Česká Lípa

Last updated
Česká Lípa
Town
Ceska Lipa namesti 2.JPG
Česká Lípa town hall on T. G. Masaryk square
Flag of Ceska Lipa.svg
Flag
Ceska Lipa CoA CZ.svg
Coat of arms
Relief Map of Czech Republic.png
Red pog.svg
Česká Lípa
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 50°41′19″N14°32′19″E / 50.68861°N 14.53861°E / 50.68861; 14.53861 Coordinates: 50°41′19″N14°32′19″E / 50.68861°N 14.53861°E / 50.68861; 14.53861
CountryFlag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
Region Liberec
District Česká Lípa
First mentioned1263
Government
  MayorJitka Volfová
Area
  Total66.10 km2 (25.52 sq mi)
Elevation
258 m (846 ft)
Population
 (2020-01-01 [1] )
  Total37,525
  Density570/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
470 01 - 470 06
Website www.mucl.cz

Česká Lípa (Czech pronunciation: [tʃɛskaː liːpa] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); German : Böhmisch Leipa) is a town in the Czech Republic. It is the district seat and the largest town of the Česká Lípa District in the Liberec Region, with a population of about 37,500. It is the most populated town of the Czech Republic without city status.

Contents

The Ploučnice River flows through the town, approximately 25 mi (40 km) from its source. Česká Lípa is divided into 14 municipal districts. Approximately 9 mi (15 km) south of Česká Lípa lies the summer resort of Lake Mácha (Czech : Máchovo jezero). Česká Lípa lies 23 mi (38 km) west of Liberec and 42 mi (67 km) north of Prague, counting distances between town borders.

The old town of Česká Lípa was built near a ford on the Ploučnice where a Slavonic colony existed from the 10th century. The line of the Ronovci and Henry of Lipá (Czech : Jindřich z Lipé) in particular contributed to the founding of the town between 1305 and 1319, [2] and the line of the Berkové z Dubé promoted its development. A hundred years later the town was occupied by the Hussite army of Jan Roháč z Dubé and devastated by fires. Albert of Valdštejn, and later Kaunitzs, contributed to another boom of the town by founding a monastery and school. The modern urban development of the town was influenced by industrial production and uranium mining in the region. Residential neighbourhoods consisting of large amounts of prefab housing were built on the outskirts while the town center was preserved and declared as an urban heritage zone. [3]

History

The current territory of the town was permanently settled around the 13th century. The first written reference of settlement comes from 1263 and is included in the Doksany Prior's purchase roll. The history of the town is associated with Chvala ze Žitavy of the Ronovci family, [2] :7 who founded Lipý Castle, and his grandson Henry of Lipá (Jindřich z Lipé) (1270–1329), a significant royal aristocrat. As rolls have not been preserved, it is not clear who exactly founded the castle and surrounding settlement. Thus Lipý Castle became another fortified seat in North Bohemia on the contemporary trade routes. There was a Slavonic colony near the castle, later renamed as Stará Lípa (now a neighbourhood of the town). [4] There is a reference to Arnold, said to come from Stará Lípa, who was a citizen of Kravaře in 1263. Historians have deduced from the reference to Stará Lípa that Lipý Castle and accompanying settlement were established around that time. [5] Henry of Lipá moved to Moravia in 1319, after he had sold the castle with its surroundings to his cousin Hynek Berka. According to other sources, in 1327 Hynek Berka z Dobé, also a member of the Ronovci ancestry, was the lord of Lipá and its wider surroundings. When he died in 1348, his son of the same name took the title, and after his death his second son Jindřich succeeded him. Then his nephew Hynek Berka z Dubé reigned the area. The eldest town charter, which he issued on 23 March 1381, states that discretions were granted to the town of Lipá and that it was he who contributed the most to the boom of the town and the castle bearing the same name.

