1709

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
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Years:
1709 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1709
MDCCIX
Ab urbe condita 2462
Armenian calendar 1158
ԹՎ ՌՃԾԸ
Assyrian calendar 6459
Balinese saka calendar 1630–1631
Bengali calendar 1116
Berber calendar 2659
British Regnal year 7  Ann. 1   8  Ann. 1
Buddhist calendar 2253
Burmese calendar 1071
Byzantine calendar 7217–7218
Chinese calendar 戊子(Earth  Rat)
4405 or 4345
     to 
己丑年 (Earth  Ox)
4406 or 4346
Coptic calendar 1425–1426
Discordian calendar 2875
Ethiopian calendar 1701–1702
Hebrew calendar 5469–5470
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1765–1766
 - Shaka Samvat 1630–1631
 - Kali Yuga 4809–4810
Holocene calendar 11709
Igbo calendar 709–710
Iranian calendar 1087–1088
Islamic calendar 1120–1121
Japanese calendar Hōei 6
(宝永6年)
Javanese calendar 1632–1633
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar 4042
Minguo calendar 203 before ROC
民前203年
Nanakshahi calendar 241
Thai solar calendar 2251–2252
Tibetan calendar 阳土鼠年
(male Earth-Rat)
1835 or 1454 or 682
     to 
阴土牛年
(female Earth-Ox)
1836 or 1455 or 683
July 8: Battle of Poltava. Marten's Poltava.jpg
July 8: Battle of Poltava.

1709 ( MDCCIX ) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar  and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar , the 1709th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 709th year of the 2nd millennium , the 9th year of the 18th century , and the 10th and last year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1709, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Friday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days, as distinguished from a leap year, which has 366. More generally, a common year is one without intercalation. The Gregorian calendar,, employs both common years and leap years to keep the calendar aligned with the tropical year, which does not contain an exact number of days.

A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is F. The current year, 2019, is a common year starting on Tuesday in the Gregorian calendar. The last such year was 2013 and the next such year will be 2030, or, likewise, 2014 and 2025 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year contains two Friday the 13ths in September and December. Leap years starting on Monday share this characteristic. From July of the year that precedes this year until September in this type of year is the longest period that occurs without a Friday the 13th. Leap years starting on Saturday share this characteristic, from August of the common year that precedes it to October in that type of year.

Contents

Events

JanuaryJune

January 6 is the sixth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 359 days remaining until the end of the year.

Great Frost of 1709 1708-1709 weather-related event in the UK

The Great Frost, as it was known in England, or Le Grand Hiver, as it was known in France, was an extraordinarily cold winter in Europe in late 1708 and early 1709, and was the coldest European winter during the past 500 years. The severe cold occurred during the time of low sunspot activity known as the Maunder Minimum.

Seine river in France

The Seine is a 777-kilometre-long (483 mi) river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Source-Seine, 30 kilometres (19 mi) northwest of Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and into the English Channel at Le Havre. It is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen, 120 kilometres (75 mi) from the sea. Over 60 percent of its length, as far as Burgundy, is negotiable by commercial riverboats, and nearly its whole length is available for recreational boating; excursion boats offer sightseeing tours of the river banks in Paris, lined with top monuments including Notre-Dame, the Eiffel Tower, the Louvre Museum and Musée d'Orsay.

JulyDecember

July 27 is the 208th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 157 days remaining until the end of the year.

Emperor Nakamikado emperor of Japan

Emperor Nakamikado was the 114th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. The years of Nakamikado's reign spanned from 1709 through to his abdication in 1735.

July 30 is the 211th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 154 days remaining until the end of the year.

Date unknown

Trinity School (New York City) independent school in New York City

Trinity School is a highly selective independent, preparatory, co-educational day school for grades K-12 located in New York City, USA, and a member of both the New York Interschool and the Ivy Preparatory School League. Founded in 1709 in the old Trinity Church at Broadway and Wall Street, the school is the fifth oldest in the United States and the oldest continually operational school in New York City.

Trinity Church (Manhattan) historic parish church in the Episcopal Diocese of New York

Trinity Church is a historic parish church in the Episcopal Diocese of New York located near the intersection of Wall Street and Broadway in the lower Manhattan section of New York City, New York. Known for both its location and endowment, Trinity is a traditional high church, with an active parish centered around the Episcopal Church and the worldwide Anglican Communion in missionary, outreach, and fellowship.

Eddystone Lighthouse lighthouse in Devon, England

The Eddystone Lighthouse is on the dangerous Eddystone Rocks, 9 statute miles (14 km) south of Rame Head, England, United Kingdom. While Rame Head is in Cornwall, the rocks are in Devon and composed of Precambrian gneiss.

Births

January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 363 days remaining until the end of the year.

Teresia Constantia Phillips English courtesan and memoirist

Teresia Constantia Phillips or Con Phillips was a British courtesan and bigamist who published a scandalous autobiography.

1765 Year

1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1765th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 765th year of the 2nd millennium, the 65th year of the 18th century, and the 6th year of the 1760s decade. As of the start of 1765, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Samuel Johnson Dr-Johnson.jpg
Samuel Johnson

September 18 is the 261st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 104 days remaining until the end of the year.

Samuel Johnson English poet, biographer, essayist, and lexicographer

Samuel Johnson, often referred to as Dr. Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, playwright, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer. He was a devout Anglican and a generous philanthropist. Politically, he was a committed Tory. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography describes Johnson as "arguably the most distinguished man of letters in English history". He is the subject of James Boswell's The Life of Samuel Johnson, described by Walter Jackson Bate as "the most famous single work of biographical art in the whole of literature".

