Éamon de Valera

Last updated

  1. His name is frequently misspelled Eamonn De Valera, but he never used the second "n" in his first name (the standard Irish spelling), and he always used a small "d" in de Valera, which is proper for Spanish names (de meaning "of").
  2. Éamon(n) translates into English as "Edmond" or "Edmund". The correct Irish translation of "Edward" (his name as given in his amended birth certificate) is Éadhbhard.

Related Research Articles

Irish Civil War 1922-23 conflict between pro- and anti-treaty factions of the IRA in the Irish Free State

The Irish Civil War was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence and accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State, an entity independent from the United Kingdom but within the British Empire.

Irish Free State Sovereign state in northwest Europe from 1922–1937

The Irish Free State was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921. That treaty ended the three-year Irish War of Independence between the forces of the Irish Republic, the Irish Republican Army (IRA), and British Crown forces.

W. T. Cosgrave Irish politician

William Thomas Cosgrave was an Irish Fine Gael politician who served as the president of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1932, leader of the Opposition in both the Free State and Ireland from 1932 to 1944, leader of Fine Gael from 1934 to 1944, founder and leader of Fine Gael's predecessor, Cumann na nGaedheal, from 1923 to 1933, chairman of the Provisional Government from August 1922 to December 1922, the president of Dáil Éireann from September 1922 to December 1922, the minister for Finance from 1922 to 1923 and minister for Local Government from 1919 to 1922. He served as a Teachta Dála (TD) from 1921 to 1944. He was a Member of Parliament (MP) for the North Kilkenny constituency from 1918 to 1922.

Seán Lemass Irish politician (1899–1971)

Seán Francis Lemass was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as Taoiseach and Leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 to 1966. He also served as Tánaiste from 1957 to 1959, 1951 to 1954 and 1945 to 1948, Minister for Industry and Commerce from 1957 to 1959, 1951 to 1954, 1945 to 1949 and 1932 to 1939 and Minister for Supplies from 1939 to 1945. He served as a Teachta Dála (TD) from 1924 to 1969.

Irish Republic Revolutionary state that declared its independence from Great Britain (UKGBI); 1919-1922

The Irish Republic was a revolutionary state that declared its independence from the United Kingdom in January 1919. The Republic claimed jurisdiction over the whole island of Ireland, but by 1920 its functional control was limited to only 21 of Ireland's 32 counties, and British state forces maintained a presence across much of the north-east, as well as Cork, Dublin and other major towns. The republic was strongest in rural areas, and through its military forces was able to influence the population in urban areas that it did not directly control.

The Second Dáil was Dáil Éireann as it convened from 16 August 1921 until 8 June 1922. From 1919 to 1922, Dáil Éireann was the revolutionary parliament of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic. The Second Dáil consisted of members elected at the 1921 elections, but with only members of Sinn Féin taking their seats. On 7 January 1922, it ratified the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64 votes to 57 which ended the War of Independence and led to the establishment of the Irish Free State on 6 December 1922.

The Irish Oath of Allegiance was a controversial provision in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which Irish TDs and Senators were required to swear before taking their seats in Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann before the Constitution Act 1933 was passed on 3 May 1933. The controversy surrounding the Oath was one of the principal issues that led to the Irish Civil War of 1922–23 between supporters and opponents of the Treaty.

Gerald Boland Irish Fianna Fáil politician (1885-1973)

Gerald Boland was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as Minister for Justice from 1939 to 1948 and 1951 to 1954, Minister for Lands from 1936 to 1939, Minister for Posts and Telegraphs from 1933 to 1936 and Government Chief Whip from 1932 to 1933. He served as a Senator from 1961 to 1969 and a Teachta Dála (TD) for the Roscommon constituency from 1923 to 1961.

Cathal Brugha Irish revolutionary and republican politician (1874–1922)

Cathal Brugha was an Irish revolutionary and republican politician who served as Minister for Defence from 1919 to 1922, Ceann Comhairle of Dáil Éireann in January 1919, the first president of Dáil Éireann from January 1919 to April 1919 and Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army from 1917 to 1919. He served as a Teachta Dála (TD) from 1918 to 1922.

