Émile Loubet

Last updated

Émile Loubet
Emile Loubet.jpg
Émile Loubet, c. 1900.
President of France
In office
18 February 1899 18 February 1906
Prime Minister Charles Dupuy
Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau
Émile Combes
Maurice Rouvier
Preceded by Félix Faure
Succeeded by Armand Fallières
Prime Minister of France
In office
27 February 1892 6 December 1892
President Marie François Sadi Carnot
Preceded by Charles de Freycinet
Succeeded by Alexandre Ribot
Personal details
Born(1838-12-30)30 December 1838
Marsanne, France
Died20 December 1929(1929-12-20) (aged 90)
Montélimar, France
Nationality French
Political party Democratic Republican Alliance
Spouse(s)
Marie-Louise Picard (m. 18691925)
; her death
Alma mater University of Paris

Émile François Loubet (French:  [emil lubɛ] ; 30 December 1838 20 December 1929) was the 45th Prime Minister of France and later President of France.

Contents

Trained in law, he became mayor of Montélimar, where he was noted as a forceful orator. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1876 and the Senate in 1885. He was appointed as a Republican minister under Carnot and Ribot. He was briefly Prime Minister of France in 1892. As President (1899–1906), he saw the successful Paris Exhibition of 1900, and the forging of the Entente Cordiale with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, resolving their sharp differences over the Boer War and the Dreyfus Affair.

Early life

Loubet was born on 30 December 1838, the son of a peasant proprietor and mayor of Marsanne (Drôme). Admitted to the Parisian bar in 1862, he took his doctorate in law the next year. He was still a student when he witnessed the sweeping triumph of the Republican party in Paris at the general election in 1863, during the Second French Empire. He settled down to the exercise of his profession in Montélimar, where in 1869 he married Marie-Louise Picard. He also inherited a small estate at Grignan. [1]

Physical description

American politician William Jennings Bryan described Loubet as "below the medium height, even for Frenchmen. His shoulders are broad and his frame indicative of great physical strength. His hair is snow white, as are also his beard and mustache. He wears his beard square cut at the chin. . . . His voice is soft, and he speaks with great vivacity, emphasizing his words by expressive gestures." [2]

Political career

At the crisis of 1870, which brought about the Empire's end, he became mayor of Montélimar, and thenceforward was a steady supporter of Léon Gambetta. Elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1876 by Montélimar, he was one of the notable 363 parliamentarians who in the 16 May 1877 crisis passed a vote of no confidence in the ministry of Albert, the duke of Broglie. [1]

In the general election of October he was re-elected, local enthusiasm for him being increased by the fact that the government had driven him from the mayoralty. In the Chamber he occupied himself especially with education, fighting the clerical system established by the Loi Falloux , and working for the establishment of free, obligatory and secular primary instruction. In 1880 he became president of the departmental council in Drôme. His support of the second Jules Ferry ministry and his zeal for the colonial expansion of France gave him considerable weight in the moderate Republican party. [1]

He had entered the Senate in 1885, and he became minister of public works in the Tirard ministry (December 1887 to March 1888). In 1892 President Sadi Carnot, who was his personal friend, asked him to form a cabinet. Loubet held the portfolio of the interior with the premiership, and had to deal with the anarchist crimes of that year and with the great strike of Carmaux, in which he acted as arbitrator, giving a decision regarded in many quarters as too favourable to the strikers. He was defeated in November on the question of the Panama scandals, but he retained the ministry of the interior in the next cabinet under Alexandre Ribot, though he resigned on its reconstruction in January. [1]

President of the French Republic (1899–1906)

Painting of Loubet Loubet.jpg
Painting of Loubet

His reputation as an orator of great force and lucidity of exposition and as a safe and honest statesman procured for him in 1896 the presidency of the Senate, and in February 1899 he was chosen president of the republic in succession to Félix Faure by 483 votes as against 279 recorded by Jules Méline, his only serious competitor. [1]

Loubet caricatured by Guth for Vanity Fair, 1899 Emile Loubet Vanity Fair 1899-05-18.jpg
Loubet caricatured by Guth for Vanity Fair, 1899

