1444

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1444 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1444
MCDXLIV
Ab urbe condita 2197
Armenian calendar 893
ԹՎ ՊՂԳ
Assyrian calendar 6194
Balinese saka calendar 1365–1366
Bengali calendar 851
Berber calendar 2394
English Regnal year 22  Hen. 6   23  Hen. 6
Buddhist calendar 1988
Burmese calendar 806
Byzantine calendar 6952–6953
Chinese calendar 癸亥(Water  Pig)
4140 or 4080
     to 
甲子年 (Wood  Rat)
4141 or 4081
Coptic calendar 1160–1161
Discordian calendar 2610
Ethiopian calendar 1436–1437
Hebrew calendar 5204–5205
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1500–1501
 - Shaka Samvat 1365–1366
 - Kali Yuga 4544–4545
Holocene calendar 11444
Igbo calendar 444–445
Iranian calendar 822–823
Islamic calendar 847–848
Japanese calendar Kakitsu 4 / Bun'an 1
(文安元年)
Javanese calendar 1359–1360
Julian calendar 1444
MCDXLIV
Korean calendar 3777
Minguo calendar 468 before ROC
民前468年
Nanakshahi calendar −24
Thai solar calendar 1986–1987
Tibetan calendar 阴水猪年
(female Water-Pig)
1570 or 1189 or 417
     to 
阳木鼠年
(male Wood-Rat)
1571 or 1190 or 418

Year 1444 ( MCDXLIV ) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once (1000(M)+(-100(C)+500(D))+(-10(X)+50(L))+(-1(I)+5(V)) = 1444).

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A leap year starting on Wednesday is any year with 366 days that begins on Wednesday, 1 January, and ends on Thursday, 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are ED, such as the years 1908, 1936, 1964, 1992, 2020, 2048, 2076, and 2116 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2004 and 2032 in the obsolete Julian calendar. Any leap year that starts on Monday, Wednesday or Thursday has two Friday the 13ths. This leap year contains two Friday the 13ths in March and November. Common years starting on Thursday share this characteristic, but also have another in February.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

JanuaryDecember

March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 304 days remaining until the end of the year.

The League of Lezhë was a military alliance of Albanian feudal lords forged in Lezhë on 2 March 1444, with Skanderbeg as leader of the regional Albanian and Serbian chieftains united against the Ottoman Empire.

The term Albanian principalities refers to a number of principalities created in the Middle Ages in Albania and Epirus that were ruled by Albanian nobility. The 12th century marked the first Albanian principality, the Principality of Arbanon, however it is in the 14th century and the beginning of the 15th century that these principalities became stronger, especially because of the fall of the Serbian Empire. Some of these principalities were united in 1444 under the military alliance called League of Lezhë.

Date unknown

Constantine XI Palaiologos last reigning Byzantine emperor

Constantine XIDragases Palaiologos, Latinized as Palaeologus was the last reigning Roman and Byzantine Emperor, ruling as a member of the Palaiologos dynasty from 1449 to his death in battle at the fall of Constantinople in 1453.

Despotate of the Morea

The Despotate of the Morea or Despotate of Mystras was a province of the Byzantine Empire which existed between the mid-14th and mid-15th centuries. Its territory varied in size during its existence but eventually grew to include almost all the southern Greek peninsula known as the Peloponnese, which was known as the Morea during the medieval and early modern periods. The territory was usually ruled by one or more sons of the current Byzantine emperor, who were given the title of despotes. Its capital was the fortified city of Mystras, near ancient Sparta, which became an important centre of the Palaiologan Renaissance.

Duchy of Athens

The Duchy of Athens was one of the Crusader states set up in Greece after the conquest of the Byzantine Empire during the Fourth Crusade, encompassing the regions of Attica and Boeotia, and surviving until its conquest by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century.

Births

January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 341 days remaining until the end of the year.

Galeazzo Maria Sforza Duke of Milan

Galeazzo Maria Sforza was the fifth Duke of Milan from 1466 until his death. He was famous for being lustful, cruel and tyrannical.

1476 Year

Year 1476 (MCDLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

Deaths

January 8 is the eighth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 357 days remaining until the end of the year.

1415 Year

Year 1415 (MCDXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 320 days remaining until the end of the year.

