1691

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1691 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1691
MDCXCI
Ab urbe condita 2444
Armenian calendar 1140
ԹՎ ՌՃԽ
Assyrian calendar 6441
Balinese saka calendar 1612–1613
Bengali calendar 1098
Berber calendar 2641
English Regnal year 3  Will.  &  Mar.   4  Will.  &  Mar.
Buddhist calendar 2235
Burmese calendar 1053
Byzantine calendar 7199–7200
Chinese calendar 庚午(Metal  Horse)
4387 or 4327
     to 
辛未年 (Metal  Goat)
4388 or 4328
Coptic calendar 1407–1408
Discordian calendar 2857
Ethiopian calendar 1683–1684
Hebrew calendar 5451–5452
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1747–1748
 - Shaka Samvat 1612–1613
 - Kali Yuga 4791–4792
Holocene calendar 11691
Igbo calendar 691–692
Iranian calendar 1069–1070
Islamic calendar 1102–1103
Japanese calendar Genroku 4
(元禄4年)
Javanese calendar 1614–1615
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar 4024
Minguo calendar 221 before ROC
民前221年
Nanakshahi calendar 223
Thai solar calendar 2233–2234
Tibetan calendar 阳金马年
(male Iron-Horse)
1817 or 1436 or 664
     to 
阴金羊年
(female Iron-Goat)
1818 or 1437 or 665

1691 ( MDCXCI ) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar  and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar , the 1691st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 691st year of the 2nd millennium , the 91st year of the 17th century , and the 2nd year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1691, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days, as distinguished from a leap year, which has 366. More generally, a common year is one without intercalation. The Gregorian calendar,, employs both common years and leap years to keep the calendar aligned with the tropical year, which does not contain an exact number of days.

A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Monday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is G. The most recent year of such kind was 2018 and the next one will be 2029 in the Gregorian calendar, or likewise, 2013 and 2019 in the obsolete Julian calendar. The century year, 1900, was also a common year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar. See below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year of this type contains two Friday the 13ths in April and July. Leap years starting on Sunday share this characteristic, but also have another in January.

Contents

July 12: Battle of Aughrim. John Mulvany - The Battle of Aughrim.jpg
July 12: Battle of Aughrim.

Events

JanuaryJune

March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 301 days remaining until the end of the year.

Nine Years War major war (1688–97) between King Louis XIV of France, and a European-wide "Grand Alliance"

The Nine Years' War (1688–97)—often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg—was a conflict between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain, England and Savoy. It was fought in Europe and the surrounding seas, North America and in India. It is sometimes considered the first global war. The conflict encompassed the Williamite war in Ireland and Jacobite risings in Scotland, where William III and James II struggled for control of England and Ireland, and a campaign in colonial North America between French and English settlers and their respective Indigenous allies, today called King William's War by Americans.

Siege of Mons (1691)

The Siege of Mons, 15 March–10 April 1691, was a major operation fought during the Nine Years' War, and was the main French objective for the 1691 campaign in the Spanish Netherlands. The city was besieged and captured before the normal commencement of the campaigning season with minimal losses. The outcome was not in doubt, but in a conflict dominated by siege warfare, neither the French army of King Louis XIV, nor the forces of the Grand Alliance under King William III, could bring about a decisive battle. After the siege the duc de Boufflers bombarded the neutral city of Liege, whilst the duc de Luxembourg captured Halle, and scored a minor victory against the Prince of Waldeck at the Battle of Leuze in September. Strategically, however, little had changed in the war, and both combatants returned to winter quarters at the end of the campaigning season.

JulyDecember

July 12 is the 193rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 172 days remaining until the end of the year.

Pope Innocent XII 17th-century Catholic pope

Pope Innocent XII, born Antonio Pignatelli, was Pope from 12 July 1691 to his death in 1700.

Pope Alexander VIII 17th-century Catholic pope

Pope Alexander VIII, born Pietro Vito Ottoboni, was Pope from 6 October 1689 to his death in 1691. He is the last pope to take the pontifical name of "Alexander" upon his election to the papacy.

Date unknown

Michel Rolle French mathematician

Michel Rolle was a French mathematician. He is best known for Rolle's theorem (1691). He is also the co-inventor in Europe of Gaussian elimination (1690).

Rolles theorem theorem

In calculus, Rolle's theorem or Rolle's lemma essentially states that any real-valued differentiable function that attains equal values at two distinct points must have at least one stationary point somewhere between them—that is, a point where the first derivative is zero.