He was marked out for fierce opposition and bitter insult, as the representative of that section of the Republican party which sought the revision of the Dreyfus affair. On the day of President Faure's funeral Paul Déroulède met the troops under General Roget on their return to barracks, and demanded that the general should march on the Elysée. Roget sensibly took his troops back to barracks. At the Auteuil steeplechase in June, the president was struck on the head with a cane by an anti-Dreyfusard. In that month President Loubet summoned Waldeck-Rousseau to form a cabinet, and at the same time entreated Republicans of all shades of opinion to rally to the defence of the state. By the efforts of Loubet and Waldeck-Rousseau the Dreyfus affair was settled, when Loubet, acting on the advice of General Galliffet, minister of war, remitted the ten years' imprisonment to which Dreyfus was condemned at Rennes. [1]

Loubet's presidency saw an acute stage of the clerical question, which was attacked by Waldeck-Rousseau and in still more drastic fashion by the Combes ministry. The French ambassador was recalled from the Vatican in April 1905, and in July the separation of church and state was voted in the Chamber of Deputies. Feeling had run high between France and Britain over the mutual criticisms passed on the conduct of the South African War and the Dreyfus affair respectively. These differences were composed, by the Anglo-French entente, and in 1904 a convention between the two countries secured the recognition of French claims in Morocco in exchange for non-interference with the British occupation of Egypt. President Loubet belonged to the peasant-proprietor class, and had none of the aristocratic proclivities of President Faure. He inaugurated the Paris Exhibition of 1900, received the emperor Nicholas II of Russia at the French maneuvers of 1901 and paid a visit to Russia in 1902. [1]

On 4 July 1902 President Loubet was elected an honorary member of the Rhode Island Society of the Cincinnati.[ citation needed ]

Loubet also exchanged visits with King Edward VII, with the king of Portugal, the king of Italy and the king of Spain. During the king of Spain's visit in 1905, an attempt was made on his life, a bomb being thrown under his carriage as he and with his guest left the Opéra Garnier. [1] [3] When his presidency came to an end in January 1906, he became the first President of the Third Republic to have served a full term and without resigning a second one. [1] He retired into private life and died on 20 December 1929 at the age of 90.

Honours

Loubet's Ministry, 27 February 6 December 1892

Changes

Related Research Articles

Dreyfus affair Sociopolitical controversy in the French Third Republic

The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906. "L'Affaire", as it is known in French, has come to symbolise modern injustice in the Francophone world, and it remains one of the most notable examples of a complex miscarriage of justice and antisemitism. The role played by the press and public opinion proved influential in the conflict.

Henri Brisson 19th/20th-century French politician

Eugène Henri Brisson was a French statesman, Prime Minister of France for a period in 1885-1886 and again in 1898.

Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau 19th-century French politician

Pierre Marie René Ernest Waldeck-Rousseau was a French Republican politician who served as the 29th Prime Minister of France.

Alexandre Millerand French lawyer and statesman

Alexandre Millerand was a French politician. He was Prime Minister of France from 20 January to 23 September 1920 and President of France from 23 September 1920 to 11 June 1924. His participation in Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet at the start of the 20th century, alongside the Marquis de Galliffet who had directed the repression of the 1871 Paris Commune, sparked a debate in the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and in the Second International about the participation of socialists in bourgeois governments.

Maurice Rouvier French statesman

Maurice Rouvier was a French statesman of the "Opportunist" faction, who served as the Prime Minister of France. He is best known for his financial policies and his unpopular policies designed to avoid a rupture with Germany.

Léon Bourgeois French statesman

Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois was a French statesman. His ideas influenced the Radical Party regarding a wide range of issues. He promoted progressive taxation such as progressive income taxes and social insurance schemes, along with economic equality, expanded educational opportunities, and cooperative solidarism. In foreign policy, he called for a strong League of Nations, and the maintenance of peace through compulsory arbitration, controlled disarmament, economic sanctions, and perhaps an international military force.

