1745

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1745 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1745
MDCCXLV
Ab urbe condita 2498
Armenian calendar 1194
ԹՎ ՌՃՂԴ
Assyrian calendar 6495
Balinese saka calendar 1666–1667
Bengali calendar 1152
Berber calendar 2695
British Regnal year 18  Geo. 2   19  Geo. 2
Buddhist calendar 2289
Burmese calendar 1107
Byzantine calendar 7253–7254
Chinese calendar 甲子(Wood  Rat)
4441 or 4381
     to 
乙丑年 (Wood  Ox)
4442 or 4382
Coptic calendar 1461–1462
Discordian calendar 2911
Ethiopian calendar 1737–1738
Hebrew calendar 5505–5506
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1801–1802
 - Shaka Samvat 1666–1667
 - Kali Yuga 4845–4846
Holocene calendar 11745
Igbo calendar 745–746
Iranian calendar 1123–1124
Islamic calendar 1157–1158
Japanese calendar Enkyō 2
(延享2年)
Javanese calendar 1669–1670
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar 4078
Minguo calendar 167 before ROC
民前167年
Nanakshahi calendar 277
Thai solar calendar 2287–2288
Tibetan calendar 阳木鼠年
(male Wood-Rat)
1871 or 1490 or 718
     to 
阴木牛年
(female Wood-Ox)
1872 or 1491 or 719
May 11: Battle of Fontenoy. Battle-of-Fontenoy.jpg
May 11: Battle of Fontenoy.

1745 ( MDCCXLV ) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar  and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar , the 1745th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 745th year of the 2nd millennium , the 45th year of the 18th century , and the 6th year of the 1740s decade. As of the start of 1745, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days, as distinguished from a leap year, which has 366. More generally, a common year is one without intercalation. The Gregorian calendar,, employs both common years and leap years to keep the calendar aligned with the tropical year, which does not contain an exact number of days.

A common year starting on Friday is any non-leap year that begins on Friday, 1 January, and ends on Friday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is C. The most recent year of such kind was 2010 and the next one will be 2021 in the Gregorian calendar, or, likewise, 2011 and 2022 in the obsolete Julian calendar. The century year, 2100, will also be a common year starting on Friday in the Gregorian calendar. See below for more. Any common year that starts on Wednesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this common year occurs in August. Leap years starting on Thursday share this characteristic, but also have another one in February.

Contents

Events

JanuaryMarch

January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 358 days remain until the end of the year.

War of the Austrian Succession Dynastic war in Austria

The War of the Austrian Succession was a war that involved most of the great powers and lesser powers of Europe over the issue of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy. The war included peripheral events such as King George's War in British America, the War of Jenkins' Ear, the First Carnatic War in India, the Jacobite rising of 1745 in Scotland, and the First and Second Silesian Wars.

Habsburg Monarchy Former monarchy in Europe from 1282 to 1918

Habsburg Monarchy is an umbrella term used by historians for the lands and kingdoms of the House of Habsburg, especially for those of the Austrian branch. Although from 1438 until 1806 the head of the House of Habsburg was also Holy Roman Emperor, the empire itself is not considered a part of the Habsburg Monarchy.

AprilJune

April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 271 days remain until the end of the year.

William Pepperrell British Army general

Sir William Pepperrell, 1st Baronet was an American merchant and soldier in Colonial Massachusetts. He is widely remembered for organizing, financing, and leading the 1745 expedition that captured the French garrison at Fortress Louisbourg during King George's War. During his day Pepperrell was called "the hero of Louisburg," a victory celebrated in the name of Louisburg Square in Boston's Beacon Hill neighborhood. He is the great-great-great grandfather of actor Robert Hardy.

Boston State capital of Massachusetts, U.S.

Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States, and the 21st most populous city in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles (124 km2) with an estimated population of 694,583 in 2018, making it also the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999. The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area (CSA), this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth most populous in the United States.

JulySeptember

July 9 is the 190th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 175 days remain until the end of the year.

The Battle of Melle was a encounter battle fought on 9 July 1745, during the War of the Austrian Succession, between forces of the Pragmatic Allies and the French. After their defeat at Fontenoy in May, the Duke of Cumberland, Allied commander in Flanders, was under pressure from the Austrians to defend Brussels. He also wanted to protect the key port of Ghent, a major supply depot threatened by the French advance into West Flanders.

Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 edict

The Pragmatic Sanction was an edict issued by Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, on 19 April 1713 to ensure that the Habsburg hereditary possessions, which included the Archduchy of Austria, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Croatia, the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Austrian Netherlands, could be inherited by a daughter.

