École Polytechnique

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École Polytechnique
POLYTECHNIQUE-IP PARIS.png
MottoPour la Patrie, les Sciences et la Gloire
Motto in English
For the Homeland, Science and Glory
Type Grande école
Established1794
President Éric Labaye
DirectorFrançois Bouchet
Students3,370 [1]
Undergraduates 480 [2]
Postgraduates 2,000 engineer candidates
500 masters [1]
390 [1]
Location,
France

48°42′47″N2°12′32″E / 48.713°N 2.209°E / 48.713; 2.209 Coordinates: 48°42′47″N2°12′32″E / 48.713°N 2.209°E / 48.713; 2.209
Colors      Red
     Yellow
Nickname L'X
Affiliations CGE, CDEFI
Website polytechnique.edu

École Polytechnique (also known by the nickname "X") is a French public institution of higher education and research in Palaiseau, a suburb located south of Paris. It is one of the leading prestigious French grandes écoles in engineering, especially known for its polytechnicien engineering program.

Contents

The school was established in 1794 by the mathematician Gaspard Monge during the French Revolution, [3] and it was once previously a military academy under Napoleon I in 1804. However, Polytechnique is no longer a military academy, although the institution is still supervised by the French Ministry of Defence. Initially located in the Latin Quarter of central Paris, the establishment's main buildings were moved in 1976 to Palaiseau on the Saclay Plateau, southwest of Paris. [4]

It is a founding member of ParisTech, a grouping of Paris-area engineering colleges established in 2007. In 2014, it became a founding member of the confederal "University of Paris in Saclay". Among its alumni are three Nobel prize winners, [5] one Fields Medalist, [6] three Presidents of France [7] and many CEOs of French and international companies. It is currently ranked as world's second-best small university by the Times Higher Education's World University Rankings. [8]

In the 19th century, its model inspired the foundation of similar higher education institutions, such as the École Polytechnique de Montréal and Caltech (initially a vocational school named the Throop 'Polytechnic' Institute).[ citation needed ]

History

Emblem of the school Arms of the Ecole Polytechnique.svg
Emblem of the school
The cadets of Polytechnique rushed to the defence of Paris against the foreign armies in 1814. A statue set in the honour courtyard of the school commemorates this deed. A copy was installed in West Point. Statue X DSC08329.JPG
The cadets of Polytechnique rushed to the defence of Paris against the foreign armies in 1814. A statue set in the honour courtyard of the school commemorates this deed. A copy was installed in West Point.

In 1794, The École centrale des travaux publics was founded by Lazare Carnot and Gaspard Monge, during the French Revolution, at the time of the National Convention. It was renamed "École polytechnique" one year later. In 1805, French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte moved the École to Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, in the Quartier Latin of central Paris, as a military academy and gave it its motto Pour la Patrie, les Sciences et la Gloire (For the Nation, Science, and Glory). In 1814, students took part in fighting to defend Paris from the Sixth Coalition. In 1830, fifty students participated in the July Revolution.[ citation needed ]

During the First World War, students were mobilised and the school building was transformed into a hospital. More than two hundred students died during the war. During the Second World War, the Polytechnique was moved to Lyon in the free zone. More than four hundred students died during the war (Free French, French Resistance, Nazi camps). In 1970, the École became a state supported civilian institution, under the auspices of the Ministry of Defence. In 1972, female students were admitted for the first time. In 1976, the École moved from central Paris to Palaiseau in the southern suburbs. In 1985, it started awarding PhD degrees. In 1994, celebration of the bicentennial was chaired by President François Mitterrand.[ citation needed ]

Locations

Historical entrance of the Ecole Polytechnique Paris' campus at the junction of the rue de la Montagne Saint-Genevieve and rue Descartes Entree Ecole polytechnique.JPG
Historical entrance of the École Polytechnique Paris' campus at the junction of the rue de la Montagne Saint-Genevieve and rue Descartes
Ecole Polytechnique Saclay's campus map Campus Polytechnique.svg
École Polytechnique Saclay's campus map

Early locations

In 1794, Polytechnique was initially hosted in the Palais Bourbon. One year later, it moved to Hôtel de Lassay, an hôtel particulier in the 7th arrondissement of Paris.

Montagne Saint-Geneviève (1805-1976)

Napoleon moved Polytechnique to the Quartier Latin in 1805 when he set the school under a military administration. The Paris' campus takes place near the Panthéon, in Descartes Street, 5. It is nicknamed "Carva" by the students.

