Édouard Herriot

Last updated
Édouard Herriot
Edouard Herriot 01.jpg
66th Prime Minister of France
In office
15 June 1924 17 April 1925
Preceded by Frédéric François-Marsal
Succeeded by Paul Painlevé
In office
20 July 1926 23 July 1926
Preceded by Aristide Briand
Succeeded by Raymond Poincaré
In office
3 June 1932 18 December 1932
Preceded by André Tardieu
Succeeded by Joseph Paul-Boncour
Personal details
Born
Édouard Marie Herriot

5 July 1872
Died26 March 1957(1957-03-26) (aged 84)
Political party Radical
Spouse(s)Blanche Rebatel (1877–1962)

Édouard Marie Herriot (French:  [edwaʁ ɛʁjo] ; 5 July 1872 26 March 1957) was a French Radical politician of the Third Republic who served three times as Prime Minister and for many years as President of the Chamber of Deputies. [1] He was leader of the first Cartel des Gauches.

Radical Party (France) liberal and centrist political party in France

The Radical-Socialist and Radical Republican Party was a liberal and social-liberal political party in France. It was also often referred to simply as the Radical Party or, to prevent confusion with other French Radical parties, as the Parti radical valoisien, abbreviated to Rad, PR or PRV.

French Third Republic Nation of France from 1870 to 1940

The French Third Republic was the system of government adopted in France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, until 10 July 1940 after France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.

Prime Minister of France head of government and of the Council of Ministers of France

The French Prime Minister in the Fifth Republic is the head of government. During the Third and Fourth Republics, the head of government position was called President of the Council of Ministers, generally shortened to President of the Council.

Contents

Hérriot was born at Troyes, France on 5 July 1872. He served as Mayor of Lyon from 1905 until his death, except for a brief period from 1940 to 1945, when he was exiled to Germany for opposing the Vichy regime. As mayor, Herriot improved relations between municipal government and local unions, increased public assistance funds, and launched an urban renewal programme, [2] amongst other measures. He died in Lyon on 26 March 1957. [1] He is buried at the Cimetière de Loyasse.

Troyes Prefecture and commune in Grand Est, France

Troyes is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in the Grand Est region of north-central France. It is located on the Seine river about 150 km (93 mi) southeast of Paris. Troyes is situated within the Champagne wine region and is near to the Orient Forest Regional Natural Park. Many half-timbered houses survive in the old town. Troyes has been in existence since the Roman era, as Augustobona Tricassium, which stood at the hub of numerous highways, primarily the Via Agrippa.

Mayor (France) mayor in France

In France, a mayor is chairperson of the municipal council, which organizes the work and deliberates on municipal matters. The mayor also has significant powers and his or her own responsibilities, such as the responsibility for the activities of municipal police and for the management of municipal staff.

Lyon Prefecture and commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km (292 mi) south from Paris, 320 km (199 mi) north from Marseille and 56 km (35 mi) northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais.

Herriot's First Ministry, 14 June 1924 – 17 April 1925

Charles Nollet French politician

Charles Marie Edouard Nollet was a French general and government minister, chairman of the Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control from 1919 to 1924, and Minister of War 1924-1925.

Camille Chautemps French politician

Camille Chautemps was a French Radical politician of the Third Republic, three times President of the Council.

Étienne Clémentel French politician

Étienne Clémentel was a French politician. He served as a member of the National Assembly of France from 1900 to 1919 and as French Senator from 1920 to 1936. He also served as Minister of Colonies from 24 January 1905 to 14 March 1906, Minister of Agriculture from 22 March 1913 to 9 December 1913 and Minister of Finance from 9 June 1914 to 13 June 1914. He was the first president of International Court of Arbitration He was Minister of Commerce, Industry, Posts and Telegraphs from 29 October 1915 to 27 November 1919.

Changes

Anatole de Monzie French politician

Anatole de Monzie was a French administrator, encyclopaedist, political figure and scholar. His father was a tax collector in Bazas, Gironde where Anatole - a name he disliked from an early age - was born in 1876. A nurse mishap resulted in an accident where the child Anatole lost the proper use of his leg and he remained crippled for the rest of his life. He never married but had several relationships. A brilliant mind, he studied in Agen before attending the Collège Stanislas, a famous Roman Catholic school in Paris, where he became friend with writer to be Henry de Jouvenel and Roman Catholic activist Marc Sangnier.

Herriot's Second Ministry, 19–23 July 1926

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Herriot's Third Ministry, 3 June – 18 December 1932

Joseph Paul-Boncour French politician

Augustin Alfred Joseph Paul-Boncour was a French politician and diplomat of the Third Republic. He was a member of the Republican-Socialist Party (PRS) and served as Prime Minister of France from December 1932 to January 1933. He also served in a number of other government positions during the 1930s and as a Permanent Delegate to the League of Nations in 1936 during his tenure as Minister of State.

