1689

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1689 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1689
MDCLXXXIX
Ab urbe condita 2442
Armenian calendar 1138
ԹՎ ՌՃԼԸ
Assyrian calendar 6439
Balinese saka calendar 1610–1611
Bengali calendar 1096
Berber calendar 2639
English Regnal year 1  Will.  &  Mar.   2  Will.  &  Mar.
Buddhist calendar 2233
Burmese calendar 1051
Byzantine calendar 7197–7198
Chinese calendar 戊辰(Earth  Dragon)
4385 or 4325
     to 
己巳年 (Earth  Snake)
4386 or 4326
Coptic calendar 1405–1406
Discordian calendar 2855
Ethiopian calendar 1681–1682
Hebrew calendar 5449–5450
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1745–1746
 - Shaka Samvat 1610–1611
 - Kali Yuga 4789–4790
Holocene calendar 11689
Igbo calendar 689–690
Iranian calendar 1067–1068
Islamic calendar 1100–1101
Japanese calendar Genroku 2
(元禄2年)
Javanese calendar 1612–1613
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar 4022
Minguo calendar 223 before ROC
民前223年
Nanakshahi calendar 221
Thai solar calendar 2231–2232
Tibetan calendar 阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
1815 or 1434 or 662
     to 
阴土蛇年
(female Earth-Snake)
1816 or 1435 or 663
March 2: Heidelberg Castle is burned. Hortus Palatinus und Heidelberger Schloss von Jacques Fouquiere.jpg
March 2: Heidelberg Castle is burned.

1689 ( MDCLXXXIX ) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar  and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar , the 1689th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 689th year of the 2nd millennium , the 89th year of the 17th century , and the 10th and last year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1689, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days, as distinguished from a leap year, which has 366. More generally, a common year is one without intercalation. The Gregorian calendar,, employs both common years and leap years to keep the calendar aligned with the tropical year, which does not contain an exact number of days.

A common year starting on Saturday is any non-leap year that begins on Saturday, 1 January, and ends on Saturday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is B. The most recent year of such kind was 2011 and the next one will be 2022 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2017 and 2023 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Wednesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this common year occurs in May. Leap years starting on Friday share this characteristic.

Contents

Events

JanuaryJune

January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 354 days remaining until the end of the year.

Old Style and New Style dates 16th-century changes in calendar conventions

Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first was to change the start of the year from Lady Day to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar in favour of the Gregorian calendar. Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates.

Glorious Revolution 17th Century British revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law. William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascension to the throne as William III of England jointly with his wife, Mary II, James's daughter, after the Declaration of Right, leading to the Bill of Rights 1689.

JulyDecember

July 25 is the 206th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 159 days remaining until the end of the year.

Council of Wales and the Marches administrative body of the Kingdom of England (1473–1689)

The Court of the Council in the Dominion and Principality of Wales, and the Marches of the same, commonly called the Council of Wales and the Marches was a regional administrative body based in Ludlow Castle within the Kingdom of England between the 15th and 17th centuries, similar to the Council of the North. Its area of responsibility varied but generally covered all of modern Wales and the Welsh Marches of Shropshire, Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Cheshire and Gloucestershire/Bristol.

July 27 is the 208th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 157 days remaining until the end of the year.

Date unknown

Peter the Great Tsar and 1st Emperor, founder of the Russian Empire

Peter the Great, Peter I or Peter Alexeyevich ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May [O.S. 27 April] 1682 until his death in 1725, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Through a number of successful wars, he expanded the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power and also laid the groundwork for the Russian navy after capturing ports at Azov and the Baltic Sea. He led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political systems with ones that were modern, scientific, Westernised and based on the Enlightenment. Peter's reforms made a lasting impact on Russia, and many institutions of Russian government trace their origins to his reign. He is also known for founding and developing the city of Saint Petersburg, which remained the capital of Russia until 1917.

Sophia Alekseyevna of Russia Russian tsarevna

Sophia Alekseyevna ruled as regent of Russia from 1682 to 1689. She allied herself with a singularly capable courtier and politician, Prince Vasily Golitsyn, to install herself during the minority of her brother Ivan V and half-brother Peter I. She carried out her regency with a firm and heavy hand, not hesitating to use violent tactics to promote her agenda. The activity of this "bogatyr-tsarevna" was all the more extraordinary, as upper-class Muscovite women, confined to the upper-floor terem and veiled and guarded in public, invariably were kept aloof from any open involvement in politics.

A regent is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated. The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc or in accordance with a constitutional rule. "Regent" is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession, the compound term prince regent is often used; if the regent of a minor is his mother, she is often referred to as "queen regent".

Births

Montesquieu Montesquieu 1.png
Montesquieu
John V of Portugal John V of Portugal Pompeo Batoni.jpg
John V of Portugal

January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 347 days remaining until the end of the year.

Montesquieu French social commentator and political thinker

Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.

