|Dates and location|
|30 May – 25 November 1277|
Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo
|Dean||Bertrand de Saint-Martin|
|Camerlengo||Guillaume de Bray|
|Protodeacon||Giovanni Gaetano Orsini|
| Giovanni Gaetano Orsini |
Name taken: Nicholas III
The 1277 papal election (May 30 – November 25), convened in Viterbo after the death of Pope John XXI, was the smallest papal election since the expansion of suffrage to cardinal-priests and cardinal-deacons, with only seven cardinal electors (following the deaths of three popes who had not created cardinals). —seven—was the lowest in the history of the Roman Catholic Church.Because John XXI had revoked Ubi periculum , the papal bull of Pope Gregory X establishing the papal conclave, with his own bull Licet felicis recordationis , the cardinal electors were able to take their time. After six months of deliberation, the cardinals eventually elected their most senior member Giovanni Gaetano Orsini as Pope Nicholas III. From the end of the election until Nicholas III's first consistory on March 12, 1278, the number of living cardinals
The seven cardinal electors were evenly divided between three supporters of Charles of Anjou and three cardinals from prominent Roman families, who opposed the interests of Charles in Italy, and there was one uncommitted cardinal.
|Elector||Nationality||Faction||Order and Title||Elevated||Elevator||Notes|
|Bertrand de Saint-Martin||French||neutral||Cardinal-bishop of Sabina||1273, June 3||Gregory X||Dean of the College of Cardinals|
|Anchero Pantaleone||French||Angevin||Cardinal-priest of S. Prassede||1262, May 22||Urban IV||Cardinal primoprete; Cardinal-nephew|
|Guillaume de Bray||French||Angevin||Cardinal-priest of S. Marco||1262, May 22||Urban IV||Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals|
|Giovanni Gaetano Orsini||Roman||Roman||Cardinal-deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano||1244, May 28||Innocent IV|| Protodeacon, archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican Basilica, Inquisitor General,|
and Protector of the Order of Franciscans; Elected Pope Nicholas III
|Giacomo Savelli||Roman||Roman||Cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin||1261, December 17||Urban IV||Future Pope Honorius IV|
|Goffredo da Alatri||Italian||Angevin||Cardinal-deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro||1261, December 17||Urban IV|
|Matteo Rosso Orsini||Roman||Roman||Cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Portico||1262, May 22||Urban IV||Nephew of Giovanni Orsini|
|Elector||Nationality||Order and Title||Elevated||Elevator||Notes|
|Simon Monpitie de Brie||French||Cardinal-priest S. Cecilia||1261, December 17||Urban IV||Papal legate in France; Future Pope Martin IV|
Initially, the cardinals met only once a day for balloting and returned to their respective habitations after the scrutinies.For two months, voting proceeded uneventfully along national lines with the French and Roman cardinals evenly divided.
After six months the impatient magistrates of Viterbo locked the cardinals in the town hall (once elected, Nicholas III moved the papacy back to Rome).
Pope Martin IV, born Simon de Brion, was the head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 22 February 1281 to his death. He was the last French pope to have held court in Rome; all subsequent French popes held court in Avignon.
Pope Gregory X, born Teobaldo Visconti, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1 September 1271 to his death and was a member of the Secular Franciscan Order. He was elected at the conclusion of a papal election that ran from 1268 to 1271, the longest papal election in the history of the Catholic Church.
Pope Nicholas III, born Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 25 November 1277 to his death.
A papal conclave is a gathering of the College of Cardinals convened to elect a bishop of Rome, also known as the pope. The pope is considered by Catholics to be the apostolic successor of Saint Peter and earthly head of the Catholic Church.