Palaiseau (from 1976)

Located in the outskirts of Paris - approximately 9 miles from the city center - École Polytechnique is a campus-based institution. It offers about teaching facilities, student housing, food services and hospitality and a range of sports facilities dedicated to the 4,600 people who live on a daily basis campus. The nearest regional train (RER) station is Lozère (RER line B, in zone 4). A number of buses also connects the Ecole Polytechnique with the larger RER and TGV station Massy-Palaiseau. [9] The campus is close to other scientific institutions in Saclay (Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives), Orsay (Université Paris-Sud) and Bures (Institut des hautes études scientifiques and some Centre national de la recherche scientifique labs).

Organization and administration

Specific status

Polytechnique flag guard on Bastille Day Military Parade 2010 0539-14072010- preview ecran.jpg
Polytechnique flag guard on Bastille Day Military Parade 2010

Polytechnique is a higher education establishment [10] running under the supervision of the French ministry of Defence, through the General Directorate for Armament [11] (administratively speaking, it is a national public establishment of an administrative character). It has a double status, being both an engineering school that formed civilian engineers and scientists (the quasi totality of French higher administration in technical ministries is issued from Polytechnique, similarly to the graduates of Ecole Nationale d'Administration for non-technical ministries) but also officers for the three armies (Army, Navy and Air Force). These two components being part of the same project of providing French state with a scientific and technical elite that could lead the country in a very 19th century like "positivist" vision of state. These two components, formation of civil servants and officers, have weakened after 1950, and nowadays only 10 to 20% of the school students take place in the ranks of the administration or the army (whereas 20% go into research and the rest in engineering or management jobs) [ citation needed ].

Though no longer a military academy, it is headed by a general officer (as of 2012, by a General engineer of Armament, whereas previous directors were generally Army generals), and employs military personnel in executive, administrative and sport training positions. [12] Both male and female French undergraduate polytechniciens are regular officers [13] and have to go through a period of military training before the start of studies. [14] [15]

However, the military aspects of the school have lessened with time, with a reduced period of preliminary military training, and fewer and fewer students pursuing careers as military officers after leaving the school. On special occasions, such as the military parade on the Champs-Élysées on Bastille Day, the polytechniciens wear the 19th-century-style grand uniform, with the bicorne , or cocked hat, but students have not typically worn a uniform on campus since the elimination of the 'internal uniform' in the mid-1980s. The students also wear grand uniform in day-use for special events on the campus, such as important conferences, formal events, or important lessons, similarly to the use of academic dress in Cambridge or Oxford Universities.

Activities and teaching staff

Polytechnique has a combined undergraduate-graduate general engineering teaching curriculum as well as a graduate school. In addition to the faculty coming from its local laboratories, it employs many researchers and professors from other institutions, including other CNRS, INRIA and CEA laboratories as well as the École Normale Supérieure and nearby institutions such as the École Supérieure d'Électricité (Supélec), the Institut d'Optique or the Université Paris-Sud, creating a varied and high-level teaching environment. [16]

Contrary to French public universities, the teaching staff at Polytechnique are not civil servants (fonctionnaires) [17] but contract employees operating under regulations different from those governing university professors. An originality of Polytechnique is that in addition to full-time teaching staff (exercice complet), who do research at the École in addition to a full teaching service, there are partial-time teaching staff (exercice incomplet) who do not do research on behalf of the École and carry only a partial teaching load. [18] Part-time teaching staff are often recruited from research institutions (CNRS, CEA, INRIA...) operating inside the École campus, in the Paris region, or even sometimes elsewhere in France.

Academic programs

Benoit Mandelbrot during his speech at the ceremony when he was made an officer of the Legion of Honour on 11 September 2006, at the Ecole polytechnique Mandelbrot p1130876.jpg
Benoît Mandelbrot during his speech at the ceremony when he was made an officer of the Legion of Honour on 11 September 2006, at the École polytechnique

The 'Polytechnicien Engineer' program

The Polytechnicien engineer program is the most intensive and prestigious program in Polytechnique. The program, which awards the prestigious diplôme d'ingénieur degree, includes broader training than typical public French university studies, which do not admit students based on competitive examination. The subjects are often including advanced topics beyond one's specialty. This focus on breadth rather than depth is particularly useful for cross fertilization purposes between different fields, as graduates from Polytechnique can have généraliste abilities in several disciplines; for example, they must follow at least six different topics during their second year. Humanities and sports are also mandatory parts of the curriculum, adding to the differences with other French university programs in general.