Related Research Articles

Murad II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451

Murad II was the Ottoman Sultan from 1421 to 1444 and 1446 to 1451.

15th century Century

The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 to 1500.

Year 1389 (MCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1451 (MCDLI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

The 1380s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1380, and ended on December 31, 1389.

The 1440s decade ran from January 1, 1440, to December 31, 1449.

Year 1464 (MCDLXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once.

Year 1446 (MCDXLVI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once.

Władysław III of Poland King of Poland and Hungary

Władysław III, also known as Władysław of Varna, was King of Poland from 1434, and King of Hungary and Croatia from 1440, until his death at the Battle of Varna.

Battle of Varna battle

The Battle of Varna took place on 10 November 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria. The Ottoman Army under Sultan Murad II defeated the Hungarian–Polish and Wallachian armies commanded by Władysław III of Poland, John Hunyadi and Mircea II of Wallachia. It was the final battle of the Crusade of Varna.

Battle of Kosovo (1448)

The Second Battle of Kosovo was a land battle between a Hungarian-led Crusader army and the Ottoman Empire at Kosovo Polje. It was the culmination of a Hungarian offensive to avenge the defeat at Varna four years earlier.

Gjergj Arianiti Albanian nobleman

Gjergj Arianiti or George Aryaniti (1383–1462) was an Albanian lord who led several campaigns against the Ottoman Empire. He was father of Donika, the ally of Scanderbeg, as well as great uncle of Moisi Arianit Golemi. Gjergj Arianiti is enumerated in Albanian folk tellings. Gjergj Arianiti was Skanderbeg's ally within League of Lezhë only for a short period of time because he abandoned their alliance after the defeat in Berat in 1450. Robert Elsie emphasizes that Arianiti was often Skanderbeg's rival who allied with the Kingdom of Naples in 1446, left his alliance with Skanderbeg by 1449 and allied with Venice in 1456.

Siege of Krujë (1466–67) Albanian resistance of The Ottomans

The second siege of Krujë took place from 1466 to 1467. Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire led an army into Albania to defeat Skanderbeg, the leader of the League of Lezhë, which was created in 1444 after he began his war against the Ottomans. During the almost year-long siege, Skanderbeg's main fortress, Krujë, withstood the siege while Skanderbeg roamed Albania to gather forces and facilitate the flight of refugees from the civilian areas that were attacked by the Ottomans. Krujë managed to withstand the siege put on it by Ballaban Badera, sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Ohrid, an Albanian brought up in the Ottoman army through the devşirme. By 23 April 1467, the Ottoman army had been defeated and Skanderbeg entered Krujë.

Crusade of Varna

The Crusade of Varna was an unsuccessful military campaign mounted by several European monarchs to check the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Central Europe, specifically the Balkans between 1443 and 1444. It was called by Pope Eugene IV on 1 January 1443 and led by King Władysław III of Poland, John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy.

The Treaty of Edirne and the Peace of Szeged were two halves of a peace treaty between Sultan Murad II of the Ottoman Empire and King Vladislaus of the Kingdom of Hungary. Despot Đurađ Branković of the Serbian Despotate was a party to the proceedings. The treaty brought an end to the Christian crusade against the Ottomans with significant gains. Within a month Vladislaus abjured his oath at the urging of the papacy and the crusade continued. On November 10, 1444 it ended in disaster at the Battle of Varna where the crusaders were wiped out and Vladislaus killed.

Battle of Torvioll

The Battle of Torvioll, also known as the Battle of Lower Dibra, was fought on 29 June 1444 on the Plain of Torvioll, in what is modern-day Albania. Skanderbeg was an Ottoman Albanian captain who decided to go back to his native land and take the reins of a new Albanian rebellion. He, along with 300 other Albanians fighting at the Battle of Niš, deserted the Ottoman army to head towards Krujë, which fell quickly through a subversion. He then formed the League of Lezhë, a confederation of Albanian princes united in war against the Ottoman Empire. Murad II, realizing the threat, sent one of his most experienced captains, Ali Pasha, to crush the rebellion with a force of 25,000 men.

References

  1. Thomas, Hugh (1999). The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade: 1440 - 1870. Simon and Schuster. p. 22. ISBN   9780684835655.