École Militaire

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École Militaire
Central building of Ecole Militaire at dusk, Paris 7e 20140607 1.jpg
Central École Militaire building
General information
TypeEducational building complex,
Address1 Place de Joffre, 75007
Town or city Paris, Île-de-France
Country France
Coordinates 48°51′09″N2°18′13″E / 48.85250°N 2.30361°E / 48.85250; 2.30361 Coordinates: 48°51′09″N2°18′13″E / 48.85250°N 2.30361°E / 48.85250; 2.30361
Current tenants Military academy
Completed1750
Design and construction
Architect Ange-Jacques Gabriel
Website
geostrategia.fr

Founded in 1750 by King Louis XV, the École Militaire (French pronunciation:  [ekɔl militɛʁ] , "military school") is a vast complex of buildings housing various military training facilities. It is located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, southeast of the Champ de Mars.

7th arrondissement of Paris French municipal arrondissement in Île-de-France, France

The 7th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as septième.

Paris Capital of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.

Champ de Mars large public green space in Paris, France

The Champ de Mars is a large public greenspace in Paris, France, located in the seventh arrondissement, between the Eiffel Tower to the northwest and the École Militaire to the southeast. The park is named after the Campus Martius in Rome, a tribute to the Latin name of the Roman God of war. The name also alludes to the fact that the lawns here were formerly used as drilling and marching grounds by the French military.

Contents

The building, constructed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel, is an active military academy and is classified as a national monument since 1990. [1] This site can be visited during the European Heritage Days.

Ange-Jacques Gabriel French architect

Ange-Jacques Gabriel was the principal architect of King Louis XV of France. His major works included the Place de la Concorde, the École Militaire, and the Petit Trianon and opera theater at the Palace of Versailles. His style was a careful balance between French Baroque architecture and French neoclassicism.

European Heritage Days holiday in various locations in Europe

European Heritage Days (EHD) is a joint action of the Council of Europe and the European Commission involving all 50 signatory states of the European Cultural Convention under the motto, Europe: a common heritage. The annual programme offers opportunities to visit buildings, monuments and sites, many of which are not normally accessible to the public. It aims to widen access and foster care for architectural and environmental heritage. These events are also known as Doors Open Days and Open Doors Days in English-speaking countries.

History

Origins of the institution

L'École Militaire was founded in 1750, after the War of the Austrian Succession, by Louis XV on the basis of a proposal of Marshal Maurice de Saxe and with the support of Madame de Pompadour and financier Joseph Paris Duverney.

War of the Austrian Succession Dynastic war in Austro-Hungary

The War of the Austrian Succession involved most of the powers of Europe over the issue of Archduchess Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy. The war included peripheral events such as King George's War in British America, the War of Jenkins' Ear, the First Carnatic War in India, the Jacobite rising of 1745 in Scotland, and the First and Second Silesian Wars.

Louis XV of France Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and of Navarre 1715–1774

Louis XV, known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five. Until he reached maturity on 15 February 1723, the kingdom was ruled by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, as Regent of France. Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinal's death in 1743, at which time the young king took sole control of the kingdom.

Maurice de Saxe Marshal General of France

Maurice, Count of Saxony was a German soldier and officer of the Army of the Holy Roman Empire, the Imperial Army, and at last in French service who became a Marshal and later also Marshal General of France. He is best known for his decisive victory at the Battle of Fontenoy and is honored in the Walhalla memorial.

Previously, military academies were exclusive to children of a noble background and offered apprenticeships in the King's Stables or the stables of other royal members. With the aim of creating an academic college for cadet officers from poor noble families, the exclusivity that royal military academies held vanished.

By the edict of January 1751, King Louis XV founded the institution intended for the education of five hundred noble young men and born without fortune. Article XI of the edict provides for "by way of first perpetual endowment" the tax on playing cards. The administration is entrusted to the Secretary of State for War. The Royal Military Academy included a number of military colleges in the province such as the School of Brienne where students were admitted on evidence of nobility. At the end of their schooling, admission to the Royal Military School in Paris was done through a national competition.

Architecture and Ange-Jacques Gabriel

Enlisted by the King to design a more grandiose building than the Hôtel des Invalides (constructed by Louis XIV), Ange-Jacques Gabriel began construction in 1752 on the grounds of the farm of Grenelle. After a long period of construction, the school did not open until 1760. Gabriel presented an immense area with beautiful façades and running water through a system of wells and pipes. It was indeed much larger, and striking than the Invalides. [2]

Louis XIV of France King of France and Navarra, from 1643 to 1715

Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting on 14 May 1643 when Louis was 4 years old, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralisation of power.

