1591

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1591 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1591
MDXCI
Ab urbe condita 2344
Armenian calendar 1040
ԹՎ ՌԽ
Assyrian calendar 6341
Balinese saka calendar 1512–1513
Bengali calendar 998
Berber calendar 2541
English Regnal year 33  Eliz. 1   34  Eliz. 1
Buddhist calendar 2135
Burmese calendar 953
Byzantine calendar 7099–7100
Chinese calendar 庚寅(Metal  Tiger)
4287 or 4227
     to 
辛卯年 (Metal  Rabbit)
4288 or 4228
Coptic calendar 1307–1308
Discordian calendar 2757
Ethiopian calendar 1583–1584
Hebrew calendar 5351–5352
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1647–1648
 - Shaka Samvat 1512–1513
 - Kali Yuga 4691–4692
Holocene calendar 11591
Igbo calendar 591–592
Iranian calendar 969–970
Islamic calendar 999–1000
Japanese calendar Tenshō 19
(天正19年)
Javanese calendar 1511–1512
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar 3924
Minguo calendar 321 before ROC
民前321年
Nanakshahi calendar 123
Thai solar calendar 2133–2134
Tibetan calendar 阳金虎年
(male Iron-Tiger)
1717 or 1336 or 564
     to 
阴金兔年
(female Iron-Rabbit)
1718 or 1337 or 565
May 19 - May 30: Capture of Zutphen Capture of Zutphen by Maurice of Orange in 1591 - Verovering van Zutphen door Prins Maurits in 1591 (Johannes Janssonius, 1663).jpg
May 19 May 30: Capture of Zutphen

1591 ( MDXCI ) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar  and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar , the 1591st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 591st year of the 2nd millennium , the 91st year of the 16th century , and the 2nd year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1591, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days, as distinguished from a leap year, which has 366. More generally, a common year is one without intercalation. The Gregorian calendar,, employs both common years and leap years to keep the calendar aligned with the tropical year, which does not contain an exact number of days.

A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is F. The current year, 2019, is a common year starting on Tuesday in the Gregorian calendar. The last such year was 2013 and the next such year will be 2030, or, likewise, 2014 and 2025 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year contains two Friday the 13ths in September and December. Leap years starting on Monday share this characteristic. From July of the year that precedes this year until September in this type of year is the longest period that occurs without a Friday the 13th. Leap years starting on Saturday share this characteristic, from August of the common year that precedes it to October in that type of year.

Contents

Events

June 1 - June 10: Siege of Deventer Het beleg van Deventer (1591) door Prins Maurits - The siege of Deventer in 1591 by Prince Maurice (Bartholomeus Willemsz. Dolendo).jpg
June 1 June 10: Siege of Deventer

JanuaryJune

March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 293 days remaining until the end of the year.

The Battle of Tondibi was the decisive confrontation in Morocco's 16th-century invasion of the Songhai Empire. Though vastly outnumbered, the Moroccan forces under Judar Pasha defeated the Songhai Askia Ishaq II, guaranteeing the Empire's downfall.

Mali republic in West Africa

Mali, officially the Republic of Mali, is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi). The population of Mali is 18 million. Its capital is Bamako. The sovereign state of Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers. The country's economy centers on agriculture and mining. Some of Mali's prominent natural resources include gold, being the third largest producer of gold in the African continent, and salt.

JulyDecember

July is the seventh month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the fourth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. It was named by the Roman Senate in honour of Roman general Julius Caesar, it being the month of his birth. Prior to that, it was called Quintilis, being the fifth month of the 10-month calendar.

Battle of Bhuchar Mori 1591 battle beetween Mughal Empire and Kathiawar forces

The Battle of Bhuchar Mori, also known as Battle of Dhrol, was fought between the army of Kathiawar led by Nawanagar State and the Mughal army at Bhuchar Mori plateau near Dhrol, Saurashtra. It was meant to protect Muzaffar Shah III, the last Sultan of Gujarat Sultanate who had taken asylum under Jam Sataji of Nawanagar after his escape from the Mughal emperor Akbar. It was fought in July 1591. The Kathiawar army included the armies of Junagadh and Kundla who betrayed Nawanagar and joined the Mughal army at last. The battle led to large number of casualty on both sides. The battle resulted in the decisive victory of Mughal army.

Nawanagar State

Nawanagar was an Indian princely state in the historical Halar region, located on the southern shores of the Gulf of Kutch. It was ruled by the Jadeja dynasty from its formation in c 1540 until 1948 when it became a part of newly formed India. The city is now known as Jamnagar. It had an area of 3,791 square miles (9,820 km2) and a population estimated at 336,779 in 1901. Its rulers, who used the title of "Jam Saheb" were Yaduvanshi Rajput of the same clan as the Rao of Kutch. They were entitled to a 13-gun salute. The state flag was a rectangular red flag with a white elephant, near and facing the hoist. During the British Raj, the state was part of the Kathiawar Agency, within the Gujarat Division of Bombay Presidency.