1755 Year

1755 (MDCCLV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1755th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 755th year of the 2nd millennium, the 55th year of the 18th century, and the 6th year of the 1750s decade. As of the start of 1755, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Deaths

Christina, Queen of Sweden Swedish queen Drottning Kristina portrait by Sebastien Bourdon stor.jpg
Christina, Queen of Sweden
Thomas Sydenham Thomas Sydenham by Mary Beale.jpg
Thomas Sydenham

Related Research Articles

1691 Year

1691 (MDCXCI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1691st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 691st year of the 2nd millennium, the 91st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1691, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1680s decade

The 1680s decade ran from January 1, 1680, to December 31, 1689.

1652 (MDCLII) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1652nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 652nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 52nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1652, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1633 Year

1633 (MDCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1633rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 633rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 33rd year of the 17th century, and the 4th year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1633, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1634 Year

1634 (MDCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1634th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 634th year of the 2nd millennium, the 34th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1634, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1701 Year

1701 (MDCCI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1701st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 701st year of the 2nd millennium, the 1st year of the 18th century, and the 2nd year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1701, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Tuesday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

Battle of the Boyne battle

The Battle of the Boyne was a battle in 1690 between the forces of the deposed King James VII and II of Scotland, England and Ireland and those of Dutch Prince William of Orange who, with his wife Mary II, had acceded to the Crowns of England and Scotland in 1688. The battle took place across the River Boyne near the town of Drogheda in the Kingdom of Ireland, modern day Republic of Ireland, and resulted in a victory for William. This turned the tide in James's failed attempt to regain the British crown and ultimately aided in ensuring the continued Protestant ascendancy in Ireland.

Siege of Derry siege of Derry during the Williamite War in Ireland (1688-1689)

The Siege of Derry was the first major event in the Williamite War in Ireland. The siege was preceded by a first attempt against the town by Jacobite forces on 7 December 1688 that was foiled when 13 apprentices shut the gates. The second attempt began when James II himself appeared before the walls on 18 April 1689 and lasted 105 days until 1 August. It ended after ships bringing food broke through to the town. The siege is commemorated yearly by the Protestant community.

Williamite War in Ireland

The Williamite War in Ireland (1688–1691), was a conflict between Jacobites and Williamites over who would be monarch of the three kingdoms of Ireland, England and Scotland. It is also called the Jacobite War in Ireland or the Williamite–Jacobite War in Ireland.

Robert Lundy,, was a Scottish army officer best known for serving as Governor of Londonderry during the early stages of the Siege of Derry.

Williamite

A Williamite is a follower of King William III of England who deposed King James II in the Glorious Revolution. William, the Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, replaced James with the support of English Whigs.

Siege of Limerick (1690)

Limerick, a city in western Ireland, was besieged twice in the Williamite War in Ireland, 1689-1691. On the first of these occasions, in August to September 1691, its Jacobite defenders retreated to the city after their defeat at the Battle of the Boyne. The Williamites, under William III, tried to take Limerick by storm, but were driven off and had to retire into their winter quarters.

The Break of Dromore is a name given to a battle fought during the Williamite War in Ireland on 14 March 1689. The battle was fought between Catholic Jacobite troops of the Royal Irish Army under Richard Hamilton and Protestant Williamites of the Army of the North.

Events from the year 1689 in England.

Events from the year 1689 in Ireland.

Battle of Loup Hill

The Battle of Loup Hill was a minor skirmish fought on the slopes of Loup Hill in Kintyre on 16 May 1689 between Scottish Jacobite and government troops.

Siege of Carrickfergus (1689)

The Siege of Carrickfergus took place in August 1689 when a force of Williamite troops under Marshal Schomberg landed and laid siege to the Jacobite garrison of Carrickfergus in Ireland. After a week the Jacobites surrendered, and were allowed to march out with the honours of war.

Solomon Richards was an Irish soldier of the War of the Three Kingdoms and the Williamite War in Ireland. He is best known for his part in a failed attempt to relieve the Siege of Derry in 1689.

William Dorrington was an English army officer of the seventeenth century, known for service in the Jacobite cause of James II. Dorrington rose to the rank of Major General in the Irish Army, fighting in the Williamite War.

Dominic Sheldon, often written as Dominick Sheldon, was an English soldier. A leading Jacobite he served in James II's Irish Army during the Williamite War between 1689 and 1691. He was a noted cavalry commander, present at the Battle of the Boyne and Battle of Aughrim. Later after going into exile, he rose to the rank of Lieutenant General in the French Army. He was also remained a prominent courtier at the Jacobite court in exile at Saint Germain.

References

  1. 1 2 Kenyon, J. P. (1978). Stuart England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ISBN   0-14-022076-3.
  2. Miller, John (2000). James II. Yale English monarchs (3rd ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 222–227. ISBN   0-300-08728-4.
  3. Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN   0-14-102715-0.
  4. "The Siege of Derry in Ulster Protestant mythology". Cruithni. 2001-12-31. Retrieved 2012-07-16.
  5. Lynn, John A. (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714. Harlow: Longman. p. 203. ISBN   0-582-05629-2.
  6. "Parades and Marches - Chronology 2: Historical Dates and Events". Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). Retrieved 2010-01-28.
  7. "Liverpool Castle". Mike Royden's Local History Pages. Archived from the original on July 19, 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-16.