1644

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1644 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1644
MDCXLIV
Ab urbe condita 2397
Armenian calendar 1093
ԹՎ ՌՂԳ
Assyrian calendar 6394
Balinese saka calendar 1565–1566
Bengali calendar 1051
Berber calendar 2594
English Regnal year 19  Cha. 1   20  Cha. 1
Buddhist calendar 2188
Burmese calendar 1006
Byzantine calendar 7152–7153
Chinese calendar 癸未(Water  Goat)
4340 or 4280
     to 
甲申年 (Wood  Monkey)
4341 or 4281
Coptic calendar 1360–1361
Discordian calendar 2810
Ethiopian calendar 1636–1637
Hebrew calendar 5404–5405
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1700–1701
 - Shaka Samvat 1565–1566
 - Kali Yuga 4744–4745
Holocene calendar 11644
Igbo calendar 644–645
Iranian calendar 1022–1023
Islamic calendar 1053–1054
Japanese calendar Kan'ei 21 / Shōhō 1
(正保元年)
Javanese calendar 1565–1566
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar 3977
Minguo calendar 268 before ROC
民前268年
Nanakshahi calendar 176
Thai solar calendar 2186–2187
Tibetan calendar 阴水羊年
(female Water-Goat)
1770 or 1389 or 617
     to 
阳木猴年
(male Wood-Monkey)
1771 or 1390 or 618
July 2: Battle of Marston Moor. Marston Moor JBarker.jpg
July 2: Battle of Marston Moor.

1644 (MDCXLIV) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar  and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1644th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 644th year of the 2nd millennium, the 44th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1644, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Contents

It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once (1000(M)+500(D)+100(C)+(-10(X)+50(L))+(-1(I)+5(V)) = 1644).

Events

Kolumna Zygmunta is erected. Kolumna Zygmunta.jpg
Kolumna Zygmunta is erected.

JanuaryJune

JulyDecember

Date unknown

Births

Thomas Britton Thomas britton.jpg
Thomas Britton
Veit Hans Schnorr von Carolsfeld Veit Hans Schnorr von Carolsfeld.jpg
Veit Hans Schnorr von Carolsfeld
Otto Mencke Otto Mencke.jpg
Otto Mencke
Henry Winstanley Henry Winstanley00.jpg
Henry Winstanley
Henrietta of England Mignard, possibly after - Henrietta of England - National Portrait Gallery.jpg
Henrietta of England

JanuaryMarch

AprilJune

JulySeptember

OctoberDecember

Date unknown

Deaths

Pope Urban VIII Urban VIII.jpg
Pope Urban VIII
Johannes Wtenbogaert Johannes Wtenbogaert by Rembrandt van Rijn.jpg
Johannes Wtenbogaert

Related Research Articles

1642 Calendar year

1642 (MDCXLII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1642nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 642nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 42nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1642, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1648 Calendar year

1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1648th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 648th year of the 2nd millennium, the 48th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1648, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1640s

The 1640s decade ran from January 1, 1640, to December 31, 1649.

1637 Calendar year

1637 (MDCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1637th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 637th year of the 2nd millennium, the 37th year of the 17th century, and the 8th year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1637, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1641 Calendar year

1641 (MDCXLI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1641st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 641st year of the 2nd millennium, the 41st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1641, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1643 Calendar year

1643 (MDCXLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1643rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 643rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 43rd year of the 17th century, and the 4th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1643, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1645 Calendar year

1645 (MDCXLV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1645th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 645th year of the 2nd millennium, the 45th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1645, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Dorgon 17th-century Prince and regent of the Qing Dynasty

Dorgon, also Prince Rui, was a Manchu prince and regent of the early Qing dynasty. Born in the House of Aisin-Gioro as the 14th son of Nurhaci, Dorgon started his career in military campaigns against the Ming dynasty, Mongols and Koreans during the reign of his eighth brother, Hong Taiji, who succeeded their father.

Li Zicheng 17th-century Chinese rebel leader

Li Zicheng, born Li Hongji, also known by the nickname, "Dashing King", was a Chinese peasant rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty in 1644 and ruled over northern China briefly as the emperor of the short-lived Shun dynasty before his death a year later.

Chen Yuanyuan Chinese concubine

Chen Yuanyuan (1624–1681) was a courtesan who lived during the late Ming and early Qing dynasties. She was the concubine of Wu Sangui, the Ming dynasty general who surrendered Shanhai Pass to the Manchu Qing dynasty, and later rebelled in the Revolt of the Three Feudatories. Chen's life and relationship to Wu later became the subject of a number of popular stories and legends, many of them focusing on her supposed role in Wu's fateful decision to defect to the Qing, thereby sealing the fate of the Ming dynasty.

