1657

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1657 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1657
MDCLVII
Ab urbe condita 2410
Armenian calendar 1106
ԹՎ ՌՃԶ
Assyrian calendar 6407
Balinese saka calendar 1578–1579
Bengali calendar 1064
Berber calendar 2607
English Regnal year 8  Cha. 2   9  Cha. 2
(Interregnum)
Buddhist calendar 2201
Burmese calendar 1019
Byzantine calendar 7165–7166
Chinese calendar 丙申(Fire  Monkey)
4353 or 4293
     to 
丁酉年 (Fire  Rooster)
4354 or 4294
Coptic calendar 1373–1374
Discordian calendar 2823
Ethiopian calendar 1649–1650
Hebrew calendar 5417–5418
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1713–1714
 - Shaka Samvat 1578–1579
 - Kali Yuga 4757–4758
Holocene calendar 11657
Igbo calendar 657–658
Iranian calendar 1035–1036
Islamic calendar 1067–1068
Japanese calendar Meireki 3
(明暦3年)
Javanese calendar 1579–1580
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar 3990
Minguo calendar 255 before ROC
民前255年
Nanakshahi calendar 189
Thai solar calendar 2199–2200
Tibetan calendar 阳火猴年
(male Fire-Monkey)
1783 or 1402 or 630
     to 
阴火鸡年
(female Fire-Rooster)
1784 or 1403 or 631
April 20: Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife Blakesstgeorgeatsantacr.jpg
April 20: Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife

1657 ( MDCLVII ) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar  and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar , the 1657th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 657th year of the 2nd millennium , the 57th year of the 17th century , and the 8th year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1657, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days, as distinguished from a leap year, which has 366. More generally, a common year is one without intercalation. The Gregorian calendar,, employs both common years and leap years to keep the calendar aligned with the tropical year, which does not contain an exact number of days.

A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Monday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is G. The most recent year of such kind was 2018 and the next one will be 2029 in the Gregorian calendar, or likewise, 2013 and 2019 in the obsolete Julian calendar. The century year, 1900, was also a common year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar. See below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year of this type contains two Friday the 13ths in April and July. Leap years starting on Sunday share this characteristic, but also have another in January.

Contents

Events

JanuaryJune

January 8 is the eighth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 357 days remaining until the end of the year.

Miles Sindercombe was the leader of a group that tried to assassinate Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell during the period of the Protectorate in 1657.

Levellers political movement during the English Civil War, committed to popular sovereignty, extended suffrage, equality before the law and religious tolerance

The Levellers was a political movement during the English Civil War (1642–1651). It was committed to popular sovereignty, extended suffrage, equality before the law and religious tolerance. The hallmark of Leveller thought was its populism, as shown by its emphasis on equal natural rights, and their practice of reaching the public through pamphlets, petitions and vocal appeals to the crowd. Its ideas were presented in its manifesto "Agreement of the People". In contrast to the Diggers, the Levellers opposed common ownership, except in cases of mutual agreement of the property owners. The Levellers came to prominence at the end of the First English Civil War (1642–1646) and were most influential before the start of the Second Civil War (1648–1649). Leveller views and support were found in the populace of the City of London and in some regiments in the New Model Army.

JulyDecember

July 13 is the 194th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 171 days remaining until the end of the year.

Oliver Cromwell 17th-century English military and political leader

Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader. He served as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1653 until his death, acting simultaneously as head of state and head of government of the new republic.

John Lambert (general) English Parliamentary general and politician

John Lambert was an English Parliamentary general and politician. He fought during the English Civil War and then in Oliver Cromwell's Scottish campaign (1650–51), becoming thereafter active in civilian politics until his dismissal by Cromwell in 1657. During this time he wrote the Instrument of Government, one of only two codified constitutions ever adopted in Britain, and was influential in bringing about the Protectorate.

Date unknown

The Accademia del Cimento, an early scientific society, was founded in Florence in 1657 by students of Galileo, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli and Vincenzo Viviani and ceased to exist about a decade later. The foundation of Academy was funded by Prince Leopoldo and Grand Duke Ferdinando II de' Medici. The tenets of the society included:

Florence Comune in Tuscany, Italy

Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,084 inhabitants in 2013, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area.