October December

October 4 is the 277th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 88 days remain until the end of the year.

October 8 is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 84 days remain until the end of the year.

Elizabeth of Russia Empress of Russia

Elizabeth Petrovna, also known as Yelisaveta or Elizaveta, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death. She led the country during the two major European conflicts of her time: the War of Austrian Succession (1740–48) and the Seven Years' War (1756–63).

Births

Isaac Titsingh 18th and 19th-century Dutch diplomat, scholar, and merchant

Isaac Titsingh FRS was a Dutch scholar, merchant-trader and ambassador.

1812 Year

1812 (MDCCCXII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1812th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 812th year of the 2nd millennium, the 12th year of the 19th century, and the 3rd year of the 1810s decade. As of the start of 1812, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

January 1 is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year. This day is known as New Year's Day since the day marks the beginning of the year. It is also the first day of the first quarter of the year and the first half of the year.

Alessandro Volta Alessandro Volta.jpeg
Alessandro Volta

Deaths

Robert Walpole Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford by Arthur Pond.jpg
Robert Walpole
Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift by Charles Jervas detail.jpg
Jonathan Swift

Related Research Articles

War of the Polish Succession War in Europe 1734–1738

The War of the Polish Succession (1733–35) was a major European war sparked by a Polish civil war over the succession to Augustus II, which the other European powers widened in pursuit of their own national interests. France and Spain, the two Bourbon powers, attempted to check the power of the Austrian Habsburgs in western Europe, as did the Kingdom of Prussia, whilst Saxony and Russia mobilized to support the eventual Polish victor. The slight amount of fighting in Poland resulted in the accession of Augustus III, who in addition to Russia and Saxony, was politically supported by the Habsburgs.

The 1740s decade ran from January 1, 1740, to December 31, 1749.

1747 Year

1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1747th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 747th year of the 2nd millennium, the 47th year of the 18th century, and the 8th year of the 1740s decade. As of the start of 1747, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Charles VII was the Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from 24 January 1742 until his death in 1745. A member of the House of Wittelsbach, Charles was the first person not born of the House of Habsburg to become emperor in three centuries, though he was connected to that house both by blood and by marriage.

George Wade British Field Marshal

Field Marshal George Wade was a British Army officer who served in the Nine Years' War, War of the Spanish Succession, Jacobite rising of 1715 and War of the Quadruple Alliance before leading the construction of barracks, bridges and proper roads in Scotland. He went on to be a military commander during the War of the Austrian Succession and Commander-in-Chief of the Forces during the Jacobite rising of 1745.

Battle of Dettingen Battle during War of Austrian Succession

The Battle of Dettingen took place on 27 June 1743 during the War of the Austrian Succession, at Dettingen, now Karlstein am Main in Bavaria. It was fought between a Pragmatic Army, composed of British, Hanoverian and Austrian troops, and a French army commanded by the duc de Noailles.

Battle of Fontenoy 1745 battle during the War of the Austrian Succession

The Battle of Fontenoy took place on 11 May 1745, during the War of the Austrian Succession, in the Belgian municipality of Antoing, near Tournai. A French army of 50,000 commanded by Marshal Saxe defeated a slightly larger Pragmatic Army of 52,000, led by the Duke of Cumberland.

Silesian Wars 18th-century wars between Prussia and Austria

The Silesian Wars were a series of three wars fought in the mid-18th century between Prussia and Austria for control of the Central European region of Silesia. The First (1740–1742) and Second (1744–1745) Silesian Wars formed parts of the wider War of the Austrian Succession, in which Prussia acted as one member of a coalition seeking territorial gain at Austria's expense. The Third Silesian War (1756–1763) was one theatre of the global Seven Years' War, in which Austria in turn led a coalition of powers aiming to seize Prussian territory.

The Battle of Moys was a battle fought on 7 September 1757 during the Third Silesian War. A Prussian army of 13,000 men fought an Austrian army of double their size. The entire Prussian corps surrendered to the Austrians.

War of the Bavarian Succession 18th-century war against the Austrian Habsburgs and

The War of the Bavarian Succession was a dispute between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and an alliance of Saxony and Prussia over succession to the Electorate of Bavaria after the extinction of its ruling House of Wittelsbach. The Habsburgs sought to acquire Bavaria, and the alliance opposed them, favoring another branch of the Wittelsbachs. Both sides mobilized large armies, but the only fighting in the war was a few minor skirmishes. However, thousands of soldiers died from disease and starvation, earning the conflict the name Kartoffelkrieg in Prussia and Saxony; in Habsburg Austria, it was sometimes called the Zwetschgenrummel.

Battle of Chotusitz battle

The Battle