|In service||1 October 1964 – 14 December 2008|
|Manufacturer||Hitachi, Kawasaki Sharyo, Kinki Sharyo, Kisha Seizo, Nippon Sharyo, Tokyu Car Corporation|
|Scrapped||2000–2008[ citation needed ]|
|Number built||3,216 vehicles[ clarification needed ]|
|Number in service||None|
|Number preserved||27 vehicles (as of September 2011 [update] )|
|Successor||300 series, 500 series, 700 series|
|Formation||4, 6, 8, 12 or 16 cars per trainset|
|Operator(s)|| JNR (1964–1987)|
JR Central (1987–1999)
|Depot(s)||Tokyo, Shin-Osaka, Hakata|
|Line(s) served||Tōkaidō Shinkansen, San'yō Shinkansen, Hakata-Minami Line|
|Car body construction||Steel|
|Car length||25,000 mm (82 ft 1⁄4 in) (intermediate cars), 25,150 mm (82 ft 6+1⁄8 in) (end cars)|
|Width||3,383 mm (11 ft 1+1⁄4 in)|
|Height||4,490 mm (14 ft 8+3⁄4 in)|
|Maximum speed||210 km/h (130 mph) (1964–1986)|
220 km/h (137 mph) (1986–2008)
|Traction motors||Brushed DC motor, 185 kW (248 hp) each|
|Power output||11,840 kW (15,880 hp) (16-car set)|
|Transmission||Secondary-side tap changer drive|
|Acceleration||1.0 km/(h⋅s) (0.62 mph/s) (1964–1992)|
1.2 km/(h⋅s) (0.75 mph/s) (1992–2008)
|Deceleration||2.84 km/(h⋅s) (1.76 mph/s)s|
|Electric system(s)||25 kV AC, 60 Hz, overhead catenary|
|Current collection method||PS 200 pantograph|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8+1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
The 0 series (0系, Zero-kei) trains were the first generation Shinkansen trainsets built to run on Japan's new Tōkaidō Shinkansen high-speed line which opened in Japan in 1964. The last remaining trainsets were withdrawn in 2008.
The 0 series (which were not originally classified, as there was no need to distinguish classes of trainset until later) entered service with the start of Tōkaidō Shinkansen operations in October 1964. These units were white with a blue stripe along the windows and another at the bottom of the car body, including the front pilot.
Unlike previous Japanese trains (except for some trains running on standard gauge sections on the Ou Main Line and Tohoku Main Line) the Tōkaidō Shinkansen and all subsequent Shinkansen lines are 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+1⁄2 in) standard gauge between the rails. The trains were powered by 25 kV AC electricity at 60 Hz with all axles of all cars powered by 185 kW traction motors, giving a 220 km/h (140 mph) operation top speed.
The original trains were introduced as 12-car sets, with some sets later lengthened to 16 cars. Later, shorter trains of six cars and even four cars were assembled for lesser duties. Production of 0 series units continued from 1963 until 1986.
Shinkansen sets are generally retired after fifteen to twenty years. The final remaining 0 series sets were six-car sets used on JR-West Kodama services on the San'yō Shinkansen between Shin-Ōsaka and Hakata, and on the Hakata-Minami Line until their retirement on 30 November 2008.
Following retirement from regular service, JR-West ran a number of special commemorative Hikari runs in December 2008. pm on 14 December 2008, bringing to an end the 44 years of service of the 0 series trains.Hikari 347, powered by set R61, arrived at Hakata Station at 6:01
The initial shinkansen fleet delivered for use on Hikari and Kodama services on the Tōkaidō Shinkansen from 1 October 1964 consisted of 30 12-car sets formed of 1st- and 2nd-batch cars. Six sets, H1 to H6, were built by Hitachi between April and August 1964, six sets, K1 to K6, were built by Kisha between July and September 1964, six sets, N1 to N6, were built by Nippon Sharyo between March and September 1964, six sets, R1 to R6, were built by Kawasaki Sharyo between July and September 1964, and six sets, S1 to S6, were built by Kinki Sharyo between April and August 1964.These sets were allocated to Tokyo and Osaka depots.