The Government of the 13th Dáil or the 5th Government of Ireland was the government of Ireland formed after the general election held on 4 February 1948 — commonly known as the First Inter-Party Government — was a government of Fine Gael, the Labour Party, Clann na Poblachta, Clann na Talmhan and the National Labour Party—and one TD who was an independent, James Dillon. The parties had many different aims and viewpoints, but opposition to Fianna Fáil overcame difficulties in forming a government; Éamon de Valera had led a series of single-party Fianna Fáil governments since 1932. The cabinet was made up of representatives of all parties, and ministers were given a great degree of independence. Some key events during the lifetime of the government include the declaration of the Republic of Ireland in 1948 and the crisis surrounding the Mother and Child Scheme in 1951.

The Government of the 9th Dáil was successively the 8th Executive Council of the Irish Free State and the 1st Government of Ireland. They were led by Éamon de Valera, first as President of the Executive Council and then as Taoiseach. It was formed after the 1937 general election held on 1 July, the same day the new Constitution of Ireland was approved in a plebiscite. Fianna Fáil were continuing in office as a single-party government as they had since the 1932 general election.

Patrick Smith was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician, who served as a Teachta Dála from 1923 until 1977; a tenure of 53 years, the longest in the state. He held a number of ministerial positions within the governments of Éamon de Valera and Seán Lemass.

Events from the year 1937 in Ireland.

Events from the year 1932 in Ireland.

Events from the year 1922 in Southern Ireland, later Ireland.

Adoption of the Constitution of Ireland

The current Constitution of Ireland came into effect on 29 December 1937, repealing and replacing the Constitution of the Irish Free State, having been approved in a national plebiscite on 1 July 1937 with the support of 56.5% of voters in the then Irish Free State. The Constitution was closely associated with Éamon de Valera, the President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State at the time of its approval.

Irish Republican Army (1922–1969) Anti-Treaty sub-group of the original Irish Republican Army

The Irish Republican Army of 1922–1969, an anti-Treaty sub-group of the original Irish Republican Army, fought against the Irish Free State in the Irish Civil War, and its successors up to 1969, when the IRA split again into the Provisional IRA and Official IRA. The original Irish Republican Army fought a guerrilla war against British rule in Ireland in the Irish War of Independence between 1919 and 1921. Following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6 December 1921, the IRA in the 26 counties that were to become the Irish Free State split between supporters and opponents of the Treaty. The anti-Treatyites, sometimes referred to by Free State forces as Irregulars, continued to use the name Irish Republican Army (IRA) or in Irish Óglaigh na hÉireann, as did the organisation in Northern Ireland which originally supported the pro-Treaty side. Óglaigh na hÉireann was also adopted as the name of the pro-Treaty National Army, and remains the official legal title of the Irish Defence Forces.

Irish republican legitimism denies the legitimacy of the political entities of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland and posits that the pre-partition Irish Republic continues to exist. It is a more extreme form of Irish republicanism, which denotes rejection of all British rule in Ireland. The concept shapes aspects of, but is not synonymous with, abstentionism.

The Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed in London on 6 December 1921 and Dáil Éireann voted to approve the treaty on 7 January 1922, following a debate through late December 1921 and into January 1922. The vote was 64 in favour, 57 against, with the Ceann Comhairle and 3 others not voting. The Sinn Féin party split into opposing sides in the aftermath of the Treaty vote, which led to the Irish Civil War from June 1922 to May 1923.

Fianna Fáil was founded on 23 March 1926 when a group of Dáil deputies led by Éamon de Valera split from the original Sinn Féin. This happened because de Valera's motion calling for elected members be allowed to take their seats in the Dáil, if and when the controversial Oath of Allegiance was removed, failed to pass at the Sinn Féin Ard Fheis. The new party adopted its name on 2 April of the same year. From the formation of the first Fianna Fáil government on 9 March 1932 until the 2011 general election, the party was in power for 61 of 79 years. Its longest continuous period in office was 15 years and 11 months. Its single longest period out of office, in that time, has been four years and four months. All eight of its party's leaders have served as Taoiseach. It was the largest party in Dáil Éireann at every general election from the 1932 general election until the 2011 general election, when it suffered the worst defeat of a sitting government in the history of the Irish state.