Town walls were constructed at the beginning of the 14th century as well as the parish church of St. Paul and Peter, which was destroyed by a fire in 1787. It was canonized by Peter of Aspelt, the Mayence archbishop, in 1312 in the presence of Jan Lucemburský, the Czech king. The Dean's Office of Děčín was delegated to him in 1341. [2] :10

Austrian KK stamp first issue 1850 cancelled BOHM. LEIPA 6kr IssueI RDo-f Boehmisch Leipa.jpg
Austrian KK stamp first issue 1850 cancelled BÖHM. LEIPA

In the second half of the 14th century the Weitmile family was significantly involved in the development of the town. Members of this family used to hold positions of reeve and parsons. Petr z Weitmile was assigned as a witness on the granting of the urban discretions document by Hynek Berka z Dubé in 1381. [2] :6 Development of the town and Bohemia was paused by a plague epidemic in 1389. At the end of the 14th century the castle was controlled by other members of lords of Lipá family, among whom a powerful and significant individual named Hynek Hlaváč was often mentioned, until the beginning of the Hussite wars, when in May 1426 it was conquered by Hussites led by Jan Roháč z Dubé, [6] and became a stronghold until 1436. Between 1502 and 1553 a large part of the town and its surroundings belonged to the Vartenberks. Later, the lords of Dubá / Lipá regained the castle and kept it for over 100 years. The first evidence of Jewish settlement in the town dates back to 1562. [7] Albrecht of Valdštejn reunited the town in 1622 to 1623. [8] Large parts of the town were destroyed in 1787 and 1820.

Following the compromise of 1867, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy until 1918, and head of the Böhmisch Leipa district, one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia. [9]

In 1918, Česká Lípa became a part of independent Czechoslovakia. The town was ceded to Nazi Germany with the rest of the Sudetenland in October 1938 under the terms of the Munich Agreement and placed under the administration of the Regierungsbezirk Aussig of Reichsgau Sudetenland. It returned under Czechoslovak administration in May 1945, after the liberation of Czechoslovakia.

Emblem

The emblem of the town originates in the urban seal from 1389. Above the town wall there is a coat of arms of the lords of Lipá with crossed fighting rods. The flag was designed by the Heraldic Committee, the State District Archives of Česká Lípa, in 1992 and adjusted according to a historical artwork from 1937. The emblem proposal was discussed in the town government in June 1992, reviewed by Subcommittee for Heraldics of the Chamber of Deputies in December and 15 July 1993 the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies granted the emblem to the town. [10]

Administrative divisions

Ceska Lipa Cadastre Division CL Ceska Lipa.png
Česká Lípa Cadastre Division

The town is divided into 14 cadastral territories and 14 parts:

Economy

Gate of Johnson Controls Dubice Johnson.jpg
Gate of Johnson Controls

There are several large automotive companies in the southwest part of the town, mainly in Dubice industrial zone, where about 5,000 workers are employed in offices including those of Johnson Controls, VARTA and Bombardier.[ citation needed ]

Monuments

Mary the Virgin's Birth Church Ceska Lipa kostel Narozeni PM.JPG
Mary the Virgin's Birth Church

Ecclesiastical Monuments

Saint Maria Magdalene Church Kostel sv.Mari Magdaleny.jpg
Saint Maria Magdalene Church
Morovy sloup na namesti Morovy sloup v Ceske Lipe.jpg
Morový sloup na náměstí
Jewish Cemetery by Strelnice Stary zidovsky hrbitov v Ceske Lipe.jpg
Jewish Cemetery by Střelnice

Other Monuments

Red House Burg-Leipa-3.jpg
Red House
Spicak Hill with Transmitter Kopec a vysilac Spicak.jpg
Špičák Hill with Transmitter

Education

There was a parochial school in 1391 in the town, then records mention a doom of the school in 1515 during a big fire. The Latin school established in 1627 together with the Augustinian Monastery had been canceled by Empress Maria Theresa. The facility was restored in 1806 as their high school. Education had its boom in the 19th century. In 1824 an evening school for working children was established, then a trade apprentice school was opened in 1838, a business school in 1868, a practice school by the Monastery in 1869, a trade continuation school in 1879 and on 19 October the same year a high school of agriculture was opened. In 1882 the State High School was established and in 1895 girls' and 1900 a boys' public school.

