Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne

Last updated
Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne
Etienne Charles de Lomenie de Brienne.PNG
Director-General of Finance
In office
1787–1788
Preceded by Charles Alexandre de Calonne
Succeeded by Jacques Necker
Personal details
Born(1727-10-09)9 October 1727
Paris
Died16 February 1794(1794-02-16) (aged 66)
Sens
Political party Louis XVI
Profession Statesman, Politician, Churchman

Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne (9 October 1727 19 [1] February 1794) was a French churchman, politician and finance minister of Louis XVI.

Contents

Life

He was born in Paris, of a Limousin family traceable back to the 15th century. After a brilliant career as a student, he entered the Church, this being the best way to attain a distinguished position. In 1751 he became a doctor of theology, though there were doubts as to the orthodoxy of his thesis. [2] In 1752 he was appointed grand vicar to the Archbishop of Rouen. After visiting Rome, he was made Bishop of Condom (1760), and in 1763 was translated to the archbishopric of Toulouse. [3] His many famous friends included A. R. J. Turgot, André Morellet and Voltaire, and in 1770 he was elected to the Académie française. He was three times head of the bureau de jurisdiction at the general assembly of the clergy. He also took an interest in political and social questions of the day, and addressed to Turgot a number of memoires on these subjects, one of them, treating of pauperism, being especially remarkable. [4] [5]

In 1787, in the Assembly of Notables, he led the opposition to the fiscal policy of Calonne. He was then appointed head of the conseil des finances in April. Once in power, he succeeded in making the parlement register edicts dealing with internal free trade, the establishment of provincial assemblies and the redemption of the corvée. In May 1788 the process of tax collection was faulting and the loyalty of the army was slipping. As a result, Louis XVI suspended parliaments in May 1788 and created 47 courts. [6] When the parlement refused to register edicts on the stamp duty and the proposed new general land-tax, he persuaded Louis XVI to hold a lit de justice , to enforce their registration. To crush the opposition to these measures, he persuaded Louis to exile the parlement to Troyes (18 August 1787). When the parlement agreed to prolong the direct tax on all kinds of income, he recalled the councillors to Paris. A further attempt to force the parlement to register an edict for raising a loan of 120 million livres met with determined opposition. The struggle of the parlement against the incapacity of Brienne ended on 8 May in its consenting to an edict for its own abolition, with the proviso that the Estates-General should be summoned to remedy the disorders of the state. [7] He resigned as finance minister on 25 August 1788. [8]

Brienne, who had in the meantime been made Archbishop of Sens, now faced almost universal opposition. He was forced to suspend the Cour plenière which had been set up to take the place of the parlement, and to promise that the States-General should be summoned. Even these concessions were not enough to keep him in power, and on 29 August he had to retire, leaving the treasury empty. On 15 December following, he was made a cardinal, and went to Italy, where he spent two years. After the outbreak of the French Revolution he returned to France, and took the oath of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in 1790. He was repudiated by Pope Pius VI, and in 1791 had to give up the biretta. [7] He was also one of the few prelates of the old regime to swear the civic oath required by the revolutionary civil constitution. [9]

He retired to an abbey confiscated in the Revolution. He repudiated Catholicism in 1793, at the height of the French Revolution. [10] Both his past and present conduct made him an object of suspicion to the revolutionaries; he was arrested at Sens on 9 November 1793, and died in prison, either of an stroke or by poison. [7] [11]

Works

The chief works published by Brienne are:

Notes

  1. "Étienne-Charles de Loménie de Brienne - French cardinal and statesman". britannica.com. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  2. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09340a.htm
  3. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09340a.htm
  4. Chisholm 1911, pp. 936-937.
  5. von Guttner, Darius (2015). The French Revolution. Nelson Cengage. pp. 38–42.
  6. Haine, Scott. The History of France (1st ed.). Greenwood Press. pp.  72. ISBN   0-313-30328-2.
  7. 1 2 3 Chisholm 1911, p. 937.
  8. Schama, p. 238.
  9. Schama, p. 240.
  10. Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Etienne-Charles de Loménie de Brienne"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  11. https://www.tombes-sepultures.com/crbst_1064.html

Related Research Articles

Louis XVI of France King of France

Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last king of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. He was referred to as citizen Louis Capet during the four months before he was guillotined. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, son and heir apparent of Louis XV, Louis-Auguste became the new dauphin of France. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792.

Jacques Necker French statesman of Genevan birth and finance minister of Louis XVI

Jacques Necker was a banker of Genevan origin who became a finance minister for Louis XVI and a French statesman. Necker played a key role in French history before and during the first period of the French Revolution.

Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target French lawyer and politician

Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target was a French lawyer and politician.

Adrien Duport French politician

Adrien Duport was a French politician, and lawyer. He was an influential advocate in the parlement, and was prominent in opposition to the ministers Calonne and Loménie de Brienne.

Edict of Fontainebleau 1685 edict

The Edict of Fontainebleau was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The Edict of Nantes (1598) had granted the Huguenots the right to practice their religion without persecution from the state. Though Protestants had lost their independence in places of refuge under Richelieu on account of their supposed insubordination, they continued to live in comparative security and political contentment. From the outset, religious toleration in France had been a royal, rather than a popular policy. The lack of universal adherence to his religion did not sit well with Louis XIV's vision of perfected autocracy: "Bending all else to his will, Louis XIV resented the presence of heretics among his subjects."

Jean-Paul Rabaut Saint-Étienne French politician

Jean-Paul Rabaut Saint-Étienne was a leader of the French Protestants and a moderate French revolutionary.

Charles Alexandre de Calonne French statesman

Charles Alexandre de Calonne, titled Count of Hannonville in 1759, was a French statesman, best known for his involvement in the French Revolution.

The causes of the French Revolution can be attributed to several intertwining factors:

Parlement Ancien Régime justice court

A parlement, in the Ancien Régime of France, was a provincial appellate court. In 1789, France had 13 parlements, the most important of which was the Parlement of Paris. While the English word parliament derives from this French term, parlements were not legislative bodies. They consisted of a dozen or more appellate judges, or about 1,100 judges nationwide. They were the court of final appeal of the judicial system, and typically wielded much power over a wide range of subject matter, particularly taxation. Laws and edicts issued by the Crown were not official in their respective jurisdictions until the parlements gave their assent by publishing them. The members were aristocrats called nobles of the gown who had bought or inherited their offices, and were independent of the King.

Estates General of 1789 Consultative assembly of France, summoned by Louis XVI

The Estates General of 1789 was a general assembly representing the French estates of the realm: the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners, the last of Estates General of Kingdom of France. Summoned by King Louis XVI, it was brought to an end when the Third Estate formed into a National Assembly, inviting the other two to join, against the wishes of the King. This signaled the outbreak of the French Revolution.

Jean-Jacques Duval dEprémesnil French magistrate and politician

Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil, French magistrate and politician, was born in India at Pondicherry, his father being a colleague of Joseph François Dupleix.

Assembly of Notables Consultative assembly in the kingdom of France

An Assembly of Notables was a group of high-ranking nobles, ecclesiastics, and state functionaries convened by the King of France on extraordinary occasions to consult on matters of state. Assemblymen were prominent men, usually of the aristocracy, and included royal princes, peers, archbishops, high-ranking judges, and, in some cases, major town officials. The king would issue one or more reforming edicts after hearing their advice.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Sens

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Sens and Auxerre is a Latin Rite Archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The Archdiocese comprises the department of Yonne, which is in the region of Bourgogne. Traditionally established in sub-apostolic times, the diocese as metropolis of Quarta Lugdunensis subsequently achieved metropolitical status. For a time, the Archbishop of Sens held the title "Primate of the Gauls and Germania". Until 1622, it numbered seven suffragan (subordinate) dioceses: the dioceses of Chartres, Auxerre, Meaux, Paris, Orléans, Nevers and Troyes, which inspired the acronym CAMPONT. The Diocese of Bethléem at Clamecy was also dependent on the metropolitan see of Sens. The archdiocese is a suffragan of Dijon and consequently no longer wears the pallium. The archbishop is Yves François Patenôtre, whose cathedra (seat) is at Sens Cathedral but who resides in Auxerre.

Day of the Tiles

The Day of the Tiles was an event that took place in the French town of Grenoble on 7 June in 1788. It was one of the first disturbances which preceded the French Revolution, and is credited by a few historians as its start.

The vingtième was an income tax of the ancien régime in France. It was abolished during the French Revolution.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Nancy diocese of the Catholic Church

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Nancy and Toul is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. After a considerable political struggle between Louis XV, Louis XVI, and the Dukes of Lorraine, the diocese was erected by Pope Pius VI on 17 December 1777. The diocese is currently suffragan to the Archdiocese of Besançon.

Athanase Louis Marie de Loménie, comte de Brienne French politician

Louis-Marie-Athanase de Loménie, comte de Brienne was a French officer and politician, who was guillotined during the French Revolution.

Edict of Versailles

The Edict of Versailles, commonly known as the Edict of Tolerance, was an official act that gave non-Catholics in France the right to openly practice their religions as well as legal and civil status, which included the right to contract marriages without having to convert to the Catholic faith. The edict was signed by Louis XVI on 7 November 1787, and registered in the Parlement of Paris of the Ancien Régime on 29 January 1788. Its successful enactment was due to persuasive arguments by prominent French philosophers and literary personalities of the day, including Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, the Duc de Choiseul, by Americans such as Benjamin Franklin, and especially by the joint work of Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes, minister to Louis XVI, and Jean-Paul Rabaut Saint-Étienne, spokesman for the Protestant community in France.

Emmanuel Marie Michel Philippe Fréteau de Saint-Just French revolutionary

Emmanuel Marie Michel Philippe Fréteau de Saint-Just was a French nobleman and an elected representative of the Second Estate during the French Revolution. He was a politically liberal deputy to the Estates-General of 1789 and worked for the cause of constitutional monarchy. In 1789, Fréteau de Saint-Just served two terms as President of the National Constituent Assembly.

Pierre-Charles Laurent de Villedeuil was Controller-General of Finances under Louis XVI of France. His father, the engineer Pierre-Joseph Laurent, became rich thanks to his part in founding the compagnie des mines d'Anzin and was ennobled around 1750 as marquis de Villedeuil.

References