A further 10 12-car sets (H7/8, K7/8, N7/8, R7/8, S7/8) were delivered between April and July 1965, formed of 120 3rd-batch cars, five 4th-batch sets were delivered between June and July 1966, and five 5th-batch sets were delivered between October and November 1966.
The original 12-car sets were formed as follows, with two first-class cars (type 15 and 16) and two buffet cars (type 35).
A further 21 6th- to 9th-batch 12-car sets were delivered between 1967 and 1969 with only one first-class car (type 16) for use on Kodama services. The "T" sets were built by Tokyu Car Corporation.
These sets were formed as follows.
The original 30 12-car sets were lengthened to 16 cars between December 1969 and February 1970 with the inclusion of new 10th-batch cars for Hikari services to handle the increased number of passengers travelling to and from Expo '70 in Osaka in 1970. From the opening of the San'yō Shinkansen in 1972, these sets were renumbered H1 to H30.
Between 1972 and 1973, the earlier 12-car Kodama sets were lengthened to 16 cars with the inclusion of new 13th- and 15th-batch cars, and were renumbered K1 to K47.
With the opening of the Sanyo Shinkansen extension to Hakata, the fleet of 16-car H Hikari sets was reformed and increased between 1973 and 1974 with the inclusion of new 16th- and 17th-batch cars, including new restaurant cars (type 36) in addition to the buffet car (type 35). The fleet as of 10 March 1975 consisted of 64 sets, numbered H1 to H64.
Between 1977 and 1980, 35 new 16-car NH sets were formed of −1000 subseries cars (batches 22 to 29) for Hikari services on the Tōkaidō Shinkansen and San'yō Shinkansen lines. The introduction of 100 series and later 300 series trains reduced the number of 0 series trains used on Hikari services, with 0 series Hikari services operated by JR Central ending in 1995. A small fleet was subsequently maintained by JR-West for use on additional holiday period Hikari services, with the last remaining unit, NH32, being disbanded in December 1999.
The NH sets had two Green (first class) cars and a restaurant car in addition to a buffet car, although use of the restaurant cars was discontinued from the mid-1990s.
The 16-car YK sets were operated by JR Central on the all-stations Kodama services. These sets had upgraded reserved seat cars with 2+2 seating employing 100 series style seats, but only one Green car per 16-car set. Standard seating was 3+2 in standard class, and 2+2 in Green cars.
The fleet was operated by JR Central on the Tokaido Shinkansen until the last units were withdrawn on 18 September 1999. In the last two months of service, they ran with "Arigatō 0 Series" stickers on the front ends.
These 12-car SK sets based at Hakata Depot were operated by JR-West on Sanyo Shinkansen West Hikari services between Shin-Osaka and Hakata. Sets were formed of upgraded 5000 and 7000 subseries vehicles with improved seating, and buffet cars were refurbished with a special seating area. All standard class cars had upgraded 2+2 seating. The sets were recognizable externally by the addition of an extra thin blue line below the windows (similar to 100 series) and by the large "West" decals near the doors. Some sets originally included specially converted cinema cars, but these were withdrawn in 1996. Following the end of the West Hikari services on 21 April 2000, the remaining SK units were reformed into new 6-car R60 sets to replace unrefurbished sets on Sanyo Shinkansen Kodama services.
4-car Q sets were formed from March 1997 for use on Kodama shuttle services running between Hakata and Kokura/Hiroshima, and also for use on some Hakata-Minami Line duties. These sets had no Green car. The last remaining unit was withdrawn in September 2001.
The 6-car R units with no Green car were first formed in June 1985, and were used on JR-West Kodama services between Shin-Osaka and Hakata. They were also used to operate services on the short Hakata-Minami Line from Hakata Station.