There were 42 schools and kindergartens in 2003 in the town.

Culture

Cultural attractions

Crystal Culture House Pruceli KD Crystal.jpg
Crystal Culture House
Augustinian Monastery Garden CL muzeum po oprave 1.JPG
Augustinian Monastery Garden

Cultural events

Local media

After 1850 the Leipaer Zeitung was released in German for the Česká Lípa area, and its competitor Deutsche Leipaer Zeitung from 1884, both twice a week. [20]

Today's local press includes the Českolipský deník (Česká Lípa Daily), established in 1993 and now part of Vltava Labe Media, and Městské noviny (Municipal Journal) issued by the municipal council.

Hitradio FM Crystal broadcasts to the Česká Lípa and Děčín districts.

Sports

Winter Stadium and neighboring Swimming Pool Zimni stadion a bazen zpredu.jpg
Winter Stadium and neighboring Swimming Pool

Sport Česká Lípa, a contributory organization established by the town, manages local sports facilities including: the municipal stadium, which includes an open soccer pitch, tennis hall, outdoor tennis courts, hothouse and solarium; a sports hall (Lokomotiva); a sports complex featuring a reconstructed winter stadium and indoor pool with water slide, [21] and a nearby skatepark; and the Sever Swimming Pool.

Pata School Gym Telocvicna Patovy skoly.jpg
Pata School Gym

Other facilities include: the Olympia Relax Center; the TJ Lokomotiva soccer grounds; the Lada Airdrome; the Sosnová motor-racing circuit which hosts many motor sports competitions including the National Championship; several bowling alleys; and Boating Ploučnice on the river, used for canoes and kayaks from Stráž pod Ralskem.

The District Committee of the Czech Union of Physical Education was previously an original administrative association, and is now the Česká Lípa District Sports Union. The town is home to Arsenal Česká Lípa, a football team, and various other clubs for different sports.

Hiking and cycle trails

There are three cycle paths passing through the town, built partially on the subsoil of disused railroads.

The Ploucnice river near the hospital Ploucnice v Ceske Lipe-most u nemocnice.jpg
The Ploučnice river near the hospital

Transport

The former Ceska Lipa mesto station Stare nadrazi.jpg
The former Česká Lípa město station

Railways

Česká Lípa hlavní nádraží (main railway station) is a junction between the Bakov nad Jizerou - Jedlová and Děčín - Rumburk lines. Three smaller train stops, Česká Lípa-Střelnice, Česká Lípa-Holý vrch and Vlčí důl-Dobranov are located in the suburbs of the town. The centrally located (Česká Lípa město railway station) was closed down in 1979 and the railway connecting it with the main station (at a length of three quarters of a mile) is not in use any more.

Railways and stations have been built by various companies. The first railway was built in 1867 leading to the town of Bakov nad Jizerou. Another railway was opened in 1872 to the town of Benešov nad Ploučnicí and later prolonged to the city of Děčín. Another company then built the Česká Lípa město station out of which the first train went to the town of Litoměřice and in 1903 the railway leading from Česká Lípa to Řetenice u Teplic and in opposite direction leading via the town of Zákupy to the city of Liberec. The railway from Česká Lípa to Česká Kamenice was completed and opened in 1903 and large railway workshops was constructed in the vicinity of the main station. The national corporation of ŽOS (Railway Repair and Engineering Workshops) had its headquarters here until 1980. The railway leading to Česká Kamenice was closed in 1979, and its subsoil was used for building of a part of the Varhany Cycling Path. Railways in the town and peripherals are connected. The Česká Lípa město station built in 1898 is out of service now and Czech Railways are offering it for sale. The railway from this station leading to the neighbourhood of Vlčí důl has been demolished and its subsoil used for construction of cycle path no. 3054. Three short sidings unused and blocked lead from the central station to several former factory and industrial buildings in the Svárov neighborhood.

New Main railway station Ceska Lipa hlavni nadrazi 24. - 26. 12. 2016 (4).jpg
New Main railway station

There are four directions to which trains are dispatched from the central station.