Theorem statement that has been proven on the basis of previously established statements in mathematics

In mathematics, a theorem is a statement that has been proven on the basis of previously established statements, such as other theorems, and generally accepted statements, such as axioms. A theorem is a logical consequence of the axioms. The proof of a mathematical theorem is a logical argument for the theorem statement given in accord with the rules of a deductive system. The proof of a theorem is often interpreted as justification of the truth of the theorem statement. In light of the requirement that theorems be proved, the concept of a theorem is fundamentally deductive, in contrast to the notion of a scientific law, which is experimental.

Barnängens manufaktur

Barnängens manufaktur, was a textile factory in the Barnängen area in Södermalm in Stockholm in Sweden, active from 1691 until 1826. Alongside its main rival Pauliska manufakturerna, it was the biggest factory in Stockholm during the 18th-century, and during the 1780s, it employed more people than any other business in the city, the majority of whom were women. The factory has been fictionalized in the novel Vävarnas barn by Per Anders Fogelström from 1981.

Stockholm Capital city in Södermanland and Uppland, Sweden

Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries; 960,031 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area. The city stretches across fourteen islands where Lake Mälaren flows into the Baltic Sea. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago. The area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, and was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is also the capital of Stockholm County.

Sweden constitutional monarchy in Northern Europe

Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million of which 2.4 million has a foreign background. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre (57/sq mi). The highest concentration is in the southern half of the country.

Births

Richard Challoner Richard Challoner painting.jpg
Richard Challoner

Deaths

Aelbert Cuyp 10 Albert Cuyp, Schilder, 1620-1691.jpg
Aelbert Cuyp
Robert Boyle Robert Boyle 0001.jpg
Robert Boyle

See also

Related Research Articles

1624 Year

1624 (MDCXXIV) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1624th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 624th year of the 2nd millennium, the 24th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1620s decade. As of the start of 1624, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1690 Year

1690 (MDCXC) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1690th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 690th year of the 2nd millennium, the 90th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1690, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1652 (MDCLII) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1652nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 652nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 52nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1652, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1593 Year

1593 (MDXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1593rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 593rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 93rd year of the 16th century, and the 4th year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1593, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1670 Year

1670 (MDCLXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1670th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 670th year of the 2nd millennium, the 70th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1670s decade. As of the start of 1670, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1615 Year

1615 (MDCXV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1615th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 615th year of the 2nd millennium, the 15th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1615, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1621 Year

1621 (MDCXXI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1621st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 621st year of the 2nd millennium, the 21st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1620s decade. As of the start of 1621, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1628 Year

1628 (MDCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1628th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 628th year of the 2nd millennium, the 28th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1620s decade. As of the start of 1628, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1634 Year

1634 (MDCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1634th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 634th year of the 2nd millennium, the 34th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1634, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1641 Year

1641 (MDCXLI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1641st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 641st year of the 2nd millennium, the 41st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1641, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. 1641 is the generally accepted year of the birth of the modern timepiece.

1585 Year

1585 (MDLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1585th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 585th year of the 2nd millennium, the 85th year of the 16th century, and the 6th year of the 1580s decade. As of the start of 1585, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1655 Year

1655 (MDCLV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1655th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 655th year of the 2nd millennium, the 55th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1655, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1689 Year

1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1689th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 689th year of the 2nd millennium, the 89th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1689, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1651 Year

1651 (MDCLI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1651st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 651st year of the 2nd millennium, the 51st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1651, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1658 Year

1658 (MDCLVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1658th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 658th year of the 2nd millennium, the 58th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1658, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1659 Year

1659 (MDCLIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1659th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 659th year of the 2nd millennium, the 59th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1659, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1669 Year

1669 (MDCLXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1669th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 669th year of the 2nd millennium, the 69th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1660s decade. As of the start of 1669, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1693 Year

1693 (MDCXCIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1693rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 693rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 93rd year of the 17th century, and the 4th year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1693, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1678 Year

1678 (MDCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1678th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 678th year of the 2nd millennium, the 78th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1670s decade. As of the start of 1678, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1672 Year

1672 (MDCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1672nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 672nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 72nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1670s decade. As of the start of 1672, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

References

  1. "Historical Events for Year 1691 | OnThisDay.com". Historyorb.com. Retrieved 2016-07-08.
  2. "Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p46