Revolt of the Three Feudatories

The Revolt of the Three Feudatories, also known as the Rebellion of Wu Sangui, was a rebellion in China lasting from 1673 to 1681, during the early reign of the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty (1644–1912). The revolt was led by the three lords of the fiefdoms in Yunnan, Guangdong and Fujian provinces against the Qing central government. These hereditary titles had been given to prominent Han Chinese defectors who had helped the Manchu conquer China during the transition from Ming to Qing. The feudatories were supported by Zheng Jing's Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan, which sent forces to invade Mainland China. Additionally, minor Han military figures, such as Wang Fuchen and the Chahar Mongols, also revolted against Qing rule. After the last remaining Han resistance had been put down, the former princely titles were abolished.

The Seven Grievances was a manifesto announced by Nurhaci, khan of the Later Jin, on the thirteenth day of the fourth lunar month in the third year of the Tianming era of his reign; 7 May 1618. It effectively declared war against the Ming dynasty.

The Yongli Emperor, personal name Zhu Youlang, was the fourth and last emperor of the Southern Ming dynasty. His era name means "Perpetual calendar".

Battle of Shanhai Pass 1644 battle in China

The Battle of Shanhai Pass, fought on May 27, 1644 at Shanhai Pass at the eastern end of the Great Wall of China, was a decisive battle leading to the beginning of the Qing dynasty rule in China proper. There, Qing Prince-Regent Dorgon allied with former Ming general Wu Sangui to defeat rebel leader Li Zicheng of the Shun dynasty, allowing Dorgon and the Manchus to rapidly conquer Beijing and replace the Ming dynasty.

Shun dynasty 17th-century Chinese dynasty

The Shun dynasty, officially the Great Shun, was a short-lived dynasty that existed during the Ming–Qing transition in Chinese history. The dynasty was founded in Xi'an on 8 February 1644, the first day of the lunar year, by Li Zicheng, the leader of a large peasant rebellion, by proclaiming himself Emperor (皇帝) instead of the title King (王) before founding the dynasty.

Hong Chengchou

Hong Chengchou (1593–1665), courtesy name Yanyan and art name Hengjiu, was a Chinese official who served under the Ming and Qing dynasties. He was born in present-day Liangshan Village, Yingdu Town, Fujian Province, China. After obtaining the position of a jinshi in the imperial examination in 1616 during the reign of the Wanli Emperor, he joined the civil service of the Ming Empire and served as an official in Shaanxi. During the reign of the Chongzhen Emperor, he was promoted to Minister of War and Viceroy of Suliao. In 1642, he surrendered and defected to the Manchu-led Qing Empire after his defeat at the Battle of Songjin. He became one of the Qing Empire's leading Han Chinese scholar-politicians. While he was in office, he encouraged the Manchu rulers to adopt Han Chinese culture and provided advice to the Qing government on how to consolidate its control over the former territories of the fallen Ming Empire. Apart from Dorgon and Fan Wencheng (范文程), Hong Chengchou was regarded as one of the most influential politicians in the early Qing dynasty. However, he was also villainised by the Han Chinese for his defection to the Qing Empire and for his suppression of the Southern Ming dynasty.

<i>The Affaire in the Swing Age</i>

The Affaire in the Swing Age, also known as The Dynasty or Love Against Kingship, is a 2003 Chinese television series based on the novel Jiangshan Fengyu Qing by Zhu Sujin, who was also the screenwriter for the series. The series depicts the events in the transition of the Ming dynasty to the Qing dynasty in China, focusing on the lives of historical figures such as Li Zicheng, Wu Sangui, Chen Yuanyuan, the Chongzhen Emperor and Huangtaiji.

Chen Mingxia was Grand Secretariat and President of Ministry Personnel of the Qing dynasty. He was from Liyang in Jiangsu and was a Chinese official during the Shunzhi period (1644–1661) of the Qing dynasty (1644–1912). Before joining the Qing in early 1645, he had successively served the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) and the short-lived Shun regime of rebel leader Li Zicheng (1602–1645). He then served in the highest ranks of the Qing bureaucracy, being promoted to Grand Secretariat of the empire.

Transition from Ming to Qing Period of Chinese history (1618-1683)

The transition from Ming to Qing, Ming–Qing transition, or Manchu invasion of China from 1618 to 1683 saw the transition between two major dynasties in Chinese history. It was the decades-long conflict between the emergent Qing dynasty (清朝), the incumbent Ming dynasty (明朝), and several smaller factions in China. It ended with the rise of the Qing, and the fall of the Ming and other factions.

Later Jin (1616–1636) Jurchen khanate in Manchuria during 1616-1636

The Later Jin (1616–1636) was a dynastic khanate in Manchuria ruled by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro leaders Nurhaci and Hong Taiji. Established in 1616 by the Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain Nurhaci upon his reunification of the Jurchen tribes, its name was derived from the former Jurchen-led Jin dynasty which had ruled northern China in the 12th and 13th centuries before falling to the Mongol Empire. In 1635, the lingering Northern Yuan under Ejei Khan formally submitted to the Later Jin. The following year, Hong Taiji officially renamed the realm to "Great Qing", thus marking the start of the Qing dynasty. The Qing subsequently overran Li Zicheng's Shun dynasty and various Southern Ming claimants and loyalists, going on to rule an empire comprising China proper, Tibet, Manchuria, Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Taiwan until the 1911 Xinhai Revolution established the Republic of China.

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