References

  1. UK Census 1901 held in the National Archives in the Republic of Ireland Archived 29 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine de Valera listed as Edward in a Roman Catholic boarding school, Blackrock College, in Dublin. This was the same boarding school which T.F. O'Rahilly attended, listed as Rahilly.
  2. "Éamon de Valera". Oireachtas Members Database. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
  3. 1 2 Synge, J. L. (1976). "Eamon de Valera 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society . 22: 634–653. doi: 10.1098/rsbm.1976.0022 .
  4. 1 2 3 4 Ferriter, Judging Dev: A Reassessment of the Life and Legacy of Eamon De Valera (2007), ISBN   1-904890-28-8.
  5. "Mystery of 1916 leader and New Yorker Eamon de Valera's birth". IrishCentral.com. 14 October 2016. Archived from the original on 5 January 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
  6. José Francisco Fernández (March 2019 – February 2019). "En busca de la Isla Esmeralda. Diccionario sentimental de la cultura Irlandesa (Antonio Rivero Taravillo)". Estudios Irlandeses - Journal of Irish Studies (13): 197. Archived from the original on 12 September 2021. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  7. Ronan Fanning (2016). A Will To Power: Eamon De Valera. Harvard University Press. p. 3. ISBN   9780674970557. Archived from the original on 12 September 2021. Retrieved 21 September 2020. De Valera was born on 14 October 1882 in the Nursery and Child's Hospital, Lexington Avenue, Manhattan, New York; the only child of Juan Vivion de Valera and Catherine ('Kate') Coll
  8. Tim Pat Coogan (31 January 2005). "De Valera's begrudging attitude to 'The Big Fellow'". The Irish Times . Archived from the original on 30 November 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  9. ""Eamon de Valera's father" 2006". Homepage.eircom.net. Archived from the original on 4 April 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  10. "Notable New Yorkers – Eamon de Valéra". nyc.gov. NYC Department of Records. Archived from the original on 8 February 2004.
  11. "Myers on De Valera". The Irish Times. 9 December 1998. Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  12. Proinsias Mac Aonghusa Quotations from Éamon de Valera (1983), p. 89, ISBN   0-85342-684-8.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Jordan, Anthony J. Eamon de Valera 1882–1975. Irish; Catholic; Visionary (Westport Books, 2010)
  14. Jordan, p. 279.
  15. "Éamon de Valera (1882–1975)". BBC News. Archived from the original on 21 January 2009. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
  16. 1 2 Farragher CSSp, Sean P. (1984). Dev and his Alma Mater. Dublin & London: Paraclete Press. ISBN   0-946639-01-9.
  17. Fanning, Ronan (October 2009). "De Valera, Éamon ('Dev')". Dictionary of Irish Biography . Royal Irish Academy. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  18. "Éamon de Valera". UCC – Multitext Project in Irish History. Archived from the original on 25 December 2008. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
  19. Jordan, p. 23.
  20. James H. Driscoll (1907). "The Defect of Birth". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2008.
  21. Dwane, David T. (1922). Early Life of Eamonn De Valera. Dublin: The Talbott Press Limited. p. 43.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 Gunther, John (1940). Inside Europe. Harper & Brothers. p. 371.
  23. 1 2 3 Barton, Brian. From Behind a Closed Door, Secret Court Martial Records of 1916, The History Press
  24. Tim Pat Coogan, De Valera: Long Fellow, Long Shadow (Hutchinson, London, 1993). pp. 69–72. ISBN   0-09-175030-X.
  25. "Éamon de Valera". ElectionsIreland.org. Archived from the original on 30 November 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
  26. "Eamon de Valera | president of Ireland". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 5 July 2018. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  27. "Eamon De Valera pleads Irish cause at Fenway Park – The Boston Globe". Bostonglobe.com. Archived from the original on 11 February 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  28. "Pedro Albizu Campos: El Ultimo Libertador de America". Alianza Bolivariana Para Los Pueblos de Nuestra America. 19 January 2006. Archived from the original on 17 June 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  29. Dolan, Anne (2009). "O'Connell, Kathleen". In McGuire, James; Quinn, James (eds.). Dictionary of Irish Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  30. "Notre Dame: Washington Hall". archives.nd.edu. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  31. Hope, Arthur J. (1948). Notre Dame, one hundred years. University Press. OCLC   251881423. Archived from the original on 12 September 2021. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  32. "Dáil Éireann – Volume 2 – Vote of thanks to the people of America". Houses of the Oireachtas. 17 August 1921. Archived from the original on 8 September 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
