izmir.

Climate

Çanakkale has a mediterranean climate with hot and dry summers and cool and rainy winters. Snow falls ordinarily every winter.

Climate data for Çanakkale (1928–2017)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)20.0
(68.0)
21.3
(70.3)
27.3
(81.1)
30.8
(87.4)
39.0
(102.2)
36.8
(98.2)
39.0
(102.2)
41.7
(107.1)
35.8
(96.4)
31.7
(89.1)
26.2
(79.2)
22.6
(72.7)
41.7
(107.1)
Average high °C (°F)9.5
(49.1)
10.1
(50.2)
12.4
(54.3)
17.1
(62.8)
22.6
(72.7)
27.6
(81.7)
30.6
(87.1)
30.5
(86.9)
26.3
(79.3)
20.7
(69.3)
15.8
(60.4)
11.6
(52.9)
19.6
(67.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)6.1
(43.0)
6.6
(43.9)
8.3
(46.9)
12.5
(54.5)
17.5
(63.5)
22.3
(72.1)
25.0
(77.0)
24.9
(76.8)
20.9
(69.6)
16.0
(60.8)
11.9
(53.4)
8.3
(46.9)
15.0
(59.0)
Average low °C (°F)3.0
(37.4)
3.3
(37.9)
4.6
(40.3)
8.2
(46.8)
12.6
(54.7)
16.5
(61.7)
19.2
(66.6)
19.4
(66.9)
15.9
(60.6)
12.0
(53.6)
8.4
(47.1)
5.2
(41.4)
10.7
(51.3)
Record low °C (°F)−11.0
(12.2)
−11.5
(11.3)
−8.5
(16.7)
−1.6
(29.1)
2.3
(36.1)
6.6
(43.9)
11.2
(52.2)
9.4
(48.9)
5.9
(42.6)
0.4
(32.7)
−7.0
(19.4)
−10.5
(13.1)
−11.5
(11.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)91.7
(3.61)
71.4
(2.81)
66.2
(2.61)
45.1
(1.78)
30.1
(1.19)
23.8
(0.94)
11.0
(0.43)
6.4
(0.25)
22.8
(0.90)
53.8
(2.12)
87.2
(3.43)
106.8
(4.20)
616.3
(24.26)
Average precipitation days12.310.69.98.05.73.91.71.33.36.59.012.684.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 108.5124.3167.4222.0294.5333.0365.8347.2267.0198.4132.096.12,656.2
Mean daily sunshine hours 3.54.45.47.49.511.011.811.28.96.44.43.17.3
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service [7]

Twinships

See also

Related Research Articles

Alexandria Troas human settlement in Turkey

Alexandria Troas is the site of an ancient Greek city situated on the Aegean Sea near the northern tip of Turkey's western coast, a little south of Tenedos. It is located southeast of modern Dalyan, a village in the Ezine district of Çanakkale Province. The site sprawls over an estimated 400 hectares ; among the few structures remaining today are a ruined bath, an odeon, a theatre, gymnasium complex and a recently uncovered stadion. The circuit of the old walls can still be traced.

Troad historical region of Anatolia (modern Turkey)

The Troada or Troad, or Troas, is the historical name of the Biga Peninsula in the northwestern part of Anatolia, Turkey. This region now is part of the Çanakkale province of Turkey. Bounded by the Dardanelles to the northwest, by the Aegean Sea to the west and separated from the rest of Anatolia by the massif that forms Mount Ida, the Troad is drained by two main rivers, the Scamander (Karamenderes) and the Simois, which join at the area containing the ruins of Troy.

Aeolis

Aeolis, or Aeolia, was an area that comprised the west and northwestern region of Asia Minor, mostly along the coast, and also several offshore islands, where the Aeolian Greek city-states were located. Aeolis incorporated the southern parts of Mysia, which bounded it to the north, Ionia to the south and Lydia to the east.

Hisarlik

Hisarlik, often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.

