Ü-Tsang

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Map showing the Tibetan regions of U-Tsang, Ngari, Kham and Amdo Map of Tibet U-Tsang Amdo and Kham.jpg
Map showing the Tibetan regions of Ü-Tsang, Ngari, Kham and Amdo
Ü-Tsang
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 烏思藏
Simplified Chinese 乌思藏
Tibetan name
Tibetan དབུས་གཙང་

Ü-Tsang or Tsang-Ü[ citation needed ] is one of the three traditional provinces of Tibet, the others being Amdo in the north-east, Kham in the east. Ngari (including former Guge kingdom) in the north-west was incorporated into Ü-Tsang. Geographically Ü-Tsang covered the south-central of the Tibetan cultural area, including the Brahmaputra River watershed. The western districts surrounding and extending past Mount Kailash are included in Ngari, and much of the vast Changtang plateau to the north. The Himalayas defined Ü-Tsang's southern border. The present Tibet Autonomous Region corresponds approximately to what was ancient Ü-Tsang and western Kham.

Ü-Tsang was formed by the merging of two earlier power centers: Ü (Wylie : dbus) in central Tibet, controlled by the Gelug lineage of Tibetan Buddhism under the early Dalai Lamas, and Tsang (Wylie : gtsang) which extended from Gyantse to points west, controlled by the rival Sakya lineage. Military victories by the powerful Khoshut Mongol Güshi Khan that backed 5th Dalai Lama and founded Ganden Phodrang government in 1642, consolidated power over the combined region, followed by the rule of the Qing Dynasty started in 1720 by the Qianlong Emperor that continued until the British expedition to Tibet (1903–1904). [1] [2]

Ü-Tsang is the cultural heartland of the Tibetan people, originally governed by Rinpungpa dynasty. The Tsangpa dynasty had ruled the Tsang part between 1565 and 1642. The dispute between Tsang kings, Karma Tenkyong Wangpo followers of karmapa and Khoshut khans, Güshi Khan, follower of gelugpa and Dalai Lamas ended by the rule on Tibet from the Potala and Norbulingka palaces in Lhasa from the last one. Jokhang, perhaps the most holy temple in Tibetan Buddhism, is also located there. The Lhasa dialect is used as a lingua franca in Ü-Tsang and the Tibetan Exile koiné language is also based largely on it.

Front and Back Tibet

Tsang, whose largest cities are Gyantse and Shigatse, near where the Panchen Lama has his traditional seat at Tashilhunpo Monastery, was designated on maps of the Qing dynasty as "Back Tibet", while Ü, where the Dalai Lama has his seat at Lhasa, was designated "Front Tibet".[ citation needed ] This division was an artificial construct of the Chinese and had no currency within Tibet where the Dalai Lama exercised effective rule over both Tsang and Ü. An attempt had been made in the 18th century during the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor to split Tibet by offering the Panchen Lama dominion over Tsang, but the expansive offer was declined, the Panchen Lama only accepting a small portion of the offered territory. [3] Later attempts, during the period 1906–1913 and in 1950, by the Panchen Lama to resurrect a separate Back Tibet over which he would have dominion were rejected by the Chinese. [4]

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History of Tibet

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Güshi Khan

Güshi Khan was a Khoshut prince and leader of the Khoshut Khanate, who supplanted the Tumed descendants of Altan Khan as the main benefactor of the Dalai Lama and the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism. In 1637, Güshi Khan defeated a rival Mongol prince Choghtu Khong Tayiji, a Kagyu follower, near Qinghai Lake and established his khanate in Tibet over the next years. His military assistance to the Gelug school enabled the 5th Dalai Lama to establish political control over Tibet.

5th Dalai Lama

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Lha-bzang Khan

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Ming–Tibet relations Relations between Ming-dynasty China and Tibet

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Tsangpa Dynasty that dominated large parts of Tibet from 1565 to 1642.

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Mongol invasions of Tibet

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Khoshut Khanate

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Ganden Phodrang

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Polhané Sönam Topgyé

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Khangchenné politician

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Tibet under Qing rule

Tibet under Qing rule refers to the Qing dynasty's rule over Tibet from 1720 to 1912. Tibet was under Khoshut Khanate rule from 1642 to 1717, with the Khoshuts conquered by Dzungar Khanate in 1717, and the Dzungars subsequently expelled by Qing in 1720. The Qing emperors appointed resident commissioners known as Ambans to Tibet, most of them are ethnic Manchus, who reported to the Lifan Yuan, a Qing government body that oversaw the empire's frontier. Tibet under Qing rule retained a degree of political autonomy under the Dalai Lamas nonetheless.

The 1720 Chinese expedition to Tibet or the Chinese conquest of Tibet in 1720 was a military expedition sent by the Qing empire to expel the invading forces of the Dzungar Khanate from Tibet and establish a Chinese protectorate over the country. The expedition occupied Lhasa and marked the beginning of Qing rule in Tibet, which lasted until the empire's fall in 1912.

References

  1. Goldstein, Melvyn (1997). The Snow Lion and the Dragon: China, Tibet, and the Dalai Lama . Berkeley: U of California.
  2. Annand, Dibyesh (February 2009). "Strategic Hypocrisy: The British Imperial Scripting of Tibet's Geopolitical Identity" (PDF). The Journal of Asian Studies. 68: 227–252. doi:10.1017/s0021911809000011 via WestminsterResearch.
  3. Goldstein, Melvyn C. (2007). A history of modern Tibet, Volume 2: The Calm before the Storm: 1951–1955. University of California Press. p.  266 and 267. ISBN   978-0-520-24941-7.
  4. Goldstein, Melvyn C. (2007). A history of modern Tibet, Volume 2: The Calm before the Storm: 1951–1955. University of California Press. pp.  266–267 and 277–286. ISBN   978-0-520-24941-7.

Coordinates: 30°51′21″N92°13′38″E / 30.85583°N 92.22722°E / 30.85583; 92.22722