|155 GH 52 APU|
|Place of origin||Finland|
|Used by|| Finnish Army |
Abu Zaabal Engineering Industries (licensed production)
|Unit cost||500 000 €|
|Variants||155 GH 52|
155 GH 52 APU
155 K 98
|Specifications (155 K 98)|
|Mass||13,500 kg (29,800 lb) (without equipment) |
14,580 kg (32,140 lb) (fully equipped)
|Barrel length||8,060 mm (317 in) L/52|
|Shell||155 mm NATO, separate caseless charge bags|
|Shell weight||43 kg (95 lb) to|
47 kg (104 lb)
|Caliber||155 millimetres (6.1 in)|
|Breech||Horizontal semi-automatic sliding block|
|Carriage||Split trail, sole plate, auxiliary power unit and hydraulics|
|Elevation||-5° to +70°|
|Traverse||±35° from centreline|
|Rate of fire||6-10 rounds/min |
3 rounds in 12 seconds
|Muzzle velocity||over 900 m/s (3,000 ft/s)|
|Effective firing range||28 kilometres (17 mi) (standard ammunition) |
40 kilometres (25 mi) (base bleed ammunition)
|Maximum firing range||41 kilometres (25 mi)|
|Sights||Optical panoramic periscopic dial sight|
Telescopic direct fire sight
|Engine|| Deutz |
78 kW (105 bhp)
|Maximum speed||15 km/h (9.3 mph) |
8 km/h (5.0 mph) (terrain)
The 155 GH 52 APU (which stands for 155 mm gun-howitzer, 52 calibers, auxiliary power unit), Finnish designation 155 K 98 (155 mm kenttäkanuuna 1998 or "155 mm field gun 1998"; FDF terminology doesn't recognise gun-howitzers), is a Finnish towed artillery piece developed in 1998. It is largely based on the 155 K 83 with some major enhancements. It can be moved on the field short distances with its own auxiliary diesel engine, which is used in all 56 units used by the Finnish defence forces, is a 78-kilowatt Deutz diesel engine. The Egyptian units are not equipped with the APU.
The 155 GH 52 is considered to be one of the most modern field artillery cannons to date and was originally manufactured by Oy Tampella AB industries (today a part of Patria, Patria Vammas Systems Oy). It has a high rate of fire (6 rounds per minute) and can fire all types of 155 mm ammunition.
The Kainuu Artillery Regiment of Kainuu Brigade in Vuosanka shooting range and the Artillery Brigade in Niinisalo in Pohjankangas shooting range operate the guns in Finland. The artillery units train also at Rovajärvi shooting range in Rovaniemi, Lapland.
In Finnish practice one infantry readiness brigade has one organic artillery regiment consisting of two artillery fire battalions. Both of the artillery fire battalions have 18 cannons divided in three six cannon batteries, which means that an artillery regiment, which is an organic unit for a readiness brigade, should have 36 cannons in its two artillery battalions. Finland has three readiness brigades.
In 2003 a gun was mounted on a Soviet T-55 chassis for use as a self-propelled gun prototype. This vehicle was designed primarily as a design study for the Egyptian Army. It was later sold to Egypt, but no deal of more units were made.
On 21 May 2007, the Finnish Yleisradio revealed some problems with the 155 GH 52 APU, dealing with reliability issues of the towing system and barrel behavior when firing long-distance rounds. These facts had been withheld from the Egyptians at the time of the deal. The major challenges have been the accuracy of fire in the longest distances and barrel wear with same distances.
The arms deal lead into a juridical process formally presented as an allegation of corruption. Inspector Janne Järvinen and state prosecutor Ari-Pekka Koivisto investigated if the 10% trade commission had been partly allocated to the directors of the buying organisation using the commercial agent.
The gun's deployment power is 78 kW and its driven speed (in terrain, to location) is 7.5 km/h or 15 km/h when pulled by a heavy truck. The cost of one system is 500,000 euros.
After having encountered problems with firing at 35 km - 40 km, the Finnish Army concentrated its artillery gun development on the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (in Finnish arsenal 298 RsRakH 06, later 298 RSRAKH 06) bought as Dutch surplus.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 155 K 98 .|
In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit or multiple systems of artillery, mortar systems, rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers, surface-to-surface missiles, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, etc., so grouped to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems. The term is also used in a naval context to describe groups of guns on warships.