  33. "Dáil Éireann – Volume 1 – Ministerial Motions. – Presidential election campaign in USA". Houses of the Oireachtas. 29 June 1920. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
  34. "Dáil Éireann – Volume 1 – Debates on Reports. – Finance". Houses of the Oireachtas. 10 May 1921. Archived from the original on 19 November 2007. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
  35. Arthur, Michell (1995). Revolutionary Government in Ireland: Dáil Éireann 1919–1922. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. pp. 191–192. ISBN   9780717120154.
  36. Coogan, Tim Pat de Valera: Long Fellow, Long Shadow pp. 120–122, ISBN   0-09-995860-0, ISBN   978-0-09-995860-4.
  37. D. G. Boyce, Englishmen and Irish Troubles: British Public Opinion and the Making of Irish Policy, 1918–1922 (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1972), pp. 92–93.
  38. Coogan, Tim Pat De Valera: Long Fellow, Long Shadow p. 234.
  39. P. S. O'Hegarty, A History of Ireland Under the Union: 1801 to 1922 (New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1969), 751.
  40. "De Valera's Treaty proposals". Houses of the Oireachtas. Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2008.
  41. J.J. O'Kelly (Sceilg) A Trinity of Martyrs, Irish Book Bureau, Dublin; pp. 66–68. "Sceilg" was a supporter of de Valera in 1922.
  42. Coogan, Tim Pat de Valera: Long Fellow, Long Shadow p. 299, ISBN   0-09-995860-0, ISBN   978-0-09-995860-4.
  43. Coogan, Tim Pat de Valera: Long Fellow, Long Shadow p. 338, ISBN   0-09-995860-0, ISBN   978-0-09-995860-4.
  44. Jordan, Anthony J. W. T. Cosgrave: Founder Of Modern Ireland. Westport Books, 2006, p. 89.
  45. Bowyer Bell, J. (1997). The Secret Army: The IRA. Transaction Publishers. p.  38. ISBN   1-56000-901-2.
  46. 1 2 Exam notes Archived 3 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine about Seán Lemass
  47. 1 2 "BBC – History – Eamon de Valera". Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  48. Dáil Éireann – Volume 3–19 December 1921 debate on treaty "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  49. "Electoral (Amendment) (No. 2) Bill, 1927—First Stage". Archived from the original on 9 December 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  50. "BBC's Short History of Ireland". Bbc.co.uk. 1 January 1970. Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  51. "FF officially recognised in Northern Ireland". RTÉ News. 7 December 2007. Archived from the original on 8 December 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2007.
  52. O'Halpin, Eunan (2000). Defending Ireland: the Irish state and its enemies since 1922. Oxford University Press. p. 80. ISBN   978-0-19-924269-6. Archived from the original on 12 September 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
  53. Fanning, Ronan (25 April 2016). Éamon de Valera. Harvard University Press. p. 219. ISBN   9780674970557. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  54. Barry, Frank, and Mary E. Daly. "Irish Perceptions of the Great Depression" (No. iiisdp349. IIIS, 2011.) Online Archived 11 August 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  55. iPad iPhone Android TIME TV Populist The Page (25 July 1932). "Time (Magazine) – IRISH FREE STATE: Economic Civil War. Monday, 25 Jul. 1932". Time. Archived from the original on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  56. Eamon de Valera, the eternal revolutionary Archived 23 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine , Fabien Aufrechter, Le Journal International, 22 October 2013.
  57. The Earl of Longford and Thomas P. O'Neill (1970), pp. 335–339.
  58. The Earl of Longford and Thomas P. O'Neill (1970), p. 301.
