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Location in Mureș County
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Șăulia (Hungarian : Mezősályi, Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈmɛzøːʃaːji] ) is a commune in Mureș County, Transylvania, Romania that is composed of four villages: Leorința-Șăulia (Lőrincidűlő), Măcicășești (Szteuniadülő), Pădurea (Erdőtanya) and Șăulia. It has a population of 2,117: 87% Romanians, 10% Roma and 3% Hungarians.
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It borders with Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east and has its opening to the Black sea. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th-largest country in Europe and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having approximately 20 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest. Other major urban areas include: Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, Brașov, and Galați.
Transylvania is a historical region that is located in central Romania. Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains. The term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also parts of the historical regions of Crișana and Maramureș, and occasionally the Romanian part of Banat.
Cluj-Napoca, commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania, and the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country. Geographically, it is roughly equidistant from Bucharest, Budapest and Belgrade. Located in the Someșul Mic river valley, the city is considered the unofficial capital to the historical province of Transylvania. From 1790 to 1848 and from 1861 to 1867, it was the official capital of the Grand Principality of Transylvania.
The Treaty of Trianon was one of the five major peace treaties prepared at the Paris Peace Conference and signed in the Grand Trianon Palace in Versailles on June 4, 1920. It formally ended World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to defeated Austria-Hungary. The treaty builds on the fact that "on the request of the former Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government an Armistice was granted to Austria-Hungary on November 3, 1918, by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, and completed as regards Hungary by the Military Convention of November 13, in order that a Treaty of Peace might be concluded". It regulated the status of the independent Hungarian state and defined its borders generally within the ceasefire lines established in November–December 1918 and left Hungary as a landlocked state that covered 93,073 square kilometres (35,936 sq mi), 28% of the 325,411 square kilometres (125,642 sq mi) that had constituted the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary. Its population was 7.6 million, 36% of the pre-war kingdom's population of 20.9 million. The areas that were allocated to neighbouring countries in total had a majority of non-Hungarians but 31% of Hungarians were left outside of post-Trianon Hungary. Five of the pre-war kingdom's ten largest cities were drawn into other countries. The treaty limited Hungary's army to 35,000 officers and men, and the Austro-Hungarian Navy ceased to exist.
Mureș County is a county (județ) of Romania, in the historical region of Transylvania, with the administrative centre in Târgu Mureș. The county was established in 1968, after the administrative reorganization that re-introduced the historical judeţ (county) system, still used today. This reform eliminated the previous Mureș-Magyar Autonomous Region, which had been created in 1952 within the People's Republic of Romania. Mureș county has a vibrant multicultural fabric that includes Hungarian-speaking Székelys and Transylvanian Saxons, with a rich heritage of fortified churches and towns.
The Banat is a geographical and historical region straddling between Central and Eastern Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania ; the western part in northeastern Serbia ; and a small northern part lies within southeastern Hungary.
The Székelys, sometimes also referred to as Szeklers, are a subgroup of the Hungarian people living mostly in the Székely Land in Romania. A significant population descending from the Székelys of Bukovina lives in Tolna and Baranya counties in Hungary and in certain districts of Vojvodina, Serbia.
The Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania is a political party in Romania representing the Hungarian minority of Romania.
Northern Transylvania was the region of the Kingdom of Romania that during World War II, as a consequence of the territorial agreement known as the Second Vienna Award, became part of the Kingdom of Hungary. With an area of 43,104 km2 (16,643 sq mi), the population was largely composed of both ethnic Romanians and Hungarians. After World War II, the Paris Peace Treaties returned Northern Transylvania to Romania.
The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in Central Europe. The geomorphological term Pannonian Plain is more widely used for roughly the same region though with a somewhat different sense, with only the lowlands, the plain that remained when the Pliocene Epoch Pannonian Sea dried out.
The Second Vienna Award, also known as the Vienna Diktat was the second of two territorial disputes arbitrated by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Rendered on 30 August 1940, it assigned the territory of Northern Transylvania from Romania to Hungary..
There was a period of revolutions and interventions in Hungary between 1918 and 1920. The First Hungarian Republic was founded by Mihály Károlyi during the Aster Revolution in 1918. In March 1919, the republic was overturned by another revolution, and the Hungarian Soviet Republic was created. The unresolved conflicts led to wars between Hungary and its neighbor states in 1919. The Hungarian Soviet Republic ceased to exist after the Romanian occupation. The Treaty of Trianon in Versailles chilled the conflicts and beneficiaries for this event were Romania, the newly formed states of Czechoslovakia, and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
Pădurea may refer to several villages in Romania:
The Union of Transylvania with Romania was declared on 1 December 1918 by the assembly of the delegates of ethnic Romanians held in Alba Iulia. The Great Union Day, celebrated on 1 December, is a national holiday in Romania that commemorates this event. The holiday was established after the Romanian Revolution, and commemorates the unification not only of Transylvania, but also of Bessarabia and Bukovina and parts of Banat, Crișana and Maramureș with the Romanian Kingdom. Bessarabia and Bukovina had joined with the Kingdom of Romania earlier in 1918.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Romania:
The Hungarian–Romanian War was fought between Hungary and Romania from 13 November 1918 to 3 August 1919. It started as a Romanian military campaign on the eastern parts of the self-disarmed Kingdom of Hungary on 13 November 1918, and continued against the First Hungarian Republic, and from March 1919 against the Hungarian Soviet Republic. The Romanian Army occupied eastern Hungary until 28 March 1920.
The Hungarian minority of Romania is the largest ethnic minority in Romania, consisting of 1,227,623 people and making up 6.1% of the total population, according to the 2011 census.
Alexandru Rusu was a Romanian bishop of the Greek-Catholic Church. One of twelve children born to a priest in Șăulia Commune, Mureş County, he was himself ordained a priest in 1910. Rusu was ordained Bishop of Maramureş in 1931.
Turda County was a county in the Kingdom of Romania, as successor to Torda-Aranyos County in Austria-Hungary. Its capital was Turda.
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