|100 King Street|
The Spring Gardens and King Street sides of the Midland Bank building
|Former names||HSBC Bank building, Midland Bank Building|
|Architectural style||Modernist Classical|
|Address||56 Spring Gardens|
|Town or city||Manchester|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Sir Edwin Lutyens|
100 King Street, formerly the Midland Bank, is a former bank premises on King Street, Manchester, England. It was designed by Edwin Lutyens in 1928 and constructed in 1933–35. It is Lutyens' major work in Manchester and was designated a Grade II* listed building in 1974.
King Street is one of the most important thoroughfares of Manchester city centre, England. Formerly the centre of the north-west banking industry it has become progressively dominated by expensive shops.
Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, was an English architect known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era. He designed many English country houses, war memorials and public buildings. In his biography, the writer Christopher Hussey wrote, "In his lifetime (Lutyens) was widely held to be our greatest architect since Wren if not, as many maintained, his superior". The architectural historian Gavin Stamp described him as "surely the greatest British architect of the twentieth century".
A castle-like Art Deco building, surrounded by roads on all four sides,the architects for the former bank were Lutyens in collaboration with Whinney, Son & Austen Hall and it was built between 1933 and 1935 by J. Gerrard & Sons of Swinton and features carvings by the local sculptor John Ashton Floyd. It is constructed of Portland stone around a steel frame. Its neoclassical design is unusual for Manchester, the style perhaps more suited to the architecture of Liverpool, as most of Manchester's buildings were Neogothic.
Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners. It took its name, short for Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes held in Paris in 1925. It combined modern styles with fine craftsmanship and rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour, exuberance, and faith in social and technological progress.
John Ashton Floyd was a sculptor based in Manchester, England, in the inter-war years of the 20th century, who created a number of notable works.
Portland stone is a limestone from the Tithonian stage of the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset. The quarries consist of beds of white-grey limestone separated by chert beds. It has been used extensively as a building stone throughout the British Isles, notably in major public buildings in London such as St Paul's Cathedral and Buckingham Palace. Portland stone is also exported to many countries—being used for example in the United Nations headquarters building in New York City.
"The proportions are ingeniously calculated, as Lutyens ... adored to do. The top stage is two-thirds of the stage from the obelisks to the next set-back, and that middle stage is two-thirds of the bottom stage."It is sometimes known as The King of King Street because of its distinct structure and height.
From 1912, Lutyens laid out New Delhi as the new capital of India.He devised his own Delhi Order of classical architecture there, with small bells hanging from the capitals of the columns, and subsequently made use of this order in his design for the bank.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of the Government of India.
Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of Vitruvius. Different styles of classical architecture have arguably existed since the Carolingian Renaissance, and prominently since the Italian Renaissance. Although classical styles of architecture can vary greatly, they can in general all be said to draw on a common "vocabulary" of decorative and constructive elements. In much of the Western world, different classical architectural styles have dominated the history of architecture from the Renaissance until the second world war, though it continues to inform many architects to this day.
In architecture the capital or chapiter forms the topmost member of a column. It mediates between the column and the load thrusting down upon it, broadening the area of the column's supporting surface. The capital, projecting on each side as it rises to support the abacus, joins the usually square abacus and the usually circular shaft of the column. The capital may be convex, as in the Doric order; concave, as in the inverted bell of the Corinthian order; or scrolling out, as in the Ionic order. These form the three principal types on which all capitals in the classical tradition are based. The Composite order, established in the 16th century on a hint from the Arch of Titus, adds Ionic volutes to Corinthian acanthus leaves.
The bank was renamed HSBC Bank after HSBC acquired the Midland Bank in the 1990s. It closed on 6 June 2008 when HSBC relocated to St Ann's Square. The building was subsequently refurbished to provide office space and was placed on the office rental market in March 2010. Jamie Oliver opened a restaurant in the former banking hall in 2011.A plan to convert the upper floors of the building into a boutique hotel was announced in 2013. In April 2015, the Hotel Gotham, a five star hotel, opened on the upper floors of the iconic building.
HSBC Bank plc is one of the largest banking and financial services organisations in the world. HSBC's international network comprises around 7,500 offices in over 80 countries and territories in Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, the Americas, the Middle East and Africa.