  59. 1 2 Flora, (editor), Peter (1986). Growth to Limits: Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 248. ISBN   9783110111316. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2015.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  60. "Letter from Joseph P. Walshe to Michael McDunphy (Dublin) enclosing a memorandum on the draft Irish constitution (Secret)". Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  61. "The Irish Free State (1922–1937): Saorstát Éireann". Collins 22 Society. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  62. Cottrell, Peter (2008). The Irish Civil War 1922–23. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 85. ISBN   978-1-84603-270-7.
  63. Lloyd, Lorna (2007). Diplomacy With a Difference: The Commonwealth Office of High Commissioner, 1880–2006. Lieden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 72. ISBN   978-90-04-15497-1. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  64. Constitution of Ireland 1937 , 12.1
  65. Bew 2007, p. 455.
  66. "IRELAND: Too Much Trouble". Time. 9 June 1941. Archived from the original on 24 June 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2010.
  67. "Anglo-Irish Relations, 1939–41: A Study in Multilateral Diplomacy and Military Restraint" in Twentieth Century British History (Oxford Journals, 2005), ISSN   1477-4674
  68. "did Dev Valera refuse an offer of Unity...?". Archived from the original on 9 December 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  69. "Emergency Powers (Continuance and Amendment) Act, 1945". Government of Ireland. 29 July 1945. pp. §4(1). Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2007. The Principal Act shall, unless previously terminated under subsection (2) of this section, continue in force until the 2nd day of September, 1946, and shall then expire unless the Oireachtas otherwise determines.
  70. "National Emergency: Motion (Resumed)". Dáil Debates. Government of Ireland. 292: 119–256. 1 September 1976. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2007. John M. Kelly: All the 1939 emergency legislation lapsed not later than 1946.
  71. Chakravart, S. R.; Madan Chandra Paul (2000). Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: relevance to contemporary world. Har-Anand Publications. p. 179. ISBN   81-241-0601-0. Archived from the original on 12 September 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2010.
  72. O'Malley, Kate (2008). Ireland, India and empire: Indo-Irish radical connections, 1919–64. Manchester: Manchester University Press. pp. 111–113. ISBN   978-0-7190-8171-2.
  73. Girvin, Brian (2006). The Emergency. London: MacMillan. p. 5. ISBN   978-1-4050-0010-9. Officials of the Department of External Affairs tried to persuade him not to visit Hempel, although the secretary of the department, Joseph Walsh, who accompanied him, did support the action
  74. An Irish Statesman and Revolutionary by Elizabeth Keane ( ISBN   978-1845111250), p. 106.
  75. "Irish Public Service Broadcasting – 1940s: De Valera and Broadcasting". History of RTÉ. Raidió Teilifís Éireann. Archived from the original on 27 September 2008. Retrieved 30 October 2008.
  76. Bew 2007, p. 474.
  77. "Dev's treatment of Irish army deserters: vindictive or pragmatic?". historyireland.com. History Ireland Magazine. 19 (9). 2011. Archived from the original on 24 September 2018. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  78. "Emergency Powers (362) Order, 1945 —Motion to Annual". Dáil Éireann Debate. 98 (4): 27. 18 October 1945. Archived from the original on 28 October 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  79. Department of the Taoiseach (29 March 1946). "Emergency powers (no. 362) order 1945 (revocation) order 1946" (PDF). Dublin: Stationery Office. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  80. "Defence Forces (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1946, Section 13". Irish Statute Book . Archived from the original on 28 October 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
  81. 1 2 Wilsford, David (1995). Political Leaders of Contemporary Western Europe: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood. p.  96. ISBN   978-0-313-28623-0.
  82. Tim Pat Coogan, De Valera: Long Fellow, Long Shadow, London: Arrow, 1993, p. 639.
  83. D. F. Bourke, A History of the Catholic Church in Victoria, Melbourne: Catholic Bishops of Victoria, 1988, p. 299; D. J. O'Hearn, Erin go bragh – Advance Australia Fair: a hundred years of growing, Melbourne: Celtic Club, 1990, p. 54.
