Örebro

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Örebro
Orebro slott 2010.JPG
Orebro teatar May 2014 02.jpg
Orebro pa cykel (11).JPG
Orebro kommunvapen - Riksarkivet Sverige.png
Coat of arms
Sweden Orebro location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Örebro
Sweden location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Örebro
Coordinates: 59°16′26″N15°12′27″E / 59.27389°N 15.20750°E / 59.27389; 15.20750 Coordinates: 59°16′26″N15°12′27″E / 59.27389°N 15.20750°E / 59.27389; 15.20750
Country Sweden
Province Närke
County Örebro County
Municipality Örebro Municipality
Charter 1404
Area
[1]
  City1,380.11 km2 (532.86 sq mi)
  Urban
49.27 km2 (19.02 sq mi)
Elevation
34 m (112 ft)
Population
 (2018, 2017 for urban area) [1]
  City150,949
  Density2,172/km2 (5,630/sq mi)
   Urban
119,091 [2]
   Metro
196,304 [a]
Demonym(s) Örebroare
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
701 xx, 702 xx, 703 xx
Area code(s) (+46) 19
Website www.orebro.se
^ Including Örebro, Kumla, Hallsberg and Lekeberg municipalities.

Örebro ( /ˌɜːrəˈbr/ UR-ə-BROO, [3] [4] [5] Swedish:  [œrɛˈbruː] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city with 124,027 inhabitants, the seat of Örebro Municipality and the capital of Örebro County in Sweden. [2] It is the sixth largest city in Sweden and one of the largest inland hubs of the country. It is located near the lake of Hjälmaren, although a few kilometres inland along the small river Svartån.

Contents

Örebro is home to Örebro University, a major university hospital, a medieval castle, the water park Gustavsvik as well as several large shopping malls and the Oset-Rynningeviken nature reserve at the lakefront.

History

Orebro circa 1700, in Suecia antiqua et hodierna, with the castle in the middle Suecia 2-048 ; Orebro.jpg
Örebro circa 1700, in Suecia antiqua et hodierna , with the castle in the middle

Örebro received its Royal Charter and city privileges not later than 1404.

The name Örebro refers to a bridge (bro) crossing the river Svartån where the city is located. The prefix Öre- is derived from ör 'gravel (bank)'. [6] The location became a natural seat of commerce in the Scandinavian Middle Ages and is mentioned in print in the 13th century. Old buildings from the early days include the foundations of the city church, a building which has undergone several modifications. The natural center of the city is otherwise the magnificent Örebro Castle, situated on an islet in the Svartån, and dividing the town into a northern and a southern part. This castle was constructed during the stewardship of Birger Jarl during the early 13th century and then modified and enlarged during the reign of King Gustav Vasa in the 1560s. The Örebro Synod was held here in 1529.

Notable events in Örebro's history include the national diet meeting at Örebro in 1810, where Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte was elected crown prince of Sweden.

Although a trade town, Örebro remained small until the second half of the 19th century, when it grew rapidly as a center of the national shoe-manufacturing industry (see: History of Närke).

Climate

Recreation area at Orebro University Hospital Orebro University Hospital 03.jpg
Recreation area at Örebro University Hospital

Örebro, like the rest of the area close to Mälardalen, has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb) that is made milder by the proximity to water and the Gulf Stream which makes it interchangeable with oceanic climates. Summer temperatures occasionally exceed 30 °C (86 °F) albeit not yearly, and temperatures above 5 °C (41 °F) are rare in winter, although frost-free nights sometimes occur. July high temperatures range from 20 °C (68 °F) to 26 °C (79 °F) depending on weather patterns, with a 2002–2014 mean high of around 23.4 °C (74.1 °F). During cold winters, Örebro receives plenty of snowfall. Örebro is far more prone than coastal areas to really harsh frosts with temperatures approaching or below −20 °C (−4 °F) happening almost every winter according to SMHI statistics. The station's setting in a rural location might skew temperatures somewhat compared to the urban area which is also at a slightly lower elevation and nearer Hjälmaren. Especially when considering overnight lows this could render a small urban heat island effect in the city centre.

However, the climate is very variable from year to year. For example, December 2010 was record cold with a daily mean of −9 °C (16 °F), whilst December 2006 only a few years before had a mean of 4.3 °C (39.7 °F). [7] [8] The warmest month on record is 21.8 °C (71.2 °F) in July 2018 and the coldest on record is −12.8 °C (9.0 °F) in January 1987. [9] [10] Örebro is often without snow cover for large parts of the winter months when daytime temperatures hover just above freezing – an exceptional feature for an inland area north of the 59th parallel.

The highest ever recorded temperature was set on 7 August 1975 during an intense heatwave with 36 °C (97 °F), [11] which is a very high temperature for such northerly parallels. During the 21st century, the record heat is 33.9 °C (93.0 °F) set on 8 August 2018. [12] The lowest recorded temperature in recorded history was set in February 1966 with −30 °C (−22 °F). [13] Several monthly records have been set in the 2010s according to official SMHI statistics, namely the record highs of March, May, July, October, November, December as well as the coldest December temperature and month on record, that was set in 2010. [14] The November record high of 2014 was associated with extremely unseasonal thunderstorms. [15] Humidity is high for most parts of the year, but adequately lower during summer months. In spite of this summer is generally the time that gets the most precipitation [16] due to clashes between hot and cool continental air systems causing heavy thunderstorm rainfall. In 2015, a 13.1 °C (55.6 °F) reading was recorded around the winter solstice, another record and a very warm reading for an inland area. [17]

Climate data for Örebro Airport (2002–2018 averages; precipitation in the ward of Almby; extremes since 1901)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)10.2
(50.4)
12.4
(54.3)
18.8
(65.8)
26.9
(80.4)
29.0
(84.2)
34.0
(93.2)
33.3
(91.9)
36.0
(96.8)
26.8
(80.2)
20.2
(68.4)
14.9
(58.8)
13.1
(55.6)
36.0
(96.8)
Mean maximum °C (°F)6.8
(44.2)
6.8
(44.2)
13.1
(55.6)
19.5
(67.1)
25.3
(77.5)
27.3
(81.1)
29.4
(84.9)
28.4
(83.1)
22.8
(73.0)
16.7
(62.1)
11.6
(52.9)
8.2
(46.8)
30.5
(86.9)
Average high °C (°F)0.4
(32.7)
0.9
(33.6)
5.5
(41.9)
12.0
(53.6)
17.6
(63.7)
20.9
(69.6)
23.5
(74.3)
21.8
(71.2)
17.4
(63.3)
10.4
(50.7)
5.4
(41.7)
2.3
(36.1)
11.5
(52.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)−2.5
(27.5)
−2.2
(28.0)
1.2
(34.2)
6.5
(43.7)
11.7
(53.1)
15.7
(60.3)
18.0
(64.4)
16.5
(61.7)
12.5
(54.5)
6.7
(44.1)
2.7
(36.9)
−0.5
(31.1)
7.2
(45.0)
Average low °C (°F)−5.4
(22.3)
−5.3
(22.5)
−3.1
(26.4)
1.0
(33.8)
5.8
(42.4)
9.5
(49.1)
12.4
(54.3)
11.1
(52.0)
7.6
(45.7)
3.0
(37.4)
0.0
(32.0)
−3.2
(26.2)
2.8
(37.0)
Mean minimum °C (°F)−18.8
(−1.8)
−15.7
(3.7)
−12.3
(9.9)
−5.9
(21.4)
−1.3
(29.7)
3.7
(38.7)
6.9
(44.4)
4.7
(40.5)
−0.5
(31.1)
−5.0
(23.0)
−9.4
(15.1)
−14.1
(6.6)
−21.4
(−6.5)
Record low °C (°F)−29.6
(−21.3)
−30.0
(−22.0)
−28.0
(−18.4)
−14.5
(5.9)
−5.6
(21.9)
−1.2
(29.8)
2.5
(36.5)
0.0
(32.0)
−5.7
(21.7)
−12.8
(9.0)
−19.5
(−3.1)
−26.6
(−15.9)
−30.0
(−22.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)50.6
(1.99)
38.2
(1.50)
30.7
(1.21)
35.2
(1.39)
63.2
(2.49)
62.2
(2.45)
82.2
(3.24)
85.7
(3.37)
54.7
(2.15)
62.8
(2.47)
63.5
(2.50)
54.4
(2.14)
683.4
(26.9)
Source #1: SMHI Open Data [18]
Source #2: SMHI average data 2002–2018 [19]

Demography

Sites of interest

The watertower Svampen (The Mushroom). A restaurant is located at the top of the building. Svampen Orebro.jpg
The watertower Svampen (The Mushroom). A restaurant is located at the top of the building.

Örebro's old town, Wadköping, is located on the banks of the Svartån (black stream). It contains many 18th and 19th century wooden houses, along with museums and exhibitions. The water tower of Örebro, named Svampen (The Mushroom), is a popular destination as an outlook tower. In 1971, a replica of the tower was built in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. [ citation needed ]

Culture

Örebro has hosted a contemporary art exhibition called Open Art on four occasions: in 2008, 2009, 2011 and 2013. In 2013, the exhibition featured works by 90 artists from Sweden and many other countries throughout the world. [20] The fifth edition of the exhibition is planned for the summer of 2015. [21]

Örebro University is one of Sweden's most recent, being upgraded from högskola (university college) in 1999. It currently has around 16,000 students and a staff of 1,100. The institution is regarded as one of the top 351–400 universities in the world. [22] The university is also named among the world's top 100 young universities (number 62) in the 2018 THE Young University Rankings. [23]

Gustavsvik, the largest water park in the Nordic countries, is located just a kilometer south of central Örebro. With more than 700,000 visitors per year, it is one of the most popular tourist and leisure establishments in Sweden. Only Liseberg, Gröna Lund and Skansen are more popular. In the summer the manor of Karlslund is a very popular place to visit.[ citation needed ]

Sports

Football

Floorball

Other sports

Karlslunds IF is a multi-sports club specialising in American Football, Bandy, Baseball/Softball, Bowling, Football, Gymnastics, Skiing and Swimming.

Notable people

Artists
Politicians and public officials
Religion
Scientists and engineers
Sportspeople
Writers

Twin towns – sister cities

Örebro is twinned with [24]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 "Localities 2010, area, population and density in localities 2005 and 2010 and change in area and population". Statistics Sweden. 29 May 2012. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013.
  2. 1 2 "Population in localities increased by 120 000". Statistiska Centralbyrån. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  3. "Örebro". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  4. "Örebro" (US) and "Örebro". Oxford Dictionaries . Oxford University Press . Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  5. "Örebro". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  6. Wahlberg, Mats, ed. (2003). Svenskt ortnamnslexikon (PDF) (in Swedish) (1st ed.). Uppsala: Swedish Institute for Dialectology, Onomastics and Folklore Research. pp. 388–389. ISBN   91-7229-020-X . Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  7. "December – air temperature and wind (2010)" (PDF) (in Swedish). SMHI. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  8. "December – air temperature and clouds (2006)" (PDF) (in Swedish). SMHI. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  9. "July – air temperature and wind (July 2014 – all-time record section)" (PDF) (in Swedish). SMHI. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  10. "January – air temperature and wind (2015 – all-time record section)" (PDF) (in Swedish). SMHI. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  11. "August 2014 – Air Temperature and Wind" (PDF). Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  12. "August 2018 – Air Temperature and Wind" (PDF). Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). Retrieved 15 April 2019.
  13. "February 2014 – Air Temperature and Wind" (PDF). Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  14. "December 2010 -Air Temperature and Wind" (PDF). SMHI. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  15. "The crazy November weather – Record heat and Thunder (Swedish)". EWP.se. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  16. "Average Precipitation for Stations (Swedish)". SMHI. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  17. "13,1 – nytt värmerekord för Örebro" (in Swedish). Nerikes Allehanda. 20 December 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
  18. "Meteorological observations". Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute . Retrieved 15 April 2019.
  19. "Annual and Monthly Statistics". Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute . Retrieved 15 April 2019.
  20. "OpenART 2015: Artists". openart.se.
  21. johan. "OpenART 2015: About". openart.se.
  22. "Rankings: Örebro University". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  23. ”Young University Rankings 2018”. Times Higher Education. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  24. "Vänorter" [Sister cities]. Örebro kommun [Örebro Municipality] (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 27 July 2009.:
  25. "Miasta partnerskie" [Twin Cities]. Urząd Miasta Łodzi [City of Łódź] (in Polish). Archived from the original on 24 June 2013.
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