The no. 3 cars of sets R2 and R24 were rebuilt as "Children's Saloons" with the former buffet counter area converted into a children's soft play area. These sets ran branded as "Family Hikari" during holiday periods. From March 1997 a refurbishment programme was commenced on the R sets, with new internal trim, rotating seats and new toilets/washing facilities. The refurbished units were recognisable externally by an extra thin blue line below the windows (as with West Hikari SK sets), and new "W" decals near the doors.
From April 2000, 6-car "WR" sets were created from former SK unit cars and renumbered in the R60 series. These retained the larger buffet area (disused) and 2+2 seating of the former West Hikari trains, and gradually replaced the remaining unrefurbished R sets. These units initially retained their "West Hikari" branding, but were gradually repainted into the new JR-West "Kodama" livery from May 2002. Initially scheduled to be withdrawn in 2006, the last three remaining sets (R61/R67/R68) remained in service until 30 November 2008. By June 2008 they had been repainted into their original ivory and blue livery with silver roofs.
A large number of former 0 series vehicles are preserved or stored in museums and various other locations around Japan. Outside Japan, the leading vehicle from a 0 series set is preserved at the National Railway Museum in York, UK. It was donated to the museum by JR-West in 2001.
|Vehicle number||Date built||Date withdrawn||Location||Remarks|
|16-1||March 1964||March 1977||Preserved at the Kyoto Railway Museum, which opened in April 2016. (Formerly displayed at the Modern Transportation Museum in Osaka.)||Cars from pre-production "C" set H1.|
|35-1||August 1964||Cars from first production set H2.|
|21-2||July 1964||March 1977||The Railway Museum, Saitama||From original set H2. Moved from Osaka in August 2008. Exhibited from October 2009.|
|22-2||JR-West Staff Training Centre, Suita, Osaka||From original set H2.|
|21-25||April 1964||March 1978||The Railway Museum, Saitama||Cab section only.|
Originally displayed outside Tokyo Transport Museum.
|22-56||August 1967||February 1982||"Wine no Kuni" hotel, Ikeda, Hokkaidō||Front third section only.|
|21-59||March 1968||February 1982||Shintorimachi Park, Fuji, Shizuoka|
|21-73||July 1969||October 1984||Shinkansen Park, Settsu, Osaka|
|22-75||August 1969||March 1985||Ome Railway Park, Ome, Tokyo||Repainted for short period into Tohoku ivory/green livery in late 1980s.|
|22-77||September 1969||March 1990||Satsuki Kindergarten, Fukuoka||Used as a staff room and library.|
|36-84||1975||SCMaglev and Railway Park, Nagoya|
|21-86||December 1971||November 1991||SCMaglev and Railway Park, Nagoya|
|22-86||JR Central Hamamatsu Works|
|21-100||September 1973||October 1991||Akishima City Library, Akishima, Tokyo||Used as library reading room.|
|21-141||June 1976||October 2000||The Railway History Park in Saijo, Ehime Prefecture||Former set H94, later R52. Front half only.|
|22-141||June 1976||October 2000||National Railway Museum, York, UK||A gift from JR-West presented to the NRM in 2001.|
|22-1003||November 1976||November 1994||Namikawa Railway Heritage Park, Kameoka, Kyoto||Cab section only.|
|21-2023||January 1985||June 1998||J-TREC factory, Yokohama||Cab section only. Preserved at Sakuma Rail Park until November 2009. Moved to Tokyu Car from July 2010.|
|22-2029||March 1986||September 1999||Nippon Sharyo Factory, Toyokawa, Aichi|
|16-2034||1986||SCMaglev and Railway Park, Nagoya|
|37-2523||1983||SCMaglev and Railway Park, Nagoya|
|21-5035 (formerly 21-1032)||June 1978||10 March 2004||Tainan HSR station, Tainan, Taiwan||Cab from former set R1. Used as structure gauging car during the construction of the Taiwan High Speed Rail until 2008. On display at Tainan HSR station from June, 2021.|
|22-7007||–||December 2008||Suita Yard, Osaka Prefecture||Cab from former set R68. On display inside Suita City Kento Library since 11 November 2020.|
|21-7008 (formerly 21-2026)||1983||December 2008||Kawasaki Heavy Industries factory, Hyogo Prefecture||Car of last operational set, R61|
|21-7038||–||–||Kawasaki Good Times World, within Kobe Maritime Museum||West Hikari livery. Front third section.|
The Shinkansen, colloquially known in English as the bullet train, is a network of high-speed railway lines in Japan. Initially, it was built to connect distant Japanese regions with Tokyo, the capital, to aid economic growth and development. Beyond long-distance travel, some sections around the largest metropolitan areas are used as a commuter rail network. It is operated by five Japan Railways Group companies.