In addition to the 2000 polytechnic engineer students (yearly class size of 500), the institution welcomes about 439 master students and 572 doctoral students, for a total enrollment of 2,900. [1]

Admission

Foreign students of the Ecole. 0094 dre 28092 preview ecran.jpg
Foreign students of the École.

The undergraduate admission to Polytechnique in the polytechnicien cycle is made through two ways: the first pathway which is a very selective examination which requires at least two years of very intensive preparation after high school in classes préparatoires , and the other pathway by following undergraduate study at another university. Admission includes a week of written examinations during the spring followed by oral examinations that are handled in batches (séries) over the summer. [19]

About only 400 French nationals are admitted to the school each year. [20] Foreign students who have followed a classe préparatoire curriculum (generally, French residents or students from former French colonies in Africa) can also enter through the same competitive exam (they are known as "EV1"). Other foreign students can also apply for the polytechnicien cycle through a "second track" ("EV2") following undergraduate studies. In total, there are about 100 foreign students admitted to this cycle each year. [21] Foreign students from other universities in Europe or the USA may also be accepted to study undergraduate courses as a exchange program at polytechnique for a semester or one year, without being part of the polytechnicien cycle. [22]

Curriculum

Four years of intensive study are required for the engineering degree: [23] one year of military service (for French nationals only) and scientific "common trunk" (eight months and four months, respectively), one year of multidisciplinary studies, and one year of specialized studies ("majors"). With the X2000 reform, a fourth year of studies, in another institution than Polytechnique, was introduced.

Students wearing the uniform of Polytechnique. Presentation au drapeau 2012 Ecole polytechnique.jpg
Students wearing the uniform of Polytechnique.
First year

The curriculum begins with eight months of compulsory military service for students of French nationality. In the past, this service lasted 12 months and was compulsory for all French students; the suppression of the draft in France made this requirement of Polytechnique somewhat anachronistic, and the service was recast as a period of "human and military formation". All the French students spend one month together in La Courtine in a military training center. By the end of this month, they are assigned either to a civilian service or to the Army, Navy, Air Force or Gendarmerie. Students who are assigned to a military service complete a two-month military training in French officer schools such as Saint-Cyr or École Navale. Finally, they are spread out over a wide range of units for a five-month assignment to a French military unit (which can include, but is not limited to, infantry and artillery regiments, naval ships and air bases). [24] While French students stay under military status during their studies at Polytechnique, and participate in a variety of ceremonies and other military events, for example national ceremonies, such as those of Bastille Day or anniversaries of the armistices of the World Wars, they do not undergo military training per se after having completed their service in the first year. [24] They receive at the end of the first year the full dress uniform, which comprises black trousers with a red stripe (a skirt for females), a coat with brass buttons and a belt, a small sword and a cocked hat (officially called a bicorne ). Francophone foreign students do a civilian service. Civilian service can, for instance, consist of being an assistant in a high school in a disadvantaged French suburb.

Then, a four-month period begins in which all students take the same five courses: Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Physics, Computer Science and Economics.

Second year

The second year is a year of multidisciplinary studies. The set of disciplines spans most areas of science (mathematics, applied mathematics, mechanics, computing science, biology, physics, chemistry, economics) and some areas in the humanities (foreign languages, general humanities...). Students have to choose twelve courses in at least five different disciplines.

Third year

In the third year, students have to choose an in-depth program (programme d'approfondissement), which often focuses on a discipline or sometimes an interdisciplinary subject. This year is ended by a research internship (four to six months).

Fourth year

The fourth year is the beginning of more specialized studies: students not entering a Corps de l'État must join either a Master's program, a doctorate program, another ParisTech college or institute such as the École des mines de Paris or ENSAE, or a specialization institute such as Supaéro in Toulouse or ENSPM in Rueil-Malmaison. The reason for this is that the generic education given at Polytechnique is more focused on developing thinking skills than preparing for the transition to an actual engineering occupation, which requires further technical education. Increasingly, students chose to spend their fourth year studying in a foreign university. About a quarter of 3rd year students chose this path in 2008. American universities are a favourite, but the École Polytechnique has agreements with universities in a large set of countries.

