1688

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1688 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1688
MDCLXXXVIII
Ab urbe condita 2441
Armenian calendar 1137
ԹՎ ՌՃԼԷ
Assyrian calendar 6438
Balinese saka calendar 1609–1610
Bengali calendar 1095
Berber calendar 2638
English Regnal year 3  Ja. 2   1  Will.  &  Mar.
Buddhist calendar 2232
Burmese calendar 1050
Byzantine calendar 7196–7197
Chinese calendar 丁卯(Fire  Rabbit)
4384 or 4324
     to 
戊辰年 (Earth  Dragon)
4385 or 4325
Coptic calendar 1404–1405
Discordian calendar 2854
Ethiopian calendar 1680–1681
Hebrew calendar 5448–5449
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1744–1745
 - Shaka Samvat 1609–1610
 - Kali Yuga 4788–4789
Holocene calendar 11688
Igbo calendar 688–689
Iranian calendar 1066–1067
Islamic calendar 1099–1100
Japanese calendar Jōkyō 5 / Genroku 1
(元禄元年)
Javanese calendar 1611–1612
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar 4021
Minguo calendar 224 before ROC
民前224年
Nanakshahi calendar 220
Thai solar calendar 2230–2231
Tibetan calendar 阴火兔年
(female Fire-Rabbit)
1814 or 1433 or 661
     to 
阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
1815 or 1434 or 662

1688 ( MDCLXXXVIII ) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar  and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar , the 1688th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 688th year of the 2nd millennium , the 88th year of the 17th century , and the 9th year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1688, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeric system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.

A leap year is a calendar year containing one additional day added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year. Because seasons and astronomical events do not repeat in a whole number of days, calendars that have the same number of days in each year drift over time with respect to the event that the year is supposed to track. By inserting an additional day or month into the year, the drift can be corrected. A year that is not a leap year is called a common year.

A leap year starting on Thursday is any year with 366 days that begins on Thursday 1 January, and ends on Friday 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are DC, such as the years 1880, 1920, 1948, 1976, 2004, 2032, 2060, and 2088, in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 1988, 2016, and 2044 in the obsolete Julian calendar. Any leap year that starts on Monday, Wednesday or Thursday has two Friday the 13ths. This leap year contains two Friday the 13ths in February and August.

Contents

November 15: The Glorious Revolution begins. Prince of Orange engraving by William Miller after Turner R739.jpg
November 15: The Glorious Revolution begins.

Events

JanuaryJune

March is the third month of the year and named after Mars in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. It is the second of seven months to have a length of 31 days. In the Northern Hemisphere, the meteorological beginning of spring occurs on the first day of March. The March equinox on the 20 or 21 marks the astronomical beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of autumn in the Southern Hemisphere, where September is the seasonal equivalent of the Northern Hemisphere's March. Birthday Number the letter "M".

William Dampier British pirate and explorer

William Dampier was an English explorer, ex-pirate and navigator who became the first Englishman to explore parts of what is today Australia, and the first person to circumnavigate the world three times. He has also been described as Australia's first natural historian, as well as one of the most important British explorers of the period between Sir Walter Raleigh and James Cook.

Christmas Island Australian external territory

The Territory of Christmas Island is an Australian external territory comprising the island of the same name. Christmas Island is located in the Indian Ocean, around 350 kilometres (220 mi) south of Java and Sumatra and around 1,550 kilometres (960 mi) north-west of the closest point on the Australian mainland. It has an area of 135 square kilometres (52 sq mi).

JulyDecember

July 13 is the 194th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 171 days remaining until the end of the year.