Émile Combes 19th/20th-century French statesman

Émile Justin Louis Combes was a French statesman and freemason who led the Bloc des gauches's cabinet from June 1902 to January 1905.

Charles Dupuy French politician

Charles Alexandre Dupuy was a French statesman, three times prime minister.

Jacques Marie Eugène Godefroy Cavaignac French politician

Jacques Marie Eugène Godefroy Cavaignac, known as Godefroy Cavaignac, French politician, was born in Paris. He was the son of Louis Eugène Cavaignac. He made public profession of his republican principles as a schoolboy at the Lycée Charlemagne by refusing in 1867 to receive a prize at the Sorbonne from the hand of the prince imperial.

1902 French legislative election

The 1902 general election was held on 27 April and 11 May 1902.

The Moderates or Moderate Republicans, pejoratively labeled Opportunist Republicans, were a French political group active in the late 19th century during the Third French Republic. The leaders of the group included Adolphe Thiers, Jules Ferry, Jules Grévy, Henri Wallon and René Waldeck-Rousseau.

The Lefts Bloc was a coalition of Republican political forces created during the French Third Republic in 1899 to contest the 1902 legislative elections. It initially supported Emile Combes's cabinet, then Maurice Rouvier's cabinet and finally Maurice Rouvier's cabinet. The Republican Coalition dissolved itself after the International Socialist Congress of Amsterdam of 1904 and the subsequent withdrawal of Socialist ministers from the government. Although the Left won the 1906 legislative election, the Socialists did not repeat their alliances with the Radicals and the Radical-Socialists and other Republican forces.

Events from the year 1905 in France.

The Progressive Republicans were a parliamentary group in France active during the late 19th century during the French Third Republic.

Ludovic Trarieux French Republican statesman

Ludovic Trarieux was a French Republican statesman, prominent Dreyfusard, and pioneer of international human rights.

Pierre Tirard Prime Minister of France

Pierre Emmanuel Tirard was a French politician.

Alexandre Ribot politician from France

Alexandre-Félix-Joseph Ribot was a French politician, four times Prime Minister.

Charles de Freycinet politician of the French Third Republic

Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet was a French statesman and four times Prime Minister during the Third Republic. He also served an important term as Minister of War (1888–93). He belonged to the Opportunist Republicans faction.

Ligue de la patrie française political organization

The Ligue de la patrie française was a French nationalist and anti-Dreyfus organization. It was officially founded in 1899, and brought together leading right-wing artists, scientists and intellectuals. The league fielded candidates in the 1902 national elections, but was relatively unsuccessful. After this it gradually became dormant. The bulletin ceased publication in 1909.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Loubet, Émile François". Encyclopædia Britannica . 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 26.
  2. Bryan, The Old World and Its Ways (1907: St. Louis, Thompson Publishing), page 510
  3. Bomb for Loubet and King Alfonso; New York Times; 1 June 1905; p. 1; Note: Regarding an error in reporting: The New York Times article does in fact give their later destination as the "Palais d'Orsay", however, that building had burned down in 1871.
  4. Nieuws Van Den Dag (Het) 07-10-1900
  5. "Court Circular". The Times (36811). London. 4 July 1902. p. 3.
  6. "Latest intelligence - France". The Times (36801). London. 23 June 1902. p. 5.
  7. "Court Circular". The Times (36913). London. 31 October 1902. p. 8.
  8. Royal Thai Government Gazette (16 October 1902). "ส่งเครื่องราชอิสริยาภรณ์ไปพระราชทานเครื่องราชอิสริยาภรณ์มหาจักรกรีบรมราชวงษ์พระราชทานแก่ มองซิเออ เอมินลูเบด์ ประธานาธิบดีแห่งฝรั่งเศส" (PDF) (in Thai). Retrieved 8 May 2019.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. "The Order of the Norwegian Lion", The Royal House of Norway. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
Political offices
Preceded by
Charles de Freycinet
Prime Minister of France
1892
Succeeded by
Alexandre Ribot
Preceded by
Félix Faure
President of France
1899–1906
Succeeded by
Armand Fallières