Ștefan Golescu

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Ștefan Golescu
Stefan Golescu - foto.jpg
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
1 March 1867 5 August 1867
Monarch Carol I of Romania
Preceded by George Barbu Știrbei
Succeeded by Alexandru Teriachiu
In office
13 November 1867 30 April 1868
Preceded by Alexandru Teriachiu
Succeeded by Nicolae Golescu
Prime Minister of Romania
In office
26 November 1867 12 May 1868
Preceded by Constantin A. Crețulescu
Succeeded by Nicolae Golescu
Personal details
Born1809 (1809)
Câmpulung, Wallachia
Died27 August 1874 (1875) (aged 65)
Nancy, France

Ștefan Golescu (1809 1874) was a Wallachian Romanian politician who served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs for two terms from 1 March 1867 to 5 August 1867 and from 13 November 1867 to 30 April 1868, and as Prime Minister of Romania between 26 November 1867 and 12 May 1868.

Wallachia Historical and geographical region of Romania

Wallachia or Walachia is a historical and geographical region of Romania. It is situated north of the Lower Danube and south of the Southern Carpathians. Wallachia is traditionally divided into two sections, Muntenia and Oltenia. Wallachia as a whole is sometimes referred to as Muntenia through identification with the larger of the two traditional sections.

Romania Sovereign state in Europe

Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldova to the east. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi), Romania is the 12th largest country and also the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having almost 20 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest, and other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Craiova, and Brașov.

The Romanian Ministry for Foreign Affairs is the ministry responsible for external affairs of the Romanian Government. The current Foreign Minister is Teodor Melescanu.

Contents

Biography

Ștefan Golescu was the son of the great patriot scholar Dinicu Golescu. Born in a boyar family of the Golești, he studied with his brothers (Nicolae and Radu) in Switzerland. After he returned, he joined the Wallachian Army and became a major in 1836. With his brother he also joined the Philharmonic Society, a society similar to the Freemasonry. [1]

Dinicu Golescu Romanian writer

Dinicu Golescu, a member of the Golescu family of boyars, was a Wallachian Romanian man of letters, mostly noted for his travel writings and journalism.

Boyar

A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Kievan, Moscovian, Serbian, Wallachian, Moldavian, and later Romanian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes from the 10th century to the 17th century. The rank has lived on as a surname in Russia, Ukraine and Romania, and in Finland, where it is spelled Pajari.

The Golescu family was an old boyar family of Wallachia, in what is now southern Romania. The earliest mention of them dates from the 15th century.

Ștefan was involved in the triggering of the 1848 Wallachian revolution, participating in the Islaz gathering of 9 June 1848, when he became a member of the Provisional Government, serving as Minister of Justice.

During the writing of the new constitution, Ștefan Golescu supported Nicolae Bălcescu's idea of universal suffrage, while his brother, Nicolae, favoured less expansive participation. Ștefan was part of the delegation sent by the revolutionaries to Istanbul to negotiate the new constitution with the Ottoman Empire, Wallachia's overlord.

Nicolae Bălcescu Romanian journalist and historian

Nicolae Bălcescu was a Romanian Wallachian soldier, historian, journalist, and leader of the 1848 Wallachian Revolution.

Universal suffrage Political concept

The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, wealth, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions. In its original 19th-century usage by political reformers, universal suffrage was understood to mean only universal manhood suffrage; the vote was extended to women later, during the women's suffrage movement.

Istanbul Metropolitan municipality in Marmara, Turkey

Istanbul, formerly known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city. The city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is a bridge between the East and West.

Ștefan Golescu was a member of the Wallachian assembly that elected Alexandru Ioan Cuza as prince of both Wallachia and Moldavia (1859). Afterwards, he was a member of the Liberal Party of Ion Brătianu and served for about half a year as Prime Minister of Romania in a Liberal government.

Alexandru Ioan Cuza Prince of Wallachia and Moldavia

Alexandru Ioan Cuza was Prince of Moldavia, Prince of Wallachia, and later Domnitor (Ruler) of the Romanian Principalities. He was a prominent figure of the Revolution of 1848 in Moldavia. He initiated a series of reforms that contributed to the modernization of Romanian society and of state structures.

Domnitor

Domnitor was the official title of the ruler of Romania between 1862 and 1881. It was usually translated as prince in other languages. Derived from the Romanian word "domn" and, in turn, from the Latin "Dominus", Domnitor had been in use since the Middle Ages. Moldavian and Wallachian rulers had sometimes been referred to by the term, though their official titles had been voievod or hospodar, especially after they were officially nominated by the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire. The title acquired an officially recognized meaning only after Moldavia and Wallachia united in 1862 to form the United Romanian Principalities under Alexander John I, who had been the ruler of states since 1859. Alexander John was deposed in 1866 and succeeded by Carol I, who held the post until 1881. When Romania was proclaimed a kingdom in 1881, Carol became its first king.

The National Liberal Party was the first organised political party in Romania, a major force in the country's politics from its foundation in 1875 to World War II. Established in order to represent the interests of the nascent local bourgeoisie, until World War I it contested power with the Conservative Party, supported primarily by wealthy landowners, effectively creating a two-party system in a political system which severely limited the representation of the peasant majority through census suffrage. Unlike its major opponent, the PNL managed to preserve its prominence after the implementation of universal male suffrage, playing an important role in shaping the institutional framework of Greater Romania during the 1920s. Though initially opposed to the restoration of deposed King Carol II, it became increasingly supportive of his authoritarian policies, with PNL governments paving the way to a royal dictatorship in the late 1930s. Formally disbanded along all political parties in 1938, party structures were preserved unofficially, with many party members also enlisting in Carol's National Renaissance Front. Tolerated by the totalitarian government of Ion Antonescu, it eventually joined King Michael I and the Communist, National Peasants' and Social Democratic parties in overthrowing the dictator in the closing phase of World War II, enabling the reorganisation of the party in 1944. Part of the first post-war grand coalition governments, it lost its importance as the new Communist-led coalition government used the denazification process in order to remove PNL supporters from government posts. With the Communist-dominated government gaining the upper hand in local politics and starting to crack down on opposition, the party decided to cease political activity in the late 1940s, effectively disbanding itself. After the overthrow of the Communist party rule in 1989, a new party was founded under the same name and assumed the National Liberal legacy.

Constantin Lecca Romanian artist

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