Coffee Brewed beverage

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain Coffea species. The genus Coffea is native to tropical Africa and Madagascar, the Comoros, Mauritius, and Réunion in the Indian Ocean. Coffee plants are now cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in the equatorial regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, Indian subcontinent, and Africa. The two most commonly grown are C. arabica and C. robusta. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. Dried coffee seeds are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. Roasted beans are ground and then brewed with near-boiling water to produce the beverage known as coffee.

Births

Frederick I of Prussia Frederick I of Prussia (cropped).jpg
Frederick I of Prussia
Wigerus Vitringa Wigerus Vitringa.jpg
Wigerus Vitringa

Deaths

Robert Blake Robert Blake.jpg
Robert Blake
Jacob van Campen Jacob van Campen - Afbeeldingen Stadhuis Amsterdam.png
Jacob van Campen

Related Research Articles

1642 Year

1642 (MDCXLII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1642nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 642nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 42nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1642, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1661 Year

1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1661st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 661st year of the 2nd millennium, the 61st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1660s decade. As of the start of 1661, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1648 Year

1648 (MDCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1648th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 648th year of the 2nd millennium, the 48th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1648, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1662 Year

1662 (MDCLXII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1662nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 662nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 62nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1660s decade. As of the start of 1662, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1728 Year

1728 (MDCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1728th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 728th year of the 2nd millennium, the 28th year of the 18th century, and the 9th year of the 1720s decade. As of the start of 1728, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1650 Year

1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1650th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 650th year of the 2nd millennium, the 50th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1650, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1627 Year

1627 (MDCXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1627th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 627th year of the 2nd millennium, the 27th year of the 17th century, and the 8th year of the 1620s decade. As of the start of 1627, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1628 Year

1628 (MDCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1628th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 628th year of the 2nd millennium, the 28th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1620s decade. As of the start of 1628, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1638 Year

1638 (MDCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1638th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 638th year of the 2nd millennium, the 38th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1638, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1649 Year

1649 (MDCXLIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1649th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 649th year of the 2nd millennium, the 49th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1649, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1655 Year

1655 (MDCLV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1655th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 655th year of the 2nd millennium, the 55th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1655, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1654 Year

1654 (MDCLIV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1654th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 654th year of the 2nd millennium, the 54th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1654, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1645 Year

1645 (MDCXLV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1645th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 645th year of the 2nd millennium, the 45th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1645, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1656 Year

1656 (MDCLVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1656th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 656th year of the 2nd millennium, the 56th year of the 17th century, and the 7th year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1656, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1658 Year

1658 (MDCLVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1658th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 658th year of the 2nd millennium, the 58th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1658, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1659 Year

1659 (MDCLIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1659th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 659th year of the 2nd millennium, the 59th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1659, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1660 (MDCLX) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1660th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 660th year of the 2nd millennium, the 60th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1660s decade. As of the start of 1660, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1664 Year

1664 (MDCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1664th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 664th year of the 2nd millennium, the 64th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1660s decade. As of the start of 1664, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once.

1712 Year

1712 (MDCCXII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1712th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 712th year of the 2nd millennium, the 12th year of the 18th century, and the 3rd year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1712, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it began as a leap year starting on Monday and remained so until Thursday, February 29. By adding a second leap day Sweden reverted to the Julian calendar and the rest of the year was in sync with the Julian calendar. Sweden finally made the switch from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar in 1753. This year has 367 days.

1702 (MDCCII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1702nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 702nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 2nd year of the 18th century, and the 3rd year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1702, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Wednesday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "1657". British Civil Wars. Commonwealth and Protectorate 1638-60. 2010-06-07. Retrieved 2012-02-17.
  2. Morrill, John (2004). "Cromwell, Oliver (1599–1658)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography . Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/6765 . Retrieved 2012-02-17.(subscription or UK public library membership required)
  3. Blusse, Leonard; Vaillé, Cynthia (2005). The Deshima Dagregisters, Volume XII 1650-1660. Leiden.
  4. 1 2 Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 267–268. ISBN   0-304-35730-8.
  5. "Chocolate Arrives in England". Cadbury. Archived from the original on February 19, 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-17.