Midland Bank Plc was one of the Big Four banking groups in the United Kingdom for most of the 20th century. It is now part of HSBC. The bank was founded as the Birmingham and Midland Bank in Union Street, Birmingham, England in August 1836. It expanded in the Midlands, absorbing many local banks, and merged with the Central Bank of London Ltd. in 1891, becoming the London City and Midland Bank.
St Ann's Church in Manchester, England was consecrated in 1712. Although named after St Anne, it also pays tribute to the patron of the church, Ann, Lady Bland. St Ann's Church is a Grade I listed building.
There are 236 Grade II* listed buildings in Greater Manchester, England. In the United Kingdom, the term listed building refers to a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural, historical or cultural significance; Grade II* structures are those considered to be "particularly significant buildings of more than local interest". In England, the authority for listing under the Planning Act 1990 rests with English Heritage, a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.
Manchester is a city in Northwest England. The M2 postcode area of the city includes part of the city centre, including the Central Retail District. The postcode area contains 143 listed buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England. Of these, five are listed at Grade I, the highest of the three grades, 16 are at Grade II*, the middle grade, and the others are at Grade II, the lowest grade.
The Principal Manchester, originally known as the Refuge Assurance Building or Refuge Building after the insurance company stands at the corner of Oxford Street and Whitworth Street in Manchester, England. The building was later known as the Palace Hotel.
Bridgewater House, Manchester is a packing and shipping warehouse at 58–60 Whitworth Street, Manchester, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building.
Memorial Hall in Albert Square, Manchester, England, was constructed in 1863–1866 by Thomas Worthington. It was built to commemorate the bicentennial anniversary of the 1662 Act of Uniformity, when the secession of some 2,000 Anglican clergy led to the birth of Nonconformism It is a Grade II* listed building as of 14 February 1972.
Dale Street Warehouse is an early nineteenth century warehouse in the Piccadilly Basin area of Manchester city centre. It is a Grade II* listed building as of 10 November 1972. "It is of considerable interest as the earliest surviving canal warehouse in the city" according to Clare Hartwell. The building is dated 1806 with initials "WC" on the datestone indicating that it was designed by William Crosley, an engineer who worked with William Jessop on the inner-Manchester canal system. Constructed of watershot millstone grit blocks, the four-storey building has timber floors, supported throughout by cast-iron columns, a feature which now makes it unique amongst Manchester warehouses. The base of the building incorporates four boatholes which allowed boats to unload their cargoes inside of the warehouse. The warehouse also incorporates a "subterranean wheel-pit containing a 16-foot water-wheel used to drive hoists both in this building and in a former warehouse to the south via a line-shaft tunnel which mostly survives beneath the car-park." For many years the building was a shop and was described in 2000 as "sadly neglected"; the warehouse has now been converted to office space and a café and renamed Carver's Warehouse.
Charles H. Heathcote (1850–1938) was a British architect who practised in Manchester. He was articled to the church architects Charles Hansom, of Clifton, Bristol. He was awarded the RI Medal of Merit in 1868, and started his own practice in 1872.
Lancaster House in Whitworth Street, Manchester, England, was a packing and shipping warehouse built between 1905 and 1910 for Lloyd's Packing Warehouses Limited, which had, by merger, become the dominant commercial packing company in early 20th century Manchester. It is in the favoured Edwardian Baroque style and constructed of red brick and orange terracotta. It is a Grade II* listed building as of 3 October 1974.
India House in Whitworth Street, Manchester, England, is a packing and shipping warehouse built in 1906 for Lloyd's Packing Warehouses Limited, which had, by merger, become the dominant commercial packing company in early-20th century Manchester. It is in the favoured Edwardian Baroque style and is steel-framed, with cladding of buff terracotta and red brick with buff terracotta dressings. It is a Grade II* listed building as of 3 October 1974.
The Tootal, Broadhurst and Lee Building at No. 56 Oxford Street, in Manchester, England, is a late Victorian warehouse and office block built in a neo-Baroque style for Tootal Broadhurst Lee, a firm of textile manufacturers. It was designed by J. Gibbons Sankey and constructed between 1896 and 1898. It has been designated a Grade II* listed building.
Rose Hill in Longley Lane, Northenden, Manchester, England, is a 19th-century Victorian villa, most notable as the home of Sir Edward Watkin, "railway king and cross-channel visionary". The house was designated a Grade II* listed building on 11 April 1991.
Royal Mill, which is located on the corner of Redhill Street and Henry Street, Ancoats, in Manchester, England, is an early-twentieth-century cotton mill, one of the last of "an internationally important group of cotton-spinning mills" sited in East Manchester. Royal Mill was constructed in 1912 on part of the site of the earlier McConnel & Kennedy mills, established in 1798. It was originally called New Old Mill and was renamed following a royal visit by King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in 1942. A plaque commemorates the occasion. The Ancoats mills collectively comprise "the best and most-complete surviving examples of early large-scale factories concentrated in one area".
The Reform Club in Spring Gardens, Manchester, England, is a former gentlemen's club of the Victorian era. Constructed in 1870–1871 in the Venetian Gothic style by Edward Salomons in collaboration with Irish architect John Philpot Jones, the club is "his best city centre building" and is a Grade II* listed building as of 3 October 1974. The contract for construction was awarded to "Mr Nield, builder, Manchester for £20,000". Built as a club house for Manchester's Liberal Party elite, the building was opened by Earl Granville, Gladstone's Foreign Secretary, on October 19, 1871. The building is constructed of sandstone ashlar with polychrome dressings and hipped slate roofs and is three-storey with elaborate corner turrets and oriel windows and balconies. The main entrance is "richly adorned with carving including winged beasts". The interior contains a "fine staircase, a (two-storey) grand dining room and an enormous billiard room, running the whole length of the building, in the roof". The "hall and staircase (have) linenfold panelling."
38 and 42 Mosley Street in Manchester, England, is a double-block Victorian bank constructed between 1862 and c. 1880 for the Manchester and Salford Bank. It was occupied in 2001 by the Royal Bank of Scotland. The original block of 1862 was the "last great work" of Edward Walters, and the extension of the 1880s was by his successors Barker and Ellis. It is a Grade II* listed building.
The Estate Exchange at 46 Fountain Street, Manchester, England, is a Victorian office block by Thomas Worthington. It was built as Overseers' and Churchwardens' Offices in 1852, with the top two floors being added in 1858. It is a Grade II* listed building as of 3 October 1974.
The former National Westminster Bank in Spring Gardens, Manchester, England, is an Edwardian bank building constructed in 1902 for Parr's Bank by Charles Heathcote. The bank is in a "bold Edwardian Baroque" style. It is a Grade II* listed building as of 25 February 1952.
Lawrence Buildings in Mount Street, Manchester, England, is a Victorian office block constructed for the Inland Revenue in 1874–6 by Pennington and Bridgen in the Gothic Revival style. It is a Grade II* listed building as of 3 October 1974.
The 1830 warehouse, Liverpool Road, Manchester, is a 19th-century warehouse that forms part of the Liverpool Road railway station complex. It was built in five months between April and September 1830, "almost certainly [to the designs of] the Liverpool architect Thomas Haigh". The heritage listing report attributes the work to George Stephenson and his son, Robert. It has been listed Grade I on the National Heritage List for England since May 1973.
Gateway House in Manchester, England, is a modernist office block above a row of shops designed by Richard Seifert & Partners and completed in 1969. It replaced a row of 19th-century railway warehouses on the approach to Manchester Piccadilly station. The building, which differed from much of Seifert's contemporary work in that it departed from the bare concrete brutalist style which had become his trademark, was nicknamed the "lazy S" and was reputedly designed as a doodle.
Nugent Francis Cachemaille-Day (1896–1976), often referred to as NF Cachemaille-Day, was an English architect who designed some of the most "revolutionary" 20th-century churches in the country. His Church of St Nicholas, Burnage has been called "a milestone in the history of church architecture in England."
Spring Gardens is an important thoroughfare in Manchester city centre. This L-shaped street, formerly the centre of the north-west banking industry, has five Grade II listed buildings and is part of the Upper King Street conservation area.
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