The Artillery Brigade was a Finnish Army unit stationed in Niinisalo in western Finland. The Artillery Brigade trained conscripts and regular personnel for wartime artillery duties. In addition, it provided weather service in the Niinisalo region, and trained most of the Finnish Defence Forces' dogs. The total strength of the brigade was some 800 conscripts and 400 regular civilian and military personnel. On 1 January 2015, it was merged with the Pori Brigade.
Soltam Systems is an Israeli defense contractor located in Yokneam, Israel. The company has been developing and manufacturing advanced artillery systems, mortars, ammunition and peripheral equipment since 1952. Soltam Systems serves armed and special forces in more than 60 countries. Among the company's major customers are the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), the United States Army and NATO countries.
Kainuu brigade is a Finnish Army unit situated in Kajaani. The brigade is one of the biggest army units, training approximately 4000 conscripts annually. Brigade is one of the three readiness brigades in the Finnish Army. The brigade trains troops for war-time Kainuu Jäger Brigade.
Oy Tampella Ab was a Finnish heavy industry manufacturer, a maker of paper machines, locomotives, military weaponry, as well as wood-based products such as packaging. The company was based mainly in the Naistenlahti district of the city of Tampere.
The K9 Thunder is a South Korean self-propelled 155 mm howitzer designed and developed by the Agency for Defense Development and Samsung Aerospace Industries for the Republic of Korea Armed Forces, and is now manufactured by Hanwha Defense. K9 howitzers operate in groups with the K10 automatic ammunition resupply vehicle variant. The entire K9 fleet operated by the ROK Armed Forces is now undergoing upgrades to K9A1 standard, and a further development of a K9A2 variant is in process.
The Battle of Abu-Ageila was a military confrontation between the Israel Defense Forces and the Egyptian Army in the Six-Day War of June 1967. The decisive defeat of the Egyptians was critical to the eventual loss of the entire Sinai Peninsula to Israel. Leading Israeli forces was Major General Ariel Sharon, later a prominent politician and prime minister of Israel.
The 130 mm towed field gun M-46 is a manually loaded, towed 130 mm artillery piece, manufactured in the Soviet Union in the 1950s. It was first observed by the west in 1954. There is also a Chinese copy, called the Type 59.
The Tampella 155 K 83 is a Finnish towed 155 mm field gun, manufactured in the 1980s by Tampella.
The 130 K 90-60 is a Finnish towed 130 mm coastal artillery piece, manufactured in the 1980s by Vammas.
The M-71 is a 155 mm 39 caliber towed howitzer manufactured by Israeli company Soltam Systems.
The M-68 was a 155 mm L33 caliber towed gun howitzer manufactured by Soltam Systems of Israel, and used by the Israeli Defense Force.
Artillery Battalion of the 1st Infantry Brigade, formerly the Artillery Group, is an artillery battalion of the Estonian Defence Forces, based out of Tapa Army Base. The unit is part of the Estonian Land Forces. It is tasked with supporting combat units with indirect fire during war-time.
The 65th Infantry Division "Grenadiers of Savoy" was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II. It was created 12 October 1936 in Littoria (Latina) and was officially dissolved 20 April 1941 in Soddu, Ethiopia.
155 mm (6.1″) is a common, NATO-standard, artillery calibre.
Kainuu Artillery Regiment is an artillery unit of the Kainuu Brigade, which is the northernmost one of the three readiness brigades of the Finnish Defence Forces.
The Patria Pasi armoured personnel carrier was the choice of the Finnish Defence Forces to replace its aging Soviet BTR-60s. It was a result of the commercial competition between two Finnish companies, a tractor manufacturer Valmet and the lorry manufacturer Sisu, which won the contract with its prototype.
The following is a hierarchical outline of the Czechoslovak People's Army at the end of the Cold War. It is intended to convey the connections and relationships between units and formations. At the end of the Cold War in 1989 the Czechoslovak People's Army structure was as follows.
The 1st Army was a field army of the Czechoslovak People's Army, active from 1958-65 and 1969–1991. In its second formation its headquarters was in Pribram.
The 4th Army was a field army of the Czechoslovak People's Army, active from 1958-65 and 1969–1991. In its second formation its headquarters was in Pisek.