Palazzo dei Papi is a palace in Viterbo, northern Latium, Italy. It is one of the most important monuments in the city, situated alongside the Duomo di Viterbo. The Papal Curia was removed to Viterbo in 1257 by Alexander IV, due to the hostility of the Roman commune and constant urban violence: the former bishop's palace of Viterbo was enlarged to provide the Popes with an adequate residence. The construction, commissioned by the Capitano del popolo Raniero Gatti, provided a great audience hall communicating with a loggia raised on a barrel vault above the city street. It was completed probably around 1266.
The 1268–71 papal election, following the death of Pope Clement IV, was the longest papal election in the history of the Catholic Church. This was due primarily to political infighting between the cardinals. The election of Teobaldo Visconti as Pope Gregory X was the first example of a papal election by "compromise", that is, by the appointment of a committee of six cardinals agreed to by the other remaining ten. The election occurred more than a year after the magistrates of Viterbo locked the cardinals in, reduced their rations to bread and water, and removed the roof of the Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo.
Vicedomino de Vicedominis was an Italian cardinal.
Latino Malabranca Orsini was a Roman noble, an Italian cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, and nephew of Pope Nicholas III.
Bentivenga de Bentivengis, O. Min., also written Bentivegna de Bentivegni, or de Bentivenghi or Bentivegnawas, was an Italian Franciscan and cardinal.
Bertrand de Saint-Martin was a French cardinal.
The September 1276 papal election is the only papal election to be the third election of the same year. The election was also the first non-conclave, since the establishment of the papal conclave after the papal election, 1268–1271.
The 1287–88 papal election was the deadliest papal election in the history of the Roman Catholic Church, with six of the sixteen cardinal electors perishing during the deliberations. Eventually, the cardinals elected Girolamo Masci, O.Min. as Pope Nicholas IV, almost a year after the death of Pope Honorius IV, who died on April 3, 1287. Nicholas IV was the first Franciscan pope.
The 1304–05 papal conclave, held in Perugia, was the protracted papal conclave that elected non-cardinal Raymond Bertrand de Got as Pope Clement V. This immediately preceded the beginning of the Avignon Papacy.
The 1280–81 papal election elected Simon de Brion, who took the name Pope Martin IV, as the successor to Pope Nicholas III.
Ubi periculum is a papal bull promulgated by Pope Gregory X during the Second Council of Lyon on 7 July 1274 that established the papal conclave format as the method for selecting a pope, specifically the confinement and isolation of the cardinals in conditions designed to speed them to reach a broad consensus. Its title, as is traditional for such documents, is taken from the opening words of the original Latin text, Ubi periculum maius intenditur, 'Where greater danger lies'. Its adoption was supported by the hundreds of bishops at that council over the objections of the cardinals. The regulations were formulated in response to the tactics used against the cardinals by the magistrates of Viterbo during the protracted papal election of 1268–1271, which took almost three years to elect Gregory X. In requiring that the cardinals meet in isolation, Gregory was not innovating but implementing a practice that the cardinals had either adopted on their own initiative or had forced upon them by civil authorities. After later popes suspended the rules of Ubi periculum and several were elected in traditional elections rather than conclaves, Pope Boniface VIII incorporated Ubi periculum into canon law in 1298.
With a long history as a vantage point for anti-popes forces threatening Rome, Viterbo became a papal city in 1243. During the later thirteenth century, the ancient Italian city of Viterbo was the site of five papal elections and the residence of seven popes and their Curias, and it remains the location of four papal tombs. These popes resided in the Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo alongside the Viterbo Cathedral intermittently for two decades, from 1257 to 1281; as a result, the papal palace in Viterbo, with that in Orvieto, are the most extensive thirteenth-century papal palaces to have survived.
Giordano Orsini was an Italian cardinal.
Matteo Rosso Orsini, was a Roman aristocrat, politician, diplomat, and Roman Catholic Cardinal. He was the nephew of Pope Nicholas III (1277-1280).
Guillaume de Bray was a French ecclesiastic and Roman Catholic Cardinal.
Simone Paltanieri, son of Pesce Paltanieri, member of a distinguished family, was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal.