136th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

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136th Division
第136師団
Active1945–1945
Country Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg Empire of Japan
Allegiance 3rd area army
Branch Imperial Japanese Army
Type Infantry
Size9000
Garrison/HQ Shenyang
Nickname(s)Invincible division
Engagementsnone

The 136th Division(第136師団,Dai-hyakusanjūroku Shidan) was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army. Its call sign was the Invincible Division(不抜兵団,Fubatsu Heidan). It was formed 10 July 1945 in Benxi as a triangular division. It was a part of the 8 simultaneously created divisions batch comprising 134th, 135th, 136th, 137th, 138th, 139th, 148th and 149th divisions. The nucleus for the formation were the 2nd (Suifenhe) (or 3rd), 4th (Hulin) border guards groups, 46th transport guards group and 77th Independent Mixed Brigade.

Infantry military personnel who travel and fight on foot

Infantry is a military specialization that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces. Also known as foot soldiers or infantrymen, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may also use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport. Infantry make up a large portion of all armed forces in most nations, and typically bear the largest brunt in warfare, as measured by casualties, deprivation, or physical and psychological stress.

Imperial Japanese Army Official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan, from 1868 to 1945

The Imperial Japanese Army was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. Later an Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters (IGHQ), an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the Minister of the Army, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the Inspector General of Aviation, and the Inspector General of Military Training.

In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitter station. In the United States of America, they are used for all FCC-licensed transmitters. A call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or even cryptographically encoded to disguise a station's identity.

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The 136th division formation was complete 31 July 1945, although the divisional numerical strength was only 60% of the required rifles, machine guns and cannons. To substitute for a lack of rifles, hand spears were issued. Also, divisional medical, chemical and biological warfare units were authorized but not formed. [1] Finally, 136th division had a shortage of anti-tank explosive charges.

At the start of the Soviet invasion of Manchuria 9 August 1945 the division was improving fortifications at Benxi. Immediately orders to move were received, and majority of troops gathered in Shenyang. Also, Airborne (assault) battalion was sent to Wensheng District while two battalions of the 372nd infantry regiment were sent to Liaoyang.

Soviet invasion of Manchuria

The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation or simply the Manchurian Operation, began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. It was the last campaign of the Second World War, and the largest of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War, which resumed hostilities between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan after almost six years of peace. Soviet gains on the continent were Manchukuo, Mengjiang and northern Korea. The Soviet entry into the war and the defeat of the Kwantung Army was a significant factor in the Japanese government's decision to surrender unconditionally, as it made apparent the Soviet Union had no intention of acting as a third party in negotiating an end to hostilities on conditional terms.

Benxi Prefecture-level city in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Benxi is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, south-southeast of the provincial capital Shenyang. Its population was 1,709,538 at the 2010 census whom 1,011,377 lived in the built-up area made of 3 urban districts. It was founded as a metallurgical center in 1915. Benxi Iron and Steel Company (Bengang) is the largest employer in the city, and used to be the fourth-largest steel company in China. The second-largest industry in Benxi is coal mining. Benxi has pollution problems due to steel production and coal mining.

Shenyang Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian, is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population. According to the 2010 census, the city's urban area has 6.3 million inhabitants, while the total population of the Shenyang municipality, which holds the administrative status of a sub-provincial city, is up to 8.1 million. Shenyang is also the center city of one of the major metropolitan areas in China, the Greater Shenyang Metro Area, with a total population over 23 million. The city’s region includes the ten metropolitan districts of Shenyang proper, the county-level city of Xinmin, and two counties of Kangping and Faku.

Also, with the start of the invasion, the Aritomi Airborne (assault) battalion in Xinmin, Liaoning was assigned to 136th division. Also, 10 August 1945, the Mizunima detachment formerly belonging to 108th division was received and also ordered to Shenyang. 13 August 1945, the divisional fortifications plans were approved and 371st infantry regiment was sent back to Benxi to implement it.

Airborne forces Military units, usually light infantry, set up to be moved by aircraft and "dropped" into battle

Airborne forces are military units moved by aircraft and "dropped" into battle, typically by parachute, almost anywhere with little warning. Formations are limited only by the number and size of their aircraft; a huge force can appear "out of nowhere" behind enemy lines in minutes, an action known as vertical envelopment.

Xinmin, Liaoning County-level city in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

The city of Xinmin is a county-level city of Liaoning Province, Northeast China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Shenyang. It contains the westernmost point of and is by far the most spacious of the county-level divisions of Shenyang City. Xinmin borders Faku County to the northeast, Shenbei New Area and Yuhong District to the east, Tiexi District to the southeast, and Liaozhong County to the south; it also borders the prefecture-level cities of Jinzhou to the west and Fuxin to the northwest.

The 108th Division was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army. Its call sign was the Help Division. It was formed on 24 August 1937 in Hirosaki as a square division. The nucleus for the formation was the 8th Division headquarters. It was subordinated from the beginning to the 1st Army in North China. Part of the personnel served a second tour in 1942 with the 69th Division.

The division was partially disarmed 19 August 1945, leaving about 15% of weapons for security duties. 20 August 1945, the division commander (Atsushi Nakayama) together with many other Japanese generals was kidnapped by the Red Army in Shenyang, resulting in his forced disappearance. The entire division was taken prisoner by Soviet Union forces 10 September 1945, and sent to labour camps.

Red Army Soviet army and air force from 1917–1946

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution. The Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; taking the official name of "Soviet Army", until its dissolution in December 1991. The former official name Red Army continued to be used as a nickname by both sides throughout the Cold War.

Forced disappearance Unlawful secret disappearance

In international human rights law, a forced disappearance occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization, or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, with the intent of placing the victim outside the protection of the law.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a federal sovereign state in northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centers were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometers (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometers (4,500 mi) north to south. Its territory included much of Eastern Europe, as well as part of Northern Europe and all of Northern and Central Asia. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

Majority of the men of the 136th division were taken prisoner to the Soviet Union in September 1945 - February 1946 period and then were housed in several labour camps, in Siberia and Moscow. [2]

Moscow Capital of Russia

Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with approximately 15.1 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 25 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities.

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