1644

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1644 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1644
MDCXLIV
Ab urbe condita 2397
Armenian calendar 1093
ԹՎ ՌՂԳ
Assyrian calendar 6394
Balinese saka calendar 1565–1566
Bengali calendar 1051
Berber calendar 2594
English Regnal year 19  Cha. 1   20  Cha. 1
Buddhist calendar 2188
Burmese calendar 1006
Byzantine calendar 7152–7153
Chinese calendar 癸未(Water  Goat)
4340 or 4280
     to 
甲申年 (Wood  Monkey)
4341 or 4281
Coptic calendar 1360–1361
Discordian calendar 2810
Ethiopian calendar 1636–1637
Hebrew calendar 5404–5405
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1700–1701
 - Shaka Samvat 1565–1566
 - Kali Yuga 4744–4745
Holocene calendar 11644
Igbo calendar 644–645
Iranian calendar 1022–1023
Islamic calendar 1053–1054
Japanese calendar Kan'ei 21 / Shōhō 1
(正保元年)
Javanese calendar 1565–1566
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar 3977
Minguo calendar 268 before ROC
民前268年
Nanakshahi calendar 176
Thai solar calendar 2186–2187
Tibetan calendar 阴水羊年
(female Water-Goat)
1770 or 1389 or 617
     to 
阳木猴年
(male Wood-Monkey)
1771 or 1390 or 618
July 2: Battle of Marston Moor. Marston Moor JBarker.jpg
July 2: Battle of Marston Moor.

1644 ( MDCXLIV ) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar  and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar , the 1644th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 644th year of the 2nd millennium , the 44th year of the 17th century , and the 5th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1644, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once (1000(M)+500(D)+100(C)+(-10(X)+50(L))+(-1(I)+5(V)) = 1644).

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

A leap year is a calendar year containing one additional day added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year. Because seasons and astronomical events do not repeat in a whole number of days, calendars that have the same number of days in each year drift over time with respect to the event that the year is supposed to track. By inserting an additional day or month into the year, the drift can be corrected. A year that is not a leap year is called a common year.

A leap year starting on Friday is any year with 366 days that begins on Friday 1 January and ends on Saturday 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are CB, such as the years 1808, 1836, 1864, 1892, 1904, 1932, 1960, 1988, 2016, 2044, 2072, and 2112 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2000 and 2028 in the obsolete Julian calendar. Any leap year that starts on Tuesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this leap year occurs in May. Common years starting on Saturday share this characteristic.

Contents

Events

Kolumna Zygmunta is erected. Kolumna Zygmunta.jpg
Kolumna Zygmunta is erected.

JanuaryJune

January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 343 days remain until the end of the year.

Oxford Parliament (1644) the Parliament assembled by King Charles I for the first time on 22 January 1644 and adjourned for the last time on 10 March 1645, with the purpose of being an instrument of the Royalist war campaign

The Oxford Parliament was the Parliament assembled by King Charles I for the first time on 22 January 1644 and adjourned for the last time on 10 March 1645, with the purpose of being an instrument of the Royalist war campaign.

Charles I of England 17th-century monarch of kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland

Charles I was the monarch over the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

JulyDecember

July 2 is the 183rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 182 days remain until the end of the year.

English Civil War Civil war in England (1642–1651)

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") principally over the manner of England's governance. The first (1642–1646) and second (1648–1649) wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third (1649–1651) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The war ended with Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651.

Battle of Marston Moor battle

The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on 2 July 1644, during the First English Civil War of 1642–1646. The combined forces of the English Parliamentarians under Lord Fairfax and the Earl of Manchester and the Scottish Covenanters under the Earl of Leven defeated the Royalists commanded by Prince Rupert of the Rhine and the Marquess of Newcastle.


Date unknown

Opera artform combining sung text and musical score in a theatrical setting

Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is typically a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery, costume, and sometimes dance or ballet. The performance is typically given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor.

<i>Ormindo</i> opera

Ormindo (L'Ormindo) is an opera in three acts and a Prologue by Francesco Cavalli to an original Italian libretto by Giovanni Faustini. The manuscript score and libretto, which describes the work as a favola dramatica musicale, are held at the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice. The opera has set numbers with recitative, and is set in Fez in the ancient Kingdom of Mauretania.

Francesco Cavalli Italian Baroque composer

Francesco Cavalli was an Italian composer of the early Baroque period. He took the name "Cavalli" from his patron, Venetian nobleman Federico Cavalli.