Class rank and career path

Grades of the second year of the curriculum are used to rank the students. Traditionally, this individual exit ranking had a very high importance for French students in École Polytechnique, and some peculiarities of the organizations of studies and grading can be traced to the need for a fair playing ground between students.

For French nationals, this ranking is actually part of a government recruitment program: a certain number of seats in civil or military Corps, including elite civil servant Corps such as the Corps des Mines or Corps of Bridges, Waters and Forests, are open to the student body each year. These specific civil servant corps, that provide the top managers of public administration, are only opened to Polytechnique students (and recently very few students from Ecole Normale Supérieure). At some point during their course of study, students specify a list of Corps that they would like to enter in order of preference, and they are enrolled into the highest one according to their ranking. The next stepping stone for these French graduates in Polytechnique, or polytechniciens, on this path is to enter one of four technical civil service training schools: the École des mines, the École des ponts et chaussées, the Télécom ParisTech, or the ENSAE, thus joining one of the civil service bodies known as the grands corps techniques de l'État . Those who pursue this path are known as X-Mines, X-Ponts, X-Télécoms and X-INSEE, respectively, with the X prefix, for Polytechnique, identifying them as the most particularly top qualified elite members of Corps among all other graduates of the Polytechnique.

Since the X2000 reform, the importance of the ranking has lessened. Except for the Corps curricula, universities and schools where the Polytechniciens complete their educations now base their acceptance decisions on transcripts of all grades.

Of the 47% of graduates which decide to pursue a professional career in the private sector, the majority (58%) is based in the Greater Paris area, 8% in the rest of France, while 34% is based outside of France. Only 12% of the cohort works under a non-French work contract. The average first compensation including any bonus and perks after graduation is estimated by the institution itself to be around €59,500. 44% of the graduates work in the technological sector. [25] A non-biased survey found that Polytechnique students earn on average, one year after graduation, €44,000 without bonus. [26]

Tuition and financial obligations

For French nationals who gain admission to Polytechnique, tuition is free as long as the full curriculum is completed, and additional monetary allowance is received throughout the school years at the level of a reserve officer in training. French students, through the student board (Caisse des élèves or Kès), can redistribute a part of this money to foreign students.

There is no particular financial obligation for students following the curriculum, and then entering an application school or graduate program that Polytechnique approves of. However, French students who choose to enter a civilian or military corps after Polytechnique are expected to complete 10 years of public service following their admission to the school (i.e. their 3 years at school count towards their time of service). If a student enters a Corps but does not fulfill those 10 years of public service (e.g. resigns from his or her Corps), the tuition fees are due to the school. Sometimes, when an alumnus quits a Corps to join a private company, that company or the alumni will pay for the tuition fees which are then called the pantoufle (slipper).[ citation needed ]

Bachelor program

The Bachelor is a three-year program fully taught in English which opened in 2017. Either French nationals or international students are eligible. Applications are opened to final year high school students. Selection is made through an online application file and an oral interview. [27] During the first year of the programme, students follow a pluridisciplinary curriculum based on mathematics. On the second year, students have to choose between three double majors (Maths-Physics, Maths-Economics, Maths-Computer Science).

Master's program

Ecole Polytechnique organizes various Master's programmes (which are more specialized trainings compared to the Polytechnien Engineer programme), by itself or in association with other schools and universities (in the Paris region, École Normale Supérieure, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris VI, École Supérieure d'Électricité (Supélec), other member institutions of ParisTech, Toulouse area and foreign partner universities) on a wide variety of topics. Previous Polytechnicien undergraduates make up about one half of the students. The following Master's programmes are offered:

Polytechnique also takes part in two degrees awarded by ParisTech:

About 50% of highly qualified Master's students come from abroad. Most master courses are taught in English.

Aerial view of the Ecole polytechnique campus. Campus Ecole polytechnique de palaiseau.jpg
Aerial view of the École polytechnique campus.

Doctoral program

The school also has a doctoral program open to students with a master's degree or equivalent. [28] Doctoral students generally work in the laboratories of the school; they may also work in external institutes or establishments that cannot, or will not, grant doctorates.

About 40% of doctoral students come from abroad. [1]

Research centers

Polytechnique has many research laboratories operating in various scientific fields (physics, mathematics, computer science, economics, chemistry, biology, etc.), most operated in association with national scientific institutions such as CNRS, CEA, or also INRIA.

