1648

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1648 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1648
MDCXLVIII
Ab urbe condita 2401
Armenian calendar 1097
ԹՎ ՌՂԷ
Assyrian calendar 6398
Balinese saka calendar 1569–1570
Bengali calendar 1055
Berber calendar 2598
English Regnal year 23  Cha. 1   24  Cha. 1
Buddhist calendar 2192
Burmese calendar 1010
Byzantine calendar 7156–7157
Chinese calendar 丁亥(Fire  Pig)
4344 or 4284
     to 
戊子年 (Earth  Rat)
4345 or 4285
Coptic calendar 1364–1365
Discordian calendar 2814
Ethiopian calendar 1640–1641
Hebrew calendar 5408–5409
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1704–1705
 - Shaka Samvat 1569–1570
 - Kali Yuga 4748–4749
Holocene calendar 11648
Igbo calendar 648–649
Iranian calendar 1026–1027
Islamic calendar 1057–1058
Japanese calendar Shōhō 5 / Keian 1
(慶安元年)
Javanese calendar 1569–1570
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar 3981
Minguo calendar 264 before ROC
民前264年
Nanakshahi calendar 180
Thai solar calendar 2190–2191
Tibetan calendar 阴火猪年
(female Fire-Pig)
1774 or 1393 or 621
     to 
阳土鼠年
(male Earth-Rat)
1775 or 1394 or 622
October 24: Peace of Westphalia Westfaelischer Friede in Muenster (Gerard Terborch 1648).jpg
October 24: Peace of Westphalia

1648 ( MDCXLVIII ) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar  and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar , the 1648th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 648th year of the 2nd millennium , the 48th year of the 17th century , and the 9th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1648, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeric system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

A leap year is a calendar year containing one additional day added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year. Because seasons and astronomical events do not repeat in a whole number of days, calendars that have the same number of days in each year drift over time with respect to the event that the year is supposed to track. By inserting an additional day or month into the year, the drift can be corrected. A year that is not a leap year is called a common year.

A leap year starting on Wednesday is any year with 366 days that begins on Wednesday, 1 January, and ends on Thursday, 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are ED, such as the years 1908, 1936, 1964, 1992, 2020, 2048, 2076, and 2116 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2004 and 2032 in the obsolete Julian calendar. Any leap year that starts on Monday, Wednesday or Thursday has two Friday the 13ths. This leap year contains two Friday the 13ths in March and November. Common years starting on Thursday share this characteristic, but also have another in February.

Contents

1648 has been suggested as possibly the last year in which the overall human population declined, coming towards the end of a broader period of global instability which included the collapse of the Ming dynasty and the Thirty Years' War, the latter of which ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia. [1]

World population The total number of living humans on Earth

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018. It took over 200,000 years of human history for the world's population to reach 1 billion; and only 200 years more to reach 7 billion.

The General Crisis

The General Crisis is the term used by some historians to describe the period of widespread conflict and instability that occurred from the early 17th century to the early 18th century in Europe and in more recent historiography in the world at large. The concept is much debated by historians; there is no consensus.

Ming dynasty Former empire in Eastern Asia, last Han Chinese-led imperial regime

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the Great Ming Empire – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng, regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1683.

Events

The Holy Roman Empire in 1648 Holy Roman Empire 1648.png
The Holy Roman Empire in 1648

JanuaryJune

January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as New Year's Day. It is, on average, the coldest month of the year within most of the Northern Hemisphere and the warmest month of the year within most of the Southern Hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, January is the seasonal equivalent of July in the Northern hemisphere and vice versa.

Khmelnytsky Uprising Cossack rebellion within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1648–1657

The Khmelnytsky Uprising was a Cossack rebellion within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1648–1657, which led to the creation of a Cossack Hetmanate in Ukrainian lands. Under the command of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, the Zaporozhian Cossacks, allied with the Crimean Tatars and local peasantry, fought against the armies and paramilitary forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The insurgency was accompanied by mass atrocities committed by Cossacks against the civilian population, especially against the Roman Catholic clergy and the Jews.

Ukraine Sovereign state in Eastern Europe

Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religions in the country are Eastern Orthodoxy and Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is currently in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi), making it the largest country entirely within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world.

JulyDecember

July 16 is the 197th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 168 days remain until the end of the year.

July 19 is the 200th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 165 days remain until the end of the year.

Thirty Years War War between 1618 and 1648; with over 8 million fatalities

The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but also from violence, famine, and plague. Casualties were overwhelmingly and disproportionately inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire, most of the rest being battle deaths from various foreign armies. In terms of proportional German casualties and destruction, it was surpassed only by the period January to May 1945; one of its enduring results was 19th-century Pan-Germanism, when it served as an example of the dangers of a divided Germany and became a key justification for the 1871 creation of the German Empire.

Date unknown

Red Fort historic fortress in Delhi, India

The Red Fort is a historic fort in the city of Delhi in India. It was the main residence of the emperors of the Mughal dynasty for nearly 200 years, until 1856. It is located in the centre of Delhi and houses a number of museums. In addition to accommodating the emperors and their households, it was the ceremonial and political center of the Mughal state and the setting for events critically impacting the region.