Biga Çayı river in Turkey

The Biga River is a small river in Çanakkale Province in northwestern Turkey. The river begins at the base of Mount Ida and trends generally northeasterly to the Sea of Marmara. It is about 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of the Dardanelles. It flows past the towns of Çan and Biga and enters the Sea of Marmara at Karabiga. It is also known as the Can and the Kocabas

Lâpseki Place in Çanakkale, Turkey

Lapseki is a town and district of Çanakkale Province, Turkey. In 2012 it had a population of 10,863. The mayor is Eyüp Yılmaz.


Güzelyalı is a seaside village in Çanakkale Province of western Turkey. It is 15 km from the Çanakkale city centre. Güzelyalı is surrounded by deep green woods with pleasant pine smell in the east and by the Çanakkale Strait with its completely deep blue sea in the west.

East Thrace part of Turkey in Europe

East Thrace or Eastern Thrace, also known as Turkish Thrace or European Turkey, is the part of the modern Republic of Turkey that is geographically part of Southeast Europe. It accounts for 3% of Turkey's land area but comprises 14% of Turkey's total population. The rest of the country is located on the Anatolian peninsula, geographically in Western Asia. East Thrace is of historic importance as it is next to a major sea-based trade corridor and constitutes what remains of the once-vast Ottoman Empire region of Rumelia. It is currently also of specific geostrategic importance because the sea corridor, which includes two narrow straits, provides access to the Mediterranean Sea from the Black Sea for the navies of five countries: Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria, and Georgia. The region also serves as a future connector of existing Turkish, Bulgarian, and Greek high speed rail networks.

Turkish Straits Bosporus and Dardanelles straits in Turkey

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Van Fortress massive stone fortification in Turkey

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Kilitbahir Castle

Kilitbahir Castle is a fortress on the west side of the Dardanelles, opposite the city of Çanakkale, where there is a corresponding fortress, from which Çanakkale takes its name. The two castles were constructed by Fatih Sultan Mehmet in 1463 to control the straits at their narrowest point. Kilitbahir's name, meaning "lock of the sea", reflects this defensive purpose.

Karabiga Town in Marmara, Turkey

Karabiga (Karabuga) is a town in Biga District, Çanakkale Province, in the Marmara region of Turkey. It is located at the mouth of the Biga River, on a small east-facing bay, known as Karabiga Bay. Its ancient name was Priapus or Priapos.

Vilayet of the Archipelago Ottoman province

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Erenköy, Çanakkale Town in Çanakkale Province, Turkey

Erenköy is a belde (town) in the central (Çanakkale) district of Çanakkale Province, Turkey. In ancient times, the area was known as Ofrinio; later, it was known as Renkioi, which was later changed to Erenköy. The town is located in the İntepe sub-district, and at one point was again renamed İntepe itself, but the name was changed back to Erenköy in 2010.

Battle of Kumkale

The Battle of Kumkale was a World War I battle fought between the Ottoman defenders and troops of the France. It was a part of Gallipoli Campaign fought on the Anatolian (Asian) part of the Dardanelles Strait as a diversion from the main landings on the Gallipoli peninsula.

Çanakkale Archaeological Museum archaeological museum

Çanakkale Archaeological Museum was a museum in Çanakkale, Turkey.

Biga Peninsula

Biga Peninsula is a peninsula in Turkey, in the northwest part of Anatolia. It is also known by its ancient name Troad (Troas).

Bigalı Mehmet Çavuş

Bigalı Mehmet Çavuş, was an Ottoman Army sergeant, who fought during the Gallipoli Campaign of World War I. He is remembered as a hero, and is considered to be the eponym of the common name "Mehmetçik" used for an Ottoman or a Turkish soldier.

References

  1. "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. Statistical Institute [ permanent dead link ]
  4. 1 2 3 J.M.Cook, The Troad:An Archaeological and Topological Survey, Clarendon Press Oxford 1973 p.53, and n.3.
  5. Régis Darques, Salonique au XXe siècle: De la cité ottomane à la métropole grecque, editions CNRS 2000 p.299.
  6. 1 2 Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
  7. "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Genel İstatistik Verileri" (in Turkish). Turkish State Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.