People

Student life

Students are represented by a board of 16 students known as "la Kès", elected each November. La Kès manages the relationships with teachers, management, alumni and partners. It publishes a weekly students paper, InfoKès.[ citation needed ]

Sports

Sports are a large part of the X life, as it is required for all students (except those in exchange programs) to do 6 hours of sport a week. There are competitive sports and club sports ranging from parachuting and judo to circus or hiking. There are two swimming pools, dojo and fencing rooms, and an equestrian center on campus.[ citation needed ] The "Jumping de l'X" is an international jumping competition hosted by the school.

Portrait of Antoine-Henri Becquerel.jpg
Henri Becquerel (X1872), Nobel Prize in Physics 1903.
Andre Citroen 1932.jpg
André Citroën (X1898), founder of Citroën.

Notable alumni and academics

Many Polytechnique graduates occupy prominent positions in government, industry, and research in France. Among its alumni are three Nobel prizes winners, three presidents of France and several leaders in business and industries. Researchers at the French National Centre for Scientific Research have found that most business executives in France have traditionally been alumni of the École Polytechnique. [29]

International rankings

University rankings
RankingWorldEuropeNational

QS [30] 40132
THE [31] =101442
ARWU [32] 72243

In international rankings, the École Polytechnique is often placed among the top prestigious universities of the world, and one of the best engineering schools of France. The Academic Ranking of World Universities, also known as the Shanghai Rankings, places Polytechnique in 2010 at 201–300 worldwide, and 8–13 in France.

In 2015 Times Higher Education Small Universities Rankings, Ecole polytechnique is ranked 3rd, after Caltech and Ecole Normale Supérieure of Paris. [33]

The THE-QS World University Rankings and its successor QS World University Rankings [34] (From 2010 two separate rankings are produced by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the QS World University Rankings) have placed Polytechnique in 36th position in the 2011 rankings, second among French institutions, behind École Normale Supérieure.

YearRank (Change)
200510
200637 (Decrease2.svg 27)
200728 (Increase2.svg 9)
200834 (Decrease2.svg 6)
200936 (Decrease2.svg 2)
201036 (Steady2.svg 0)

The Polytechnique was also ranked in the 39th position in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings in 2011. [35]

The Mines ParisTech : Professional Ranking World Universities, which looks at the education of the Fortune 500 CEOs, ranks Polytechnique 7th in the world in its 2011 ranking (1st being Harvard University), second among French institutions behind HEC Paris. [36]

YearRank (Change)
20074 (Steady2.svg 0)
200815 (Decrease2.svg 11)
200914 (Increase2.svg 1)
201012 (Increase2.svg 2)
20117 (Increase2.svg 5)