Old Delhi Municipality in Delhi, India

Old Delhi or Purani Dilli was founded as a walled city of Delhi, India, founded as Shahjahanabad in 1639, when Shah Jahan, the Mughal emperor at the time, decided to shift the Mughal capital from Agra. The construction of the city was completed in 1648, and it remained the capital of the Mughal Empire until its fall in 1857, when the British Raj took over a paramount power in India. It was once filled with mansions of nobles and members of the royal court, along with elegant mosques and gardens. Today, despite having become extremely crowded and dilapidated, it still serves as the symbolic heart of metropolitan Delhi. Only few havelis are left and maintained.

Padmavati is an epic poem written in 1648 by Alaol. It is a medieval Bengali poem inspired by the Awadhi poem, Padmavat, by Malik Muhammad Jayasi. Blended with folklore and history, the poem is about the marriage of Ratnasimha and Sinhala princess Padmavati of Chittor. However, Alauddin Khalji of the Delhi Sultanate leads an invasion to win her. The Bengali version of the account focuses more on the topic of secular love and less on Sufism, unlike the original. The poem was written under the patronage of Quraishi Magan Thakur.

Births

Jeanne Guyon Mme Guyon.jpg
Jeanne Guyon
Caspar Neumann Kasper-Neumann.jpg
Caspar Neumann
Tommaso Ceva Tommaso Ceva.jpg
Tommaso Ceva

JanuaryMarch

AprilJune

JulySeptember

OctoberDecember

Date unknown

Deaths

Christian IV of Denmark Christian IV Pieter Isaacsz 1612.jpg
Christian IV of Denmark
Wladyslaw IV Vasa Rubens Wladyslaw Vasa.jpg
Władysław IV Vasa

Related Research Articles

1624 Year

1624 (MDCXXIV) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1624th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 624th year of the 2nd millennium, the 24th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1620s decade. As of the start of 1624, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1642 Year

1642 (MDCXLII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1642nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 642nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 42nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1642, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1608 Year

1608 (MDCVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1608th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 608th year of the 2nd millennium, the 8th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1608, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1574 Year

Year 1574 (MDLXXIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

1640 Year

1640 (MDCXL) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1640th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 640th year of the 2nd millennium, the 40th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1640, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1568 Year

Year 1568 (MDLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1650 Year

1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1650th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 650th year of the 2nd millennium, the 50th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1650, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1593 Year

1593 (MDXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1593rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 593rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 93rd year of the 16th century, and the 4th year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1593, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1646 Year

1646 (MDCXLVI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1646th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 646th year of the 2nd millennium, the 46th year of the 17th century, and the 7th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1646, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once.

1627 Year

1627 (MDCXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1627th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 627th year of the 2nd millennium, the 27th year of the 17th century, and the 8th year of the 1620s decade. As of the start of 1627, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1638 Year

1638 (MDCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1638th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 638th year of the 2nd millennium, the 38th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1638, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1633 Year

1633 (MDCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1633rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 633rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 33rd year of the 17th century, and the 4th year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1633, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1635 Year

1635 (MDCXXXV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1635th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 635th year of the 2nd millennium, the 35th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1635, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1639 Year

1639 (MDCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1639th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 639th year of the 2nd millennium, the 39th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1639, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1643 Year

1643 (MDCXLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1643rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 643rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 43rd year of the 17th century, and the 4th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1643, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1585 Year

1585 (MDLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1585th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 585th year of the 2nd millennium, the 85th year of the 16th century, and the 6th year of the 1580s decade. As of the start of 1585, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1649 Year

1649 (MDCXLIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1649th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 649th year of the 2nd millennium, the 49th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1649, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1654 Year

1654 (MDCLIV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1654th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 654th year of the 2nd millennium, the 54th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1654, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1591 Year

1591 (MDXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1591st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 591st year of the 2nd millennium, the 91st year of the 16th century, and the 2nd year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1591, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1659 Year

1659 (MDCLIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1659th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 659th year of the 2nd millennium, the 59th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1659, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

References

  1. John Green (July 10, 2018). "The General Crisis" (Video). YouTube . vlogbrothers. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  2. Ambraseys, N. N.; Melville, C. P. (1982). A History of Persian Earthquakes. Cambridge University Press. p. 50. ISBN   0-521-24112-X.
  3. Fisher, Raymond H., ed. (1981). The Voyage of Semen Dezhnev in 1648. London: Hakluyt Society. ISBN   0-904180-07-7.
  4. Ramerini, Marco. "The Portuguese in the Arabia Peninsula and in the Persian Gulf". Colonial Voyage. Archived from the original on September 11, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2011.
  5. "Padmavati - Banglapedia".
  6. Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 262–263. ISBN   0-304-35730-8.
  7. "Art Renewal Center :: Rembrandt :: Rembrandt drawing at a window". artrenewal.org. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
  8. "Art Renewal Center :: Rembrandt :: Beggars at the Door". artrenewal.org. Retrieved March 4, 2016.