Births

Thomas Britton Thomas britton.jpg
Thomas Britton
Veit Hans Schnorr von Carolsfeld Veit Hans Schnorr von Carolsfeld.jpg
Veit Hans Schnorr von Carolsfeld
Otto Mencke Otto Mencke.jpg
Otto Mencke
Henry Winstanley Henry Winstanley00.jpg
Henry Winstanley
Henrietta of England Mignard, possibly after - Henrietta of England - National Portrait Gallery.jpg
Henrietta of England

JanuaryMarch

January 9 is the ninth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 356 days remain until the end of the year.

Robert Gibbes was an English Landgrave, chairman and acting governor of the province of South Carolina between 1710-1712. Although he was elected acting governor by the Executive Council between the three proprietary deputies of former governor, Edward Tynte, after his death, received one vote more than his opponent Thomas Broughton, getting it through bribery. This sparked a conflict between both the oppositions and their supporters which finished with the Lords Proprietors declaring the election of Gibbes illegal and the appointment of Charles Craven as governor of South Carolina in 1711, who didn't arrive until 1712.

1715 Year

1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1715th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 715th year of the 2nd millennium, the 15th year of the 18th century, and the 6th year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1715, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

AprilJune

JulySeptember

OctoberDecember

Date unknown

Deaths

Pope Urban VIII Urban VIII.jpg
Pope Urban VIII
Johannes Wtenbogaert Johannes Wtenbogaert by Rembrandt van Rijn.jpg
Johannes Wtenbogaert

Related Research Articles

1642 Year

1642 (MDCXLII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1642nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 642nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 42nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1642, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1648 Year

1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1648th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 648th year of the 2nd millennium, the 48th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1648, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

The 1640s decade ran from January 1, 1640, to December 31, 1649.

1652 (MDCLII) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1652nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 652nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 52nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1652, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1650 Year

1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1650th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 650th year of the 2nd millennium, the 50th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1650, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1632 Year

1632 (MDCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1632nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 632nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 32nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1632, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1646 Year

1646 (MDCXLVI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1646th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 646th year of the 2nd millennium, the 46th year of the 17th century, and the 7th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1646, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once.

1610 Year

1610 (MDCX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1610th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 610th year of the 2nd millennium, the 10th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1610, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. Some have suggested that 1610 may mark the beginning of the Anthropocene, or the 'Age of Man', marking a fundamental change in the relationship between humans and the Earth system, but earlier starting dates have received broader consensus, based on high resolution pollution records that show the massive impact of human activity on the atmosphere.

1627 Year

1627 (MDCXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1627th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 627th year of the 2nd millennium, the 27th year of the 17th century, and the 8th year of the 1620s decade. As of the start of 1627, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1638 Year

1638 (MDCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1638th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 638th year of the 2nd millennium, the 38th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1638, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1637 Year

1637 (MDCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1637th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 637th year of the 2nd millennium, the 37th year of the 17th century, and the 8th year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1637, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1639 Year

1639 (MDCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1639th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 639th year of the 2nd millennium, the 39th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1639, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1641 Year

1641 (MDCXLI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1641st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 641st year of the 2nd millennium, the 41st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1641, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. 1641 is the generally accepted year of the birth of the modern timepiece.

1643 Year

1643 (MDCXLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1643rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 643rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 43rd year of the 17th century, and the 4th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1643, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1710 Year

1710 (MDCCX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1710th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 710th year of the 2nd millennium, the 10th year of the 18th century, and the 1st year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1710, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Saturday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

1651 Year

1651 (MDCLI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1651st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 651st year of the 2nd millennium, the 51st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1651, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1645 Year

1645 (MDCXLV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1645th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 645th year of the 2nd millennium, the 45th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1645, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1719 Year

1719 (MDCCXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1719th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 719th year of the 2nd millennium, the 19th year of the 18th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1719, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1712 Year

1712 (MDCCXII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1712th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 712th year of the 2nd millennium, the 12th year of the 18th century, and the 3rd year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1712, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it began as a leap year starting on Monday and remained so until Thursday, February 29. By adding a second leap day Sweden reverted to the Julian calendar and the rest of the year was in sync with the Julian calendar. Sweden finally made the switch from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar in 1753. This year has 367 days.

Battle of Shanhai Pass 1644 battle in China

The Battle of Shanhai Pass, fought on May 27, 1644 at Shanhai Pass at the eastern end of the Great Wall of China, was a decisive battle leading to the formation of the Qing dynasty in China. There, Qing Prince-Regent Dorgon allied with former Ming general Wu Sangui to defeat rebel leader Li Zicheng of the Shun dynasty, allowing Dorgon and the Manchus to rapidly conquer Beijing and replace the Ming dynasty.

References

  1. 1 2 "What Happened In 1644". hisdates.com. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
  2. Schiavone, Michael J. (2009). Dictionary of Maltese Biographies Vol. 1 A–F. Pietà: Pubblikazzjonijiet Indipendenza. p. 756. ISBN   9789993291329.