See also

Notes and references

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 "Study at École Polytechnique". École Polytechnique.
  2. "Applications for the Bachelor program open on November 25th". École Polytechnique.
  3. Michel Nusimovici, Les écoles de l'an III, 2010.
  4. "École Polytechnique – History and heritage". École Polytechnique. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
  5. Becquerel, Allais and Tirole.
  6. Jean-Christophe Yoccoz (1994) ; Yoccoz was not a student at Polytechnique because he chose to be educated at École Normale Supérieure (1975-1979), but he completed his Ph.D. under Michael Herman in 1985 in the Centre de mathématiques Laurent Schwartz  [ fr ] of École Polytechnique, a research centre which had been created by another Field medalist and a professor at Polytechnique : Laurent Schwartz.
  7. Sadi Carnot (who was the nephew of Carnot the physicist and the grandson of Carnot the École founder), Lebrun and Giscard.
  8. École Polytechnique – Un cadre unique. Polytechnique.edu. Retrieved on 16 June 2014.
  9. Code de l'éducation, L675-1
  10. Arrêté du 12 septembre 2005 relatif à l'exercice de la tutelle du ministre de la défense sur divers organismes publics confiés à la délégation générale pour l'armement, article 1
  11. Décret n°96-1124 du 20 décembre 1996 relatif à l'organisation et au régime administratif et financier de l'École polytechnique
  12. Décret n° 2008-960 du 12 septembre 2008 fixant certaines dispositions d'ordre statutaire applicables aux élèves français de l'École polytechnique
  13. First Period : General Education, web site
  14. Arrêté du 14 août 2001 relatif à la formation militaire et à la formation à l'exercice des responsabilités des élèves français de l'École polytechnique prévues à l'article 2 du décret n° 2000-900 du 14 septembre 2000 fixant certaines dispositions d'ordre statutaire applicables aux élèves français de l'École polytechnique
  15. Partners, official web site
  16. Décret 87-16 du 14 janvier 1987: by exception to the general rule that staff in public establishments of an administrative character are civil servants, the teaching staff of Polytechnique is hired on contracts.
  17. Décret n°2000-497 du 5 juin 2000 fixant les dispositions applicables aux personnels enseignants de l'École polytechnique
  18. The French 'Grandes Écoles', École Poytechnique web site
  19. Until 1988, the number of newly admitted French students was around 300 on a yearly basis ; and until 1952, it was between 200 and 250.
  20. "An International Institute". Ecole Polytechnique. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
  21. International Exchange Program
  22. Ingénieur Polytechnicien Program, an English-language page from the school's website, describing the engineering degree.
  23. 1 2 ""Ingenieur Polytechnicien"" (PDF). (5.79 MB) p. 74
  24. "Politechnique Career Survey". Ecole Polytechnique. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  25. "Top 20 des écoles d'ingénieurs qui paient le mieux à la sortie". Les Echos. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  26. https://portail.polytechnique.edu/bachelor/en/admissions/interview
  27. Admission École Polytechnique web site
  28. Joly, Hervé (2012). "Les dirigeants des grandes entreprises industrielles françaises au 20e siècle". Vingtième Siècle. Revue d'histoire. 2 (114): 16–32. doi: 10.3917/vin.114.0016 .
  29. "QS World University Rankings 2015/2016". QS official website. 10 September 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
  30. "Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2015-2016". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  31. "Academic Rankings of World Universities". Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
  32. The world’s best small universities 2016, 25 January 2016
  33. QS World University Rankings – 2011. Top Universities (19 December 2012). Retrieved on 16 June 2014.
  34. World University Rankings 2010–2011. Times Higher Education. Retrieved on 16 June 2014.
  35. Archived 18 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine

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The classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles (CPGE), commonly called classes prépas or prépas, are part of the French post-secondary education system. They consist of two years of study which act as a preparatory course with the main goal of training students for enrolment in one of the grandes écoles. The workload is one of the highest in Europe.

Institut supérieur de laéronautique et de lespace National Higher French Institute of Aeronautics and Space

The Institut supérieur de l'aéronautique et de l'espace, is one of the leading French universities in engineering founded in 1909. It was the world's first dedicated aerospace engineering school and is considered to be one of the best in Europe in that field. The school delivers a range of science and engineering degree programs. ISAE-SUPAERO is part of University of Toulouse, ISSAT, PEGASUS, GEA, Toulouse Tech, CESAER and Aerospace Valley.

École supérieure doptique school

The Institut d'optique Graduate School, nicknamed "SupOptique" or "IOGS", is one of the most prestigious French Grandes Ecoles and the leading French grande école in the field of optics and its industrial and scientific applications, and a member of the prestigious University of Paris-Saclay, and ParisTech. The École supérieure d'optique was opened in 1920, as part of the Institut d'optique théorique et appliquée, aiming to train engineers and cadres for the French optics industry. It is consequently the oldest institution of higher education and research in optics in the world and the most important in term of annual number of graduates.

Paris Universitas association under the French law of 1901

Paris Universitas was an alliance of six institutions of higher education in Paris, France, that existed from 2005 to 2010. Paris Universitas offered a wide range of disciplines, from medicine to the humanities, engineering, law, management and the social sciences. The institution expected to rank between 1 and 3 in Europe for number of publications, although rankings were not released due to the short lifespan of the institution. In 2006, Paris Universitas was ranked first among European universities and 4th in the world for the largest volume of English-language publications.

Université Paris Sciences et Lettres Cluster of several higher education insitutions in the region of Paris in the form of a "Community of universities and higher education institutions" Created in 2015.

Université Paris Sciences et Lettres is a French public university, established in 2010, and formally created as a University in 2019. It is a collegiate university with 11 constituent schools. PSL is located in central Paris, with its main sites in the Latin Quarter, at the Jourdan campus, at Porte Dauphine, in northern Paris, and at Carré Richelieu.

UniverSud Paris was one of the PRES in France. It gathered 21 public universities, Grandes Écoles and National Research Center, covering nearly the whole spectrum of sciences, until its dissolution in 2014.