Nozomi is the fastest train service running on the Tokaido & San'yō Shinkansen lines in Japan. The service stops at only the largest stations, and along the stretch between Shin-Ōsaka and Hakata, Nozomi services using N700 series equipment reach speeds of 300 km/h (186 mph). The trip between Tokyo and Osaka, a distance of 515 kilometres (320 mi), takes 2 hours 21 minutes on the fastest Nozomi service.
The 100 series was a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type which operated between 1985 and 2012 on the Tokaido Shinkansen and Sanyo Shinkansen high-speed lines. They were introduced after the 200 series trains, but their numbering is such because in the days of Japanese National Railways (JNR), Shinkansen types running east of Tokyo were given even numbers and those west of Tokyo odd numbers, hence they were given the next odd number in line after 0, 100. The last remaining examples of the type were withdrawn from service following the last runs on 16 March 2012.
The 200 series (200系) was a Shinkansen high-speed train type introduced by Japanese National Railways (JNR) for the Tohoku Shinkansen and Joetsu Shinkansen high-speed rail lines in Japan, and operated by East Japan Railway Company until 2013. They actually predated the 100 series trains, having been built between 1980 and 1986. It was one of the two recipients of the 23rd Laurel Prize presented by the Japan Railfan Club, the first Shinkansen type to receive that award. The last remaining sets were retired from regular service in March 2013, and were completely withdrawn from service in April 2013.
The 300 series was a Japanese high-speed Shinkansen train type, with a top operational speed of 270 km/h, which operated on the Tokaido and Sanyo Shinkansen lines in Japan between 1992 and 2012. When first introduced, they were used on the fastest Nozomi services, being capable of 270 km/h (170 mph). As more were delivered they replaced earlier units on Hikari service and allowed the thus displaced 100 series units to finally in turn displace 0 series units on almost all services.
The 400 series (400系) was a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type operated by East Japan Railway Company between 1992 and 2010 on Tsubasa services on Japan's first mini-shinkansen line, the Yamagata Shinkansen branch from the main Tohoku Shinkansen.
The 500 series is a Shinkansen high-speed train type operated by West Japan Railway Company (JR-West) on the Tōkaidō Shinkansen and San'yō Shinkansen lines in Japan since 1997. They were designed to be capable of 320 km/h (200 mph) but operated at 300 km/h (185 mph), until they were finally retired from the primary Nozomi service in 2010. The trainsets were then refurbished and downgraded to the all-stations Kodama service between Shin-Ōsaka and Hakata.
The 700 series is a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type built between 1997 and 2006, and entering service in 1999. Originally designated as "N300" during the development phase, they formed the next generation of shinkansen vehicles jointly designed by JR Central and JR-West for use on the Tokaido Shinkansen, Hakata Minami Line and the San'yō Shinkansen. Though it has since been withdrawn from service on the Tōkaidō Shinkansen, it still operates on the San'yō Shinkansen and Hakata Minami Line.
The E3 series (E3系) is a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type built for Komachi services which commenced on 3 June 1997, coinciding with the opening of the new Akita Shinkansen "mini-shinkansen" line, a regular 1,067 mm narrow-gauge line between Morioka and Akita re-gauged to 1,435 mmstandard gauge. Later versions of the E3 series were also introduced for use on Yamagata Shinkansen Tsubasa services. Both "mini-shinkansen" lines join the Tohoku Shinkansen, providing services to and from Tokyo.