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Denial of the Holodomor

The height of denial of the Holodomor was reached during a visit to Ukraine carried out between 26 August and 9 September 1933 by Herriot, who had recently left the French Prime Ministry. Herriot denied accounts of the famine and said that Soviet Ukraine was "like a garden in full bloom". [3]

Furthermore, he announced to the press that there was no famine in Ukraine, that he did not see any trace of hunger, and that the allegations of starving millions were being spread by adversaries of the Soviet Union. "When one believes that the Ukraine is devastated by famine, allow me to shrug my shoulders", he declared. The 13 September 1933 issue of Pravda was able to write that Herriot "categorically contradicted the lies of the bourgeoisie press in connection with a famine in the USSR." [4]

Political career

Governmental functions

Président of the Council of Ministers : 1924–1925 / 19–21 July 1926 / June–December 1932.

Minister of Transport, Public Works and Supply : 1916–1917.

Minister of Education and Fine Arts : 1926–1928.

Minister of Foreign Affairs : 1924–1925 / 19–21 July 1926 / June–December 1932.

Minister of State : 1934–1936.

Electoral mandates

National Assembly of France

President of the National Assembly of France : 1947–1954.

Member of the National Assembly of France for Rhône (department)  : 1946–1957 (He died in 1957). Elected in 1946, reelected in 1951, 1956.

Constitutional Assembly

Member of the Constitutional Assembly for Rhône (department)  : 1945–1946. Elected in 1945, reelected in June 1946.

Chamber of Deputies of France

President of the Chamber of Deputies of France : 1925–1926 / 1936–1940.

Member of the Chamber of Deputies of France for Rhône (department)  : 1919–1942 (Dissolution of Parliament by Philippe Petain in 1942). Elected in 1919, reelected in 1924, 1928, 1932, 1936.

Senate of France

Senator of Rhône  : 1912–1919. Elected in 1911.

General council

General councillor of Rhône (department)  : 1945–1951.

Municipal Council

Mayor of Lyon  : 1905–1940 (Deposition by Vichy regime in 1940) / 1945–1957 (He died in 1957). Reelected in 1908, 1912, 1919, 1925, 1929, 1935, 1945, 1947, 1953.

Municipal councillor of Lyon  : 1904–1940 (Deposition by the Vichy regime in 1940) / 1945–1957 (He died in 1957). Reelected in 1908, 1912, 1919, 1925, 1929, 1935, 1945, 1947, 1953.

Political functions

President of the Radical Party (France)  : 1919–1926 / 1931–1936 / 1948–1953 / 1955–1957.

Legacy

Herriot was declared an honorary citizen of the city of Veliki Bečkerek (today Zrenjanin) in 1933. There is also a street with his name in Zrenjanin.

His visit to a church in Kiev, where a fake religious service was organized for the occasion, is described in "The Mechanical Lions", one of the stories from the book A Tomb for Boris Davidovich by Danilo Kiš.

Eoghan Herriot of Scotland Is a distant relative.

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 "Herriot Is Dead. French Leader, 84". The New York Times . March 27, 1957. Retrieved 2015-01-07. Three-Time Premier, Radical Party Power, Was Scholar and Member of Academy. Hoped to Defeat E.D.C. Plan '54. Long Urged Nation Pay War Debts to U.S. Tributes From Leaders National Funeral Urged Widely Known in U.S. Became Premier in 1924. Abstained From Vote. Edouard Herriot, French statesman, party leader, scholar and author who had become a symbol of the premier Third Republic, died today at the age of 84. ...
  2. Stone, Judith F. (8 April 1985). "The Search for Social Peace: Reform Legislation in France, 1890–1914". SUNY Press. Retrieved 8 April 2018 via Google Books.
  3. Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 1999, ISBN   0-674-07608-7, pages 159–160
  4. ""France, Germany and Austria facing the famine of 1932–1933 in Ukraine"" (PDF). holodomorct.org. Retrieved 8 April 2018.

Further reading

Political offices
Preceded by
Marcel Sembat
Minister of Public Works and Transport
1916–1917
Succeeded by
Georges Desplas
Preceded by
Minister of Supply
1916–1917
Succeeded by
Maurice Viollette
Preceded by
Frédéric François-Marsal
President of the Council
1924–1925
Succeeded by
Paul Painlevé
Preceded by
Edmond Lefebvre du Prey
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1924–1925
Succeeded by
Aristide Briand
Preceded by
Paul Painlevé
President of the Chamber of Deputies
1925–1926
Succeeded by
Raoul Péret
Preceded by
Aristide Briand
President of the Council
1926
Succeeded by
Raymond Poincaré
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1926
Succeeded by
Aristide Briand
Preceded by
Édouard Daladier
Minister of Public Instruction
1926–1928
Succeeded by
Pierre Marraud
Preceded by
André Tardieu
President of the Council
1932
Succeeded by
Joseph Paul-Boncour
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1932
Preceded by
Minister of State
1934–1936
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Fernand Bouisson
President of the Chamber of Deputies
1936–1940
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Vincent Auriol
President of the National Assembly
1947–1954
Succeeded by
André Le Troquer
New office President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
1949
Succeeded by
Paul-Henri Spaak