1784 Year

1784 (MDCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1784th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 784th year of the 2nd millennium, the 84th year of the 18th century, and the 5th year of the 1780s decade. As of the start of 1784, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Deaths

Emperor Higashiyama Emperor Higashiyama.jpg
Emperor Higashiyama

Related Research Articles

1582 Year

1582 (MDLXXXII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1582nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 582nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 82nd year of the 16th century, and the 3rd year of the 1580s decade. As of the start of 1582, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which had previously been the universally accepted calendar in Christian nations. However, this year saw the beginning of the Gregorian Calendar switch, when the Papal bull known as Inter gravissimas introduced the Gregorian calendar, adopted by Spain, Portugal, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and most of present-day Italy from the start. In these countries, the year continued as normal until Thursday, October 4. However, the next day became Friday, October 15, in those countries. Other countries continued using the Julian calendar for decades or, in some cases, centuries. The complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was not entirely done until 1923. In the Proleptic Gregorian calendar, 1582 is a common year starting on Friday.

1695 Year

1695 (MDCXCV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1695th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 695th year of the 2nd millennium, the 95th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1695, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. It was also a particularly cold and wet year. Contemporary records claim that wine froze in the glasses in the Palace of Versailles.

1703 Year

1703 (MDCCIII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1703rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 703rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 3rd year of the 18th century, and the 4th year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1703, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Thursday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

1680 Year

1680 (MDCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1680th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 680th year of the 2nd millennium, the 80th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1680, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1632 Year

1632 (MDCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1632nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 632nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 32nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1632, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1611 Year

1611 (MDCXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1611th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 611th year of the 2nd millennium, the 11th year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1611, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1593 Year

1593 (MDXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1593rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 593rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 93rd year of the 16th century, and the 4th year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1593, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1596 Year

1596 (MDXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1596th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 596th year of the 2nd millennium, the 96th year of the 16th century, and the 7th year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1596, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1646 Year

1646 (MDCXLVI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1646th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 646th year of the 2nd millennium, the 46th year of the 17th century, and the 7th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1646, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once.

1601 Year

1601 (MDCI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1601st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 601st year of the 2nd millennium, the 1st year of the 17th century, and the 2nd year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1601, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. January 1 of this year (1601-01-01) is used as the base of file dates and of Active Directory Logon dates by Microsoft Windows. It is also the date from which ANSI dates are counted and were adopted by the American National Standards Institute for use with COBOL and other computer languages. This epoch is the beginning of the 400-year Gregorian leap-year cycle within which digital files first existed; the last year of any such cycle is the only leap year whose year number is divisible by 100. All versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system from Windows 95 onward count units of one hundred nanoseconds from this epoch.

1606 Year

1606 (MDCVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1606th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 606th year of the 2nd millennium, the 6th year of the 17th century, and the 7th year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1606, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1610 Year

1610 (MDCX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1610th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 610th year of the 2nd millennium, the 10th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1610, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. Some have suggested that 1610 may mark the beginning of the Anthropocene, or the 'Age of Man', marking a fundamental change in the relationship between humans and the Earth system, but earlier starting dates have received broader consensus, based on high resolution pollution records that show the massive impact of human activity on the atmosphere.

1614 Year

1614 (MDCXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1614th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 614th year of the 2nd millennium, the 14th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1614, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1628 Year

1628 (MDCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1628th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 628th year of the 2nd millennium, the 28th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1620s decade. As of the start of 1628, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1710 Year

1710 (MDCCX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1710th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 710th year of the 2nd millennium, the 10th year of the 18th century, and the 1st year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1710, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Saturday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

1712 Year

1712 (MDCCXII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1712th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 712th year of the 2nd millennium, the 12th year of the 18th century, and the 3rd year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1712, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it began as a leap year starting on Monday and remained so until Thursday, February 29. By adding a second leap day Sweden reverted to the Julian calendar and the rest of the year was in sync with the Julian calendar. Sweden finally made the switch from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar in 1753. This year has 367 days.

1708 Year

1708 (MDCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1708th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 708th year of the 2nd millennium, the 8th year of the 18th century, and the 9th year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1708, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a leap year starting on Wednesday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

1704 Year

1704 (MDCCIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1704th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 704th year of the 2nd millennium, the 4th year of the 18th century, and the 5th year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1704, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a leap year starting on Friday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

1699 Year

1699 (MDCXCIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1699th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 699th year of the 2nd millennium, the 99th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1699, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Events from the year 1709 in Great Britain.

References

  1. Pain, Stephanie. "1709: The year that Europe froze." New Scientist , 7 February 2009.
  2. Mott, R. A. (5 January 1957). "The earliest use of coke for ironmaking". The Gas World, coking section supplement. 145: 7–18.
  3. Raistrick, Arthur (1953). Dynasty of Ironfounders: the Darbys and Coalbrookdale. London: Longmans, Green. p. 34.
  4. 1 2 3 Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 292. ISBN   0-304-35730-8.
  5. Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN   0-14-102715-0.
  6. Ober, Frederick A. (1912). Our West Indian Neighbors: the Islands of the Caribbean Sea. New York: James Pott & Company. p. 11.
  7. Jackson, Michael H. (1993). Galapagos: a Natural History. University of Calgary Press. ISBN   1-895176-07-7.
  8. Gardiner, Juliet (1995). Wenborn, Neil, ed. The History Today Companion to British History. London: Collins & Brown. p. 577. ISBN   1-85585-178-4.
  9. Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 207–208. ISBN   0-7126-5616-2.
  10. Majdalany, Fred (1959). The Red Rocks of Eddystone. London: Longmans. p. 86.