  84. "Sacred Heart Rosalie". website. Jubilee Parish. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  85. Diarmuid Ferriter, JudgingDev, pp. 190–191.
  86. Stanford, Jane (17 August 2013). "That Irishman: p.279, footnote 530" (PDF). Look Back. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  87. Savage, Robert J. (1996). Irish television: the political and social origins. Cork University Press. p. 224. ISBN   978-1-85918-102-7.
  88. "Winston Churchill & Eamon De Valera: A Thirty Year "Relationship"". Winstonchurchill.org. Archived from the original on 3 July 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  89. Bruce Arnold (11 July 2009). "Opinion: History warns us about the risks of ceding power to EU". The Irish Independent. Archived from the original on 1 August 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2018. Eamon de Valera on [..] return from Strasbourg in 1955 where he had been attending a meeting that was part of the construction of the future Europe [...] said: 'We did not strive to get out of that British domination of our affairs by outside force, or we did not get out of that position to get into a worse one'.
  90. Coogan, Tim Pat de Valera: Long Fellow, Long Shadow p. 669, ISBN   0-09-995860-0, ISBN   978-0-09-995860-4.
  91. 1 2 3 Diarmaid Ferriter (2007). Uachtaráin – Eamon de Valera (Television production) (in Irish). Dublin, Ireland: TG4. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
  92. The new record was set by Giorgio Napolitano, re-elected President of Italy in 2013 aged 87.
  93. The six Irish leaders who have addressed joint sessions of the U.S. Congress are Seán T. O'Kelly (18 March 1959), Éamon de Valera (28 May 1964), Liam Cosgrave (17 March 1976), Garret FitzGerald (15 March 1984), John Bruton (11 September 1996), and Bertie Ahern (30 April 2008).
  94. Tracy, Robert (1999). "The Jews of Ireland". bNet.com. p. 7. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 19 October 2009.
  95. "Apollo 11 Goodwill Messages" (PDF). Press release. NASA. 13 July 1969. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2007.
  96. RTE 1975 – Eamon De Valera is dead on YouTube RTÉ News (video). Retrieved 11 November 2011.
  97. "State Funeral of Éamon de Valera at Glasnevin Cemetery". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. Archived from the original on 16 May 2021. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  98. Sunday Times, 31 October 2004 p3; RTÉ broadcast on 2 November 2004.
  99. Tom Garvin Preventing the future; why Ireland was so poor for so long. (Dublin 2004) passim; ISBN   0-7171-3771-6.
  100. The Earl of Longford and Thomas P. O'Neill, 1970, p. 338.
  101. Murray, Patrick (21 December 2001). "Obsessive Historian: Eamon de Valera and the Policing of his Reputation" (PDF). Royal Irish Academy. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 April 2003.
  102. Coogan, Tim Pat de Valera: Long Fellow, Long Shadow, ISBN   0-09-995860-0, ISBN   978-0-09-995860-4.
  103. "New book tries to reclaim Dev's legacy". Irish Independent . 15 October 2007. Archived from the original on 23 November 2007. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  104. "Speech by the Taoiseach, Mr. Bertie Ahern, TD, at the Launch of Judging Dev, A Reassessment of the Life and Legacy of Éamon De Valera by Diarmaid Ferriter". Department of the Taoiseach. 14 October 2007. Archived from the original on 2 December 2007. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  105. 1 2 Kissane, Bill (2007). "Eamon De Valera and the Survival of Democracy in Inter-war Ireland". Journal of Contemporary History. 42 (2): 213–226. doi:10.1177/0022009407075554. S2CID   159760801.
  106. Ryan, Louise (1998). "Constructing 'Irishwoman': Modern Girls and Comely Maidens". Irish Studies Review. 6 (3): 263–272. doi:10.1080/09670889808455611.
  107. BAILII: McGee v. A.G. & Anor [1973] IESC 2; [1974] IR 284 Archived 18 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine McGee v the Attorney General
  108. "TIME Magazine Cover: Eamon de Valera – Mar. 25, 1940". Time. 25 March 1940. Archived from the original on 7 August 2009. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  109. "EIRE: Prime Minister of Freedom". Time. 25 March 1940. Archived from the original on 14 October 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  110. "Flann and me and his greatest story never told", The Irish Times, 12 July 2010 (subscription required) Archived 12 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine

Sources

Further reading

Historiography

  • Chapple, Phil (2005). "'Dev': The Career of Eamon De Valera Phil Chapple Examines a Titanic and Controversial Figure in Modern Irish History". History Review (53): 28.
  • Ferriter, Diarmaid (2007). Judging Dev: A Reassessment of the Life and Legacy of Eamon De Valera. Dublin. ISBN   978-1-904890-28-7.
  • Girvin, Brian. "Beyond Revisionism? Some Recent Contributions to the Study of Modern Ireland." English Historical Review (2009) 124#506 :94–107· DOI: 10.1093/ehr/cen341
  • Hogan, Gerard. "De Valera, the Constitution and the Historians." Irish Jurist 40 (2005).
  • McCarthy, Mark. Ireland's 1916 Rising: Explorations of History-making, Commemoration & Heritage in Modern Times (Routledge, 2016).
  • Murray, Patrick. "Obsessive historian: Eamon de Valera and the policing of his reputation." Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section C (2001): 37–65.
  • Regan, John M (2010). "Irish public histories as an historiographical problem". Irish Historical Studies. 37 (146): 265–292. doi:10.1017/s002112140000225x. S2CID   159868830.
  • Regan, John M (2007). "Michael Collins, General Commanding‐in‐Chief, as a Historiographical Problem". History. 92 (307): 318–346. doi:10.1111/j.1468-229x.2007.00398.x.
Éamon de Valera
Eamon de Valera.jpg
De Valera, photographed c. 1922–1930
3rd President of Ireland
In office
25 June 1959 24 June 1973
Preceded by
Acting Head of the Vatican
Benedetto Aloisi Masella
The oldest current head of state
21 June 1963 – 24 June 1973
Succeeded by
King of Sweden
Gustav VI Adolf
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Sinn Féin MP for Clare East
1917–1922
Constituency abolished
Preceded by
Sinn Féin MP for Mayo East
1918–1922
Constituency abolished
Parliament of Northern Ireland
New constituency MP for Down
1921–1929
With: J. M. Andrews
James Craig
Thomas Lavery
Robert McBride
Thomas McMullan
Harry Mulholland
Patrick O'Neill
Constituency abolished
Preceded by
Fianna Fáil MP for South Down
1933–1938
Succeeded by
Oireachtas
New constituency Sinn Féin Teachta Dála for Clare East
1918–1921
Constituency abolished
New constituency Sinn Féin Teachta Dála for Mayo East
1918–1921
Constituency abolished
New constituency Sinn Féin Teachta Dála for Clare
1921–1926
Succeeded by
De Valera left Sinn Féin and founded Fianna Fáil
Preceded by
De Valera was previously a member of Sinn Féin
Fianna Fáil Teachta Dála for Clare
1926–1959
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by
President of Dáil Éireann
1919–1921
Succeeded by
Himself

as President of the Republic
Preceded by
Himself

as President of Dáil Éireann
President of the Irish Republic
1921–1922
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Leader of the Opposition
1927–1932
Succeeded by
Preceded by
President of the League of Nations Council
1932
Succeeded by
Preceded by
President of the Executive Council
1932–1937
Succeeded by
Himself

as Taoiseach
New office Taoiseach
1937–1948
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Minister for External Affairs
1932–1948
Succeeded by
Preceded by
President of the League of Nations Assembly
1938
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Leader of the Opposition
1948–1951
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Taoiseach
1951–1954
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Leader of the Opposition
1954–1957
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Taoiseach
1957–1959
Succeeded by
Preceded by
President of Ireland
1959–1973
Succeeded by
Party political offices
Preceded by
President of Sinn Féin
1917–1926
Succeeded by
New political party Leader of Fianna Fáil
1926–1959
Succeeded by
Academic offices
Preceded by
Chancellor of the National University of Ireland
1921–1975
Succeeded by
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
His own resignation on 7 January 1922
 TITULAR 
President of the Irish Republic
1922–1926
Succeeded by