The Siege of Negroponte was undertaken by the forces of the Republic of Venice from July to October 1688. The Venetian army, composed of several mercenary and allied contingents from western Europe, had succeeded in capturing the Peloponnese in the previous years, and proceeded to capture Athens and attack Negroponte, the main Ottoman stronghold in Central Greece. The Venetian siege was hampered by the Ottoman resistance and their inability to completely isolate the town, as the Ottoman general Ismail Pasha managed to ferry supplies to the besieged garrison. Furthermore, the Venetian army suffered many casualties from an outbreak of the plague in the Venetian camp, which led to the death of 4,000 troops and the experienced general Otto Wilhelm Königsmarck. The departure of the Florentine and Maltese contingents further weakened the Venetians, and when the German mercenaries refused to remain there in winter quarters, the Venetian commander, Doge Francesco Morosini, had to concede defeat and retreat to the Peloponnese.

August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 152 days remaining until the end of the year.

Date unknown

Austria Federal republic in Central Europe

Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi), a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 m (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 m (12,461 ft). The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, and German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.

Bulgaria country in Southeast Europe

Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. The capital and largest city is Sofia; other major cities are Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi), Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country.

Lloyds of London insurance market located in the City of London

Lloyd's of London, generally known simply as Lloyd's, is an insurance and reinsurance market located in London, United Kingdom. Unlike most of its competitors in the industry, it is not an insurance company; rather, Lloyd's is a corporate body governed by the Lloyd's Act 1871 and subsequent Acts of Parliament and operates as a partially-mutualised marketplace within which multiple financial backers, grouped in syndicates, come together to pool and spread risk. These underwriters, or "members", are a collection of both corporations and private individuals, the latter being traditionally known as "Names".

Births

Emanuel Swedenborg Emanuel Swedenborg.PNG
Emanuel Swedenborg

January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 350 days remaining until the end of the year.

Maria van Lommen, was a Dutch gold- and silversmith and guildmember.

A silversmith is a metalworker who crafts objects from silver. The terms silversmith and goldsmith are not exactly synonyms as the techniques, training, history, and guilds are or were largely the same but the end product may vary greatly as may the scale of objects created.

Deaths

Ferdinand Verbiest Le Pere Ferdinand Verbiest.gif
Ferdinand Verbiest
James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormond James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde by William Wissing.jpg
James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormond
Henry Morgan Henry Morgan in colour.jpg
Henry Morgan

January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 358 days remaining until the end of the year.

James Howard, 3rd Earl of Suffolk,, was grandson of Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk, and was also 3rd Baron Howard de Walden. He was succeeded in the earldom, a revival of an earlier title held by distant ancestors and re-created for his grandfather Thomas Howard, by two of his brothers. He acted as Earl Marshal for the coronation of Charles II.

January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 338 days remaining until the end of the year.

Related Research Articles

Glorious Revolution 17th Century British revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law. William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascension to the throne as William III of England jointly with his wife, Mary II, James's daughter, after the Declaration of Right, leading to the Bill of Rights 1689.

1690 Year

1690 (MDCXC) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1690th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 690th year of the 2nd millennium, the 90th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1690, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1582 Year

1582 (MDLXXXII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1582nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 582nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 82nd year of the 16th century, and the 3rd year of the 1580s decade. As of the start of 1582, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which had previously been the universally accepted calendar in Christian nations. However, this year saw the beginning of the Gregorian Calendar switch, when the Papal bull known as Inter gravissimas introduced the Gregorian calendar, adopted by Spain, Portugal, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and most of present-day Italy from the start. In these countries, the year continued as normal until Thursday, October 4. However, the next day became Friday, October 15, in those countries. Other countries continued using the Julian calendar for decades or, in some cases, centuries. The complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was not entirely done until 1923. In the Proleptic Gregorian calendar, 1582 is a common year starting on Friday.

1695 Year

1695 (MDCXCV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1695th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 695th year of the 2nd millennium, the 95th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1695, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. It was also a particularly cold and wet year. Contemporary records claim that wine froze in the glasses in the Palace of Versailles.

1680s decade

The 1680s decade ran from January 1, 1680, to December 31, 1689.