Railways 081 and 086 are joined by many trains. Ordinary passenger trains use them for routes from Liberec to Děčín and express ones from Liberec to Ústí nad Labem.

Bus Transport

Bus Station Hall Ceska Lipa, aut. nadrazi, budova.JPG
Bus Station Hall

Regional and intercity transportation is mainly operated by ČSAD Česká Lípa, based at the town bus station from 1986, [22] provides connection in directions to towns of Mimoň, Nový Bor and Prague, and with surrounding towns and villages.

Small transport companies (such as Mirobus for instance) provide transport for commuters of local large companies or offer an alternative transport for Czech Railways in case of lockouts etc. Nevertheless, Municipal transit company of BusLine Co. has taken over most of such services.

Municipal transit

There is a wide network of bus routes in Česká Lípa Municipal Transit. Streets of the town are not hardwired with an electrical traction so one won't encounter trolley cars or light rail. The Muni transit runs exclusively within the town while further parts of the county are covered with regional bus service. One can get every 12 to 15 minutes to most inhabited neighborhoods on workdays while every 30 minutes to less inhabited. Main routes run every 30 minutes and there are always two for most neighborhoods while their departures are always interlaced. The service frequency is lower in less inhabited parts of the town and limited to a half on weekend operation.

All town buses are low-entry and equipped with an audio-visual information system. There is a flip ramp mostly by the middle doors handled by the operator who also assists with loading and securing. There's a commonplace system of announcing the stops from speakers as well as on a display on every bus while external announcements for vision impaired or blind passengers can be activated via a remote.

Municipal transit routes carry numbers up to 235 while higher numbers from 240 are assigned for local regional buses. Effective by the end of February 2015 all town buses have a new yellow blue logo of the town of Česká Lípa allocated below the windshield. Route designation is based on the regional government decree and outlined in the Project of IDOL Implementation.

Česká Lípa Municipal transit is a member of cross region integrated transportation called IDOL from July 2009. IDOL is based on the integrated tariff and the OpusCard contactless smartcard as a uniform fare carrier.

BusLine a.s. is the only transit carrier in Česká Lípa.

The Česká Lípa Transportation Club, an organizational constituent of Lípa 2 civic association, monitors the transit development, negotiates with the town, other authorities as well as carriers, and brings complete information in its website.

Road transport

Viaduct above Ploucnice River and the town Viadukt nad Ploucnici.jpg
Viaduct above Ploučnice River and the town

The most important of this kind is the straight superlevel I/9 Road leading south to north from Prague to Nový Bor from 1987. [23] From west to east there is the II/262 Road from Děčín to Zákupy. There are junctions and pedestrian crossings with streetlights and several roundabouts in the town.

Notable people

J. B. Mikana memorial stone, Prokopa Holeho St. Pametni deska J.B.Mikana.jpg
J. B. Mikana memorial stone, Prokopa Holého St.
Pavel Konopeus memorial stone by the bus station Deska Pavel Konopeus.jpg
Pavel Konopeus memorial stone by the bus station

Twin towns – sister cities

Česká Lípa is twinned with: [24]

Related Research Articles

Liberec Region District of the Czech Republic

Liberec Region is an administrative unit of the Czech Republic, located in the northernmost part of its historical region of Bohemia. It is named after its capital Liberec. The region shares international borders with Germany and Poland. Domestically the region borders the Ústí nad Labem Region to the west, the Central Bohemian Region to the south and the Hradec Králové Region to the east.

Zákupy Town in Liberec, Czech Republic

Zákupy is a town in the Česká Lípa District in the Liberec Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 2,900 inhabitants. The centre of the town and the castle are historically significant and since 2003 they are protected by law as Urban monument zone.

Ploučnice

The Ploučnice is a river in the Czech Republic. It is a tributary of the Labe, which it flows into in Děčín. It is 101 kilometres (63 mi) long, and its basin area is about 1,200 square kilometres (460 sq mi), of which 1,188 square kilometres (459 sq mi) in the Czech Republic.