Date unknown

Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah sultan

Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah was the fifth sultan of the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golkonda and founded the city of Hyderabad, in South-central India and built its architectural centerpiece, the Charminar and Mecca Masjid. He was an able administrator and his reign is considered one of the high points of the Qutb Shahi dynasty. He ascended to the throne in 1580 at the age of 15 and ruled for 31 years.

Rialto Bridge one of four bridges spanning the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy

The Rialto Bridge is the oldest of the four bridges spanning the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy. Connecting the sestieri (districts) of San Marco and San Polo, it has been rebuilt several times since its first construction as a pontoon bridge in the 12th century, and is now a significant tourist attraction in the city.

Venice Comune in Veneto, Italy

Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

The Siamese–Cambodian War (1591–1594), was a military conflict fought between the Kingdom of Ayutthaya and the Kingdom of Cambodia. The war began in 1591 when Ayutthaya invaded Cambodia in response to continuous Cambodian raids into their territory. The first invasion was interrupted before it achieved its goals. The Ayutthayan king Naresuan returned two years later, eventually subjugating the whole country and finally sacking the city Longvek on 3 January 1594.

Dendi Kingdom historic African state

The Dendi Kingdom (1591–1901) was a West African state in modern-day Niger founded by the Dendi people after the collapse of the Songhai Empire. It was conquered by France in 1901.

Songhai people West African ethnic group

The Songhai people are an ethnic group in West Africa who speak the various Songhai languages. Their history and lingua franca is linked to the Songhai Empire which dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century. Predominantly a Muslim community, the Songhai are found primarily throughout Mali in the Western sudanic region. The name Songhai was historically neither an ethnic nor linguistic designation, but a name for the ruling caste of the Songhay Empire. Speakers in Mali have adopted it as an ethnic designation but other Songhay-speaking groups identify themselves by other ethnic terms such as Zarma or Isawaghen. The dialect of Koyraboro Senni spoken in Gao is unintelligible to speakers of the Zarma dialect of Niger, according to at least one report. The Songhay languages are commonly taken to be Nilo-Saharan but this classification remains controversial: Dimmendaal (2008) believes that for now it is best considered an independent language family.

Births

Guercino Self-portrait by Guercino.jpg
Guercino

JanuaryJune

JulyDecember

Michael de Sanctis 091015-Ausa 021.JPG
Michael de Sanctis

Date unknown

Deaths

Pope Gregory XIV GregorioPPXVI.jpg
Pope Gregory XIV
John of the Cross JohnCross.jpg
John of the Cross
Pope Innocent IX Innocent IX 2.jpg
Pope Innocent IX

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Year 1568 (MDLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1632 Year

1632 (MDCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1632nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 632nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 32nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1632, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1611 Year

1611 (MDCXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1611th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 611th year of the 2nd millennium, the 11th year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1611, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1593 Year

1593 (MDXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1593rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 593rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 93rd year of the 16th century, and the 4th year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1593, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1605 Year

1605 (MDCV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1605th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 605th year of the 2nd millennium, the 5th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1605, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1609 Year

1609 (MDCIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1609th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 609th year of the 2nd millennium, the 9th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1609, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1550 Year

Year 1550 (MDL) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

1621 Year

1621 (MDCXXI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1621st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 621st year of the 2nd millennium, the 21st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1620s decade. As of the start of 1621, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1540 Year

Year 1540 (MDXL) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1638 Year

1638 (MDCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1638th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 638th year of the 2nd millennium, the 38th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1638, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1634 Year

1634 (MDCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1634th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 634th year of the 2nd millennium, the 34th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1634, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1592 Year

1592 (MDXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1592nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 592nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 92nd year of the 16th century, and the 3rd year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1592, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1585 Year

1585 (MDLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1585th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 585th year of the 2nd millennium, the 85th year of the 16th century, and the 6th year of the 1580s decade. As of the start of 1585, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1599 Year

1599 (MDXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1599th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 599th year of the 2nd millennium, the 99th year of the 16th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1599, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1590 Year

1590 (MDXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1590th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 590th year of the 2nd millennium, the 90th year of the 16th century, and the 1st year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1590, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1580 Year

Year 1580 (MDLXXX) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Proleptic Gregorian calendar.

1577 Year

Year 1577 (MDLXXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

1664 Year

1664 (MDCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1664th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 664th year of the 2nd millennium, the 64th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1660s decade. As of the start of 1664, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once.

References

  1. 1 2 Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 233–238. ISBN   0-304-35730-8.
  2. "R. Durtnell & Sons Ltd - History". Durtnell. Archived from the original on May 30, 2014. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
  3. Commentarii Collegii Conimbricensis Societatis Jesu in octo libros physicorum Aristotelis Stagyritæ.