Grenelle district of Paris

Grenelle is a neighbourhood in southwestern Paris, France. It is a part of the 15th arrondissement of the city.

The Comte de Saint-Germain reorganised the establishment in 1777 under the name of the Écoledes Cadets-gentilshommes (School of Young Gentlemen), of which accepted the young Napoleon Bonaparte in 1784. Bonaparte went on to graduate after only one year instead of two.

Claude Louis, Comte de Saint-Germain French general

Claude Louis, Comte de Saint-Germain, French general, was born on 15 April 1707, at the Château of Vertamboz.

It now hosts:

The vast complex formed by the Ecole militaire. Paryz szkola wojskowa2.JPG
The vast complex formed by the École militaire.

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Palace of Versailles French palace on the outskirts of Paris

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Les Invalides complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France

Les Invalides, formally the Hôtel national des Invalides, or also as Hôtel des Invalides, is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the building's original purpose. The buildings house the Musée de l'Armée, the military museum of the Army of France, the Musée des Plans-Reliefs, and the Musée d'Histoire Contemporaine, as well as the Dôme des Invalides, a large church, the tallest in Paris at a height of 107 meters, with the tombs of some of France's war heroes, most notably Napoleon.

The École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr is the foremost French military academy – often referred to as Saint-Cyr – located in Coëtquidan in Guer, Morbihan, Brittany, along with the École militaire interarmes. Its motto is Ils s'instruisent pour vaincre, literally meaning "They study to vanquish" or, more freely put, "Training for victory". French cadet officers are called saint-cyriens or cyrards.

Prytanée National Militaire French military school

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French Baroque architecture architecture of the Baroque era in France

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Château de Bellevue

The Château de Bellevue was a small château built for Madame de Pompadour in 1750. It was constructed on a broad plateau in Meudon, above a slope overlooking the Seine to the east, but was demolished in 1823 and little remains.

Château de Saint-Hubert

The Château de Saint-Hubert was a royal château built by order of Louis XV in Perray-in-Yvelines, for use while he was hunting in the nearby forest. The design was entrusted to Ange-Jacques Gabriel, designer of the École Militaire, and the building was under construction from 1755 to 1758.

Viscount Antoine Henri Philippe Léon Cartier d'Aure (1799–1863) was a riding master in France.

Hôtel de la Marine

The hôtel de la Marine is a historic building on place de la Concorde in Paris, to the east of rue Royale. It was built between 1757 and 1774 on what was then known as place Louis XV, with a façade by Ange-Jacques Gabriel, First Architect to the King and designer of the square. The identical building to its west now houses the hôtel de Crillon.

Pavillon du Butard

The Pavilion du Butard is a hunting lodge in the Forêt de Fausses-Reposes in the territory of La Celle-Saint-Cloud in Yvelines, France. Part of the gardens of Versailles, it was designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel for Louis XV and built between 1750 and 1754. It was made state property on 27 June 1794 by François-Nicolas Périgon, notary at Paris, during the French Revolution. On 23 April 1802 it became the property of empress Joséphine de Beauharnais, who wished to merge it with her Malmaison estate, but it returned to being state property on her divorce from Napoleon in 1809. It was later also enjoyed by Charles X of France and emperor Napoleon III of France. It was occupied by the Prussians during the Franco-Prussian War. Still state property, it was made a monument historique on 29 August 1927.

The Cavalry school is a French military training establishment at Saumur. Originally set up to train the cavalry of the French Army, it now trains the troops of France's arme blindée cavalerie in reconnaissance and armoured warfare.

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Events from the year 1750 in France

Neoclassicism in France

Neoclassicism is a movement in architecture, design and the arts which was dominant in France between about 1760 to 1830. It emerged as a reaction to the frivolity and excessive ornament of the baroque and rococo styles. In architecture it featured sobriety, straight lines, and forms, such as the pediment and colonnade, based on Ancient Greek and Roman models. In painting it featured heroism and sacrifice in the time of the ancient Romans and Greeks. It began late in the reign of Louis XV, became dominant under Louis XVI, and continued through the French Revolution, the French Directory, and the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte, and the Bourbon Restoration until 1830, when it was gradually replaced as the dominant style by romanticism and eclecticism.

References

  1. Ministère de la Culture (France) et la Médiathèque de l'architecture et du patrimoine (1992). "École Militaire". Ministère de la Culture (France). Retrieved 2019-04-15.
  2. Christ, Yvan (1977). Paris des Utopies. Paris: Balland. pp. 92 and 93.