Polná Town in Vysočina, Czech Republic

Polná is a town in Jihlava District in the Vysočina Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 5,200 inhabitants. The centre of the town is historically significant and is protected by law as urban monument zone.

Lysá nad Labem Town in Central Bohemian, Czech Republic

Lysá nad Labem is a town in Nymburk District in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic, situated on the Elbe river. It has about 9,800 inhabitants. The centre of the town is historically significant and from 2003 it is protected by law as Urban monument zone.

Děčín District District in Ústí nad Labem, Czech Republic

Děčín District is one of seven districts (okres) located within the Ústí nad Labem Region in the Czech Republic. Its capital is the city of Děčín.

Chrastava Town in the Czech Republic

Chrastava is a town in Liberec District in the Liberec Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 6,300 inhabitants.

Bezděz Castle

Bezděz Castle is a Gothic castle located some 20 kilometres (12 mi) southeast of Česká Lípa, in the Liberec Region, Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic. Its construction began before 1264 by order of Přemysl Otakar II.

Kokořín Castle

Kokořín Castle is a castle located some 10 km (6 mi) northeast of Mělník, Czech Republic. It was built in the first half of the 14th century by order of Hynek Berka z Dubé. It was heavily damaged during the Hussite Wars and stood in ruins until the reconstruction campaign of 1911–1918. It was nationalized in 1948 and has been designated a national cultural landmark since 2001. The nature preserve of Kokořínsko takes its name from this castle.

Mimoň Town in Liberec, Czech Republic

Mimoň is a town in Česká Lípa District in the Liberec Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 6,400 inhabitants.

Horní Police Municipality in Liberec, Czech Republic

Horní Police is a municipality and village in Česká Lípa District in the Liberec Region of the Czech Republic. As of 2020, it has 686 inhabitants. The village is located in a valley along the Ploučnice river, northwest of Česká Lípa, in a sparsely populated region.

Victor of Kunštát and Poděbrady was a Bohemian-Moravian nobleman and a member of the House of Poděbrady. He was supporter of the Hussites and father of the Bohemian King George of Poděbrady.

The Bohemian Poděbrady family was a noble family in Bohemia, arising from the Lords of Kunštát. After Boček of Kunštát had acquired the Lordship of Poděbrady by marriage, he called himself "Boček of Kunštát and Poděbrady". The most prominent member of the family was George of Poděbrady, who was king of Bohemia. His sons were raised to imperial counts and Counts of Glatz. They founded the Silesian branch of the family, the Dukes of Dukes of Münsterberg.

Sirotci

The Sirotci, officially Orphans' Union, were followers of a radical wing of the Hussites in Bohemia. Founded in 1423 originally under the name Lesser Tábor, it consisted mostly of poorer burghers and some members of the lower aristocracy who joined with the commander Jan Žižka and the eastern Bohemian Hussites, the so-called Orebites (Orebité).

Hynek Boček of Poděbrady was a Bohemian-Moravian nobleman and follower of the Hussites.

Rynoltice Municipality in Liberec, Czech Republic

Rynoltice is a village and municipality (opec) in Liberec District in the Liberec Region of the Czech Republic. Rynoltice is 17 km west of Liberec.

Milštejn Castle

Milštejn castle are the remaining ruins of a castle in the north of the Czech Republic. The ruins are located in the Lusatian Mountains at an altitude of 562 m, about 3.5 km north from the town of Cvikov. The exact date when the castle was built is unknown. Based on the surrounding sites, it is assumed that the castle was founded between the 13th and 14th centuries to protect the country trail leading from Lipé to Zittau. The first known owners of the castle were Berka z Dubé, a prominent cadet branch of a Bohemian noble family.

Liberec railway station Railway station in Liberec, Czech Republic

Liberec railway station is a railway station in the city of Liberec, the capital of the Liberec Region, Czech Republic.

Čeněk of Oybin was a Czech nobleman, landowner, and founder of the Pirkštejn family.