1650 Year

1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1650th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 650th year of the 2nd millennium, the 50th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1650, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1670 Year

1670 (MDCLXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1670th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 670th year of the 2nd millennium, the 70th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1670s decade. As of the start of 1670, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1619 Year

1619 (MDCXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1619th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 619th year of the 2nd millennium, the 19th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1619, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1647 Year

1647 (MDCXLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1647th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 647th year of the 2nd millennium, the 47th year of the 17th century, and the 8th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1647, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1660 (MDCLX) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1660th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 660th year of the 2nd millennium, the 60th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1660s decade. As of the start of 1660, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1682 Year

1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1682nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 682nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 82nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1682, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1672 Year

1672 (MDCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1672nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 672nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 72nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1670s decade. As of the start of 1672, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1547 Year

Year 1547 (MDXLVII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

1544 Year

1544 (MDXLIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1544th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 544th year of the 2nd millennium, the 44th year of the 16th century, and the 5th year of the 1540s decade. As of the start of 1544, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which was the dominant calendar of the time.

Narai King of Ayutthaya

King Narai the Great or Ramathibodi III was the 27th monarch of Ayutthaya Kingdom, the 4th and the last monarch of the Prasat Thong dynasty. He was the king of Ayutthaya Kingdom from 1656 to 1688 and arguably the most famous king of the Prasat Thong dynasty.

Constantine Phaulkon Greek adventurer

Constantine Phaulkon, also known as Κωσταντής Γεράκης or Costantin Gerachi, Constantino Falcão in Portuguese and simply as Monsieur Constance in French, was a Greek adventurer, who became prime counsellor to King Narai of Ayutthaya, assuming the Thai noble title Chao PhrayaWichayen (เจ้าพระยาวิชาเยนทร์).

Phetracha was a king of the Ayutthaya kingdom in Thailand, usurping the throne from his predecessor King Narai and founding the Ban Phlu Luang dynasty, the final one of the Ayutthaya kingdom. Originally a member of king Narai's extended family, he was a trusted councilor of Narai, and leader of the Royal Elephant Corps. However, in 1688 he led the Siamese revolution of 1688, had Narai's heirs executed, and by marrying Narai's only daughter took the throne of Ayutthaya kingdom upon Narai's death. He reversed the pro-Western policies of Narai, ejecting foreigners from the kingdom, and launched the Siege of Bangkok, to exile all French troops from Siam. As a result, Siam stayed isolated from Western contact until the 19th century.

Suriyenthrathibodi King of Ayutthaya

Sanphet VIII or Suriyenthrathibodi was the King of Ayutthaya from 1703 to 1709 and the second ruler of the Ban Phlu Luang Dynasty. Suriyenthrathibodi was also known by the noble title he held before ascending the throne, Luang Sorasak. He was the eldest son of the founder of the Ban Phlu Luang dynasty, Phetracha.

Siamese revolution of 1688

The Siamese revolution of 1688 was a major popular upheaval in the Siamese Ayutthaya Kingdom which led to the overthrow of the pro-French Siamese king Narai. The Mandarin Phetracha, previously one of Narai's trusted military advisors, took advantage of the elderly Narai's illness, and killed Narai's Christian heir, along with a number of missionaries and Narai's influential foreign minister the Greek adventurer Constantine Phaulkon. Phetracha then married Narai's daughter, took the throne, and pursued a policy of ousting French influence and military forces from Siam. One of the most prominent battles was 1688's Siege of Bangkok, when tens of thousands of Siamese forces spent four months besieging a French fortress within the city. As a consequence of the revolution, Siam severed significant ties with the West, with the exception of the Dutch East India Company, until the 19th century.

The Anglo-Siamese War was a brief state of war that existed between the East India Company and Kingdom of Siam in 1687–88. Siam officially declared war against the Company in August 1687. No peace treaty was ever signed to end the war, but the Siamese revolution of 1688 rendered the issue moot.

References

  1. "Ulrika Eleonora | queen of Sweden". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 17 April 2019.