The E4 series (E4系) is a high-speed shinkansen train type operated by East Japan Railway Company in Japan. They were the second series of completely bi-level Shinkansen trainsets to be built in Japan. They operate on the Tōhoku and Jōetsu Shinkansen, and occasionally on the Nagano Shinkansen. E4 series trains feature double-decker cars to accommodate additional commuter traffic around Tokyo and other urban areas. They were often coupled to 400 series trains on the Tōhoku Shinkansen between Tokyo and Fukushima before the latter retired in April 2010.
The Tokaido Shinkansen is a Japanese high-speed rail line that is part of the nationwide Shinkansen network. Along with the Sanyo Shinkansen, it forms a continuous high-speed railway through the Taiheiyō Belt, also known as the Tokaido corridor. Upon its opening in 1964 between Tokyo and Shin-Ōsaka, it was heralded as the first high-speed rail line in the world. Since 1987 it has been operated by the Central Japan Railway Company, prior to that by Japanese National Railways (JNR). Besides being the oldest HSR line, it is also one of the most heavily used.
Hikari is the name of a high-speed train service running on the Tokaido and San'yō Shinkansen "bullet train" lines in Japan. Slower than the premier Nozomi but faster than the all-stations Kodama, the Hikari is the fastest train service on the Tokaido and Sanyo Shinkansen that can be used with the Japan Rail Pass, which is not valid for travel on the Nozomi or Mizuho trains.
Kodama is one of the three train services running on the Tōkaidō and San'yō Shinkansen lines. Stopping at every station, the Kodama is the slowest Shinkansen service for trips between major cities such as Tokyo and Osaka. The Kodama trains are used primarily for travel to and from smaller cities such as Atami. Travelers between major cities generally take the Nozomi or Hikari services, which make fewer stops. The name of the train comes from the Japanese word kodama, which means "echo".
The 800 series (800系) is a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type operated by Kyushu Railway Company on the Kyushu Shinkansen high-speed rail line. Built by Hitachi, the trains were introduced on the Tsubame services from March 2004.
The Tsubame (つばめ) is a train service operated by Kyushu Railway Company on the Kyushu Shinkansen in Japan since 2004.
The N700 series is a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train with tilting capability developed jointly by JR Central and JR West for use on the Tokaido and San'yō Shinkansen lines since 2007, and also operated by JR Kyushu on the Kyushu Shinkansen line.
The Class 951 (951形) was an experimental Japanese Shinkansen train built to test the technology for future high-speed trains operating at speeds of up to 250 km/h (155 mph) following the opening of the Tokaido Shinkansen in 1964.
"WIN350" was the name given to the 500-900 series (500系900番代) 6-car experimental high-speed Shinkansen train developed in 1992 by the West Japan Railway Company in Japan to test technology to be incorporated in next-generation shinkansen trains expected to operate at speeds of 350 km/h (217 mph) from 1994. Initially given the designation "500X", the name "WIN350" stood for "West Japan's Innovation for operation at 350 km/h".
The San'yō Shinkansen (山陽新幹線) is a line of the Japanese Shinkansen high-speed rail network, connecting Shin-Osaka in Osaka with Hakata Station in Fukuoka, the two largest cities in western Japan. Operated by the West Japan Railway Company, it is a westward continuation of the Tōkaidō Shinkansen and also serves other major cities in between on Honshu and Kyushu islands such as Kobe, Himeji, Okayama, Hiroshima, and Kitakyushu. The Kyushu Shinkansen continues south of Hakata to Kagoshima. The San'yō Shinkansen connects Hakata with Osaka in two and a half hours, with trains operating at a maximum operating speed of 300 km/h (186 mph) for most of the journey Some Nozomi trains operate continuously on San'yō and Tōkaidō Shinkansen lines, connecting Tokyo and Hakata in five hours.
The E7 series (E7系) and W7 series Shinkansen are Japanese high-speed train types operated by East Japan Railway Company and West Japan Railway Company (JR-West), respectively. They were jointly developed.
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