Old Jewish Cemetery, Česká Lípa

The old Jewish cemetery in Česká Lípa is located in the northwestern part of the city of Česká Lípa near the city park, between Roháče z Dubé and U Střelnice streets, near the Střelnice railway station. It is one of the oldest preserved Jewish cemeteries in northern Bohemia.

References

  1. "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2020". Czech Statistical Office. 2020-04-30.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Jaroslav, Panáček (2002). "Založení České Lípy a městské právo". Bezděz, Vlastivědný Sborník Českolipska (in Czech). 11: 9. ISSN   1211-9172.
  3. Marek, Podhorský (2002). "Česká Lípa". Liberecký kraj (in Czech). Praha 7: Freytag & Berndt. p. 14. ISBN   80-7316-032-3.CS1 maint: location (link)
  4. 1 2 Marie, Vojtíšková; Jaroslav, Panáček (1976). Česká Lípa (in Czech). Liberec: Severočeské nakladatelství. p. 11. 40-009-75.
  5. František, Dr. Gabriel (1997). "Historické osudy hradu". Hrad Lipý (in Czech). Praha: Společnost přátel starožitností. p. 6. ISBN   80-901258-6-7.
  6. 1 2 Jiří, Růžička (2007). "Česká Lípa". Českolipsko do kapsy (in Czech). KMa, s.r.o. p. 18. ISBN   978-80-7309-488-1.
  7. "The Jewish Community of Česká Lípa". The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot. Retrieved 24 June 2018.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  8. Jaroslav, Panáček (2004). "Dělení Berků z Dubé v roce 1502". Bezděz, Vlastivědný Sborník Českolipska (in Czech). Česká Lípa: Vlastivědný spolek Českolipska. ISSN   1211-9172.
  9. Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm Klein, 1967
  10. Stanislav, Kasík (2002). "Nové symboly měst". Bezděz, Vlastivědný Sborník Českolipska (in Czech). 11: 240. ISSN   1211-9172.
  11. Marie, Vojtíšková; Jaroslav, Panáček (1976). Česká Lípa (in Czech). Liberec: Severočeské nakladatelství. p. 173. 40-009-75.
  12. Marie, Mgr. Vojtíšková (1997). "Magdaléna pod ochranou císaře". Třpyt a stíny města České Lípy v době krále Rudolfa II (in Czech). Česká Lípa: Městský úřad Česká Lípa. p. 24.
  13. Kateřina Amrichová (2008-11-30). kal (ed.). "Česká Lípa odhalila slavnostní kámen". I-noviny.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 2008-11-30.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  14. Kateřina Kotková (2011-02-16). "Centrum textilního tisku se otevřelo veřejnosti". I-noviny.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 2011-02-16.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  15. Milada, Heráková (2011). "Centrum textilního tisku v České Lípě". Turista (in Czech). 123 (4): 2. ISSN   0139-5467.
  16. Kateřina Kotková (2010-12-13). "Vznik příspěvkové organizace". I-noviny.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 2010-12-13.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  17. Ladislav Smejkal (December 2004). "Historie města year po roce (1990)". Městské Noviny Česká Lípa (in Czech) (22): 6.
  18. Gabriela Garbová (2007). Véčko (in Czech). VI. (2): 64–66. ISSN   1213-7375.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  19. Petr Brambor Nárovec (2007). Véčko (in Czech). VI. (2): 84–76. ISSN   1213-7375.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  20. Robert, Krejcar (2009). "Zmatená doba". Bezděz, Vlastivědný Sborník Českolipska (in Czech) (18): 80. ISSN   1211-9172.
  21. Michael Polák (June 2010). "Sporty v Lípě se dočkají haly". Mladá Fronta - Sedmička Liberec a Jablonec (in Czech). II (23): 46.
  22. Ladislav Smejkal (October 2004). "Historie města rok po roce (1986)". Městské Noviny Česká Lípa (in Czech) (17): 6.
  23. Ladislav Smejkal (2004). "Historie města rok za rokem (1987)". Městské Noviny Česká Lípa (in Czech) (19): 6.
  24. "Partnerská města" (in Czech). Město Česká Lípa. Retrieved 2020-06-25.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)

Bibliography