|Étienne Eustache Bruix|
Étienne Eustache Bruix, by E. Charpentier,
engraved by Ch. Geoffroy. 1840
|Born||17 July 1759|
Fort-Dauphin, Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti)
|Died|| 18 March 1805 45) (aged|
|Years of service||1778-1805|
|Battles/wars||French Revolutionary Wars (Ireland), Napoleonic Wars|
|Other work||French Naval Minister|
Étienne Eustache Bruix (17 July 1759, Fort-Dauphin, Saint-Domingue – 18 March 1805, Paris) was a French Navy admiral.
Fort-Liberté is a commune and administrative capital of the Nord-Est department of Haiti. It is close to the border of the Dominican Republic and is one of the oldest cities in the country. Haiti's independence was proclaimed here on November 29, 1803.
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804, in what is now Haiti.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.
From a distinguished family originating from Béarn, he embarked as a volunteer on a slaving vessel commanded by captain Jean-François Landolphe. Two years later, in 1778, he was made a garde de la marine , seeing his first campaign on the frigate Fox, and his second on board the Concorde. He served in various French squadrons sent to the aid of the United States of America in the American War of Independence, being made enseigne de vaisseau .
Béarn is one of the traditional provinces of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France. Along with the three Basque provinces of Soule, Lower Navarre, and Labourd, the principality of Bidache, as well as small parts of Gascony, it forms in the southwest the current département of Pyrénées-Atlantiques (64). The capitals of Béarn were Beneharnum, Morlaàs, Orthez, then Pau.
Jean-François Landolphe was a French naval commander.
The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America.
Named as commander of the Pivert, he and Puységur were charged with cruising round Saint-Domingue and re-mapping its coasts and harbors. Lieutenant de vaisseau at the start of the French Revolution, and becoming a member of the Académie de Marine in 1791, he was made captain on 1 January 1793, but discharged from the service for being a noble in October 1794. Retiring to the outskirts of Brest, he produced his memoirs under the title Moyens d'approvisionner la marine par les seules productions du territoire français (Means of Provisioning the Fleet Solely by What Is Produced in French Territory). This advocacy of naval autarky as a means of dealing with British blockades was read and appreciated by Napoleon and so Bruix was recalled to the navy in 1795 under the ministry of Laurent Truguet, which entrusted the Éole to him. He held this command up to the moment he was sent to join Villaret-Joyeuse's squadron as Chief of Staff (major general).
Louis Pierre de Chastenet, comte de Puységur was a French soldier under the Ancien Régime. A lieutenant général from 1781, he became minister of war in the ministry of Jacques Necker, from 30 November 1788 to 12 July 1789. Replaced by Victor-François, 2nd duc de Broglie, he received marks of esteem from the Assembly. Remaining faithful to the king, he commanded a small troop of gentlemen and defended the Tuileries against the Revolutionaries on 10 August 1792, and emigrated soon afterwards. He returned on Napoleon's seizure of power on 18 Brumaire and institution of the First French Empire, and died in his home town.
A lieutenant is a junior most commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations.
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.
Eustache Bruix was put in command of a division attached to admiral Justin Bonaventure Morard de Galles during the 1796 French invasion of Ireland. Lazare Hoche noticed him on that campaign and named him contre-amiral in May 1797. He was made Ministre de la Marine from 28 April 1798. Le bulletin de loi n° 198 du 8 floréal an VI (7 May 1798) stated:
Louis Lazare Hoche was a French soldier who rose to be general of the Revolutionary army. He won a victory over Royalist forces in Brittany. His surname is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 3. Richard Holmes says he was, "quick-thinking, stern, and ruthless...a general of real talent whose early death was a loss to France."
Counter admiral is a rank found in many navies of the world, but no longer used in English-speaking countries, where the equivalent rank is rear admiral. The term derives from the French contre-amiral.
On taking office, he rushed to Brest to take personal command of a fleet that was about to sail for Egypt in an attempt to extricate the French army trapped there since its invasion in 1798. With the help of the winds and fog he succeeded in evading the British blockade and sailed south with 25 ships of the line. Anticipating a possible landing in Ireland, still unsettled in the wake of the United Irishmen's rebellion, the blockading fleet drew off north-westwards, giving Bruix a considerable headstart before it was discovered where he had gone. Off Cadiz Bruix encountered a British blockading force of 15 ships of the line under Lord Keith. Despite his numerical superiority and the presence of 28 Spanish ships of the line in Cadiz, Bruix ignored the opportunity to attack and continued into the Mediterranean.
Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.
The Irish Rebellion of 1798 was an uprising against British rule in Ireland from May to September 1798. The United Irishmen, a republican revolutionary group influenced by the ideas of the American and French revolutions, were the main organising force behind the rebellion. It was led by Presbyterians angry at being shut out of power by the Anglican establishment, joined by Catholics, who made up the majority of the population. Many Irish Ulster Protestants sided with the British, resulting in the conflict taking on the appearance of a sectarian civil war in many areas, with atrocities on both sides. A French army which landed in County Mayo in support of the rebels was overwhelmed by British and loyalist forces. The uprising was suppressed by British Crown forces with a death toll of between 10,000 and 30,000.
Having made a detour to Toulon for repairs, Bruix learned that André Masséna was besieged in Genoa and was ordered to assist. He rerouted the fleet to the Gulf of Genoa to resupply the beleaguered army but was driven back by the weather. Meanwhile, Keith had followed him into the Mediterranean and gathered together the scattered British squadrons in the area at Menorca. Bruix abandoned his venture, eluded his pursuers and returned to the Atlantic. Collecting a Spanish squadron en route he re-entered Brest.
Toulon is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, Toulon is the capital of the Var department.
André Masséna, 1st Duc de Rivoli, 1st Prince d'Essling was a French military commander during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. He was one of the original eighteen Marshals of the Empire created by Napoleon, with the nickname l'Enfant chéri de la Victoire.
During the Siege of Genoa the Austrians besieged and captured Genoa. However, this was a pyrrhic victory as the smaller French force at Genoa under André Masséna had diverted enough Austrian troops to enable Napoleon to win the Battle of Marengo and defeat the Austrians.
After this dramatic but fruitless expedition, known as the Cruise of Bruix, he returned the navy portfolio on 11 July 1799, and took command of the fleet assembled at the île d'Aix ready to sail to Spain, but the British reinforced their blockade, the admiral fell ill and the peace of Amiens prevented the fleet from leaving port. A vice-amiral from 13 March 1799, he was privy to the secret coup d'état that occurred on 18 brumaire, year 8 (9 November 1799). Napoléon Bonaparte named him admiral in 1801 and conseiller d'État the following year.
War having broken out again, Napoléon conceived a plan for a new invasion of England, and put Bruix in command of the flotilla based at Boulogne that would carry the invasion troops across the English Channel. Bruix deployed all his energies towards the preparations but was obliged to return to Paris, where he died of tuberculosis at only 45. The Boulevard de l'Amiral-Bruix in Paris is named after him.
Georges René Le Peley de Pléville
| French Naval Minister |
27 April 1798– 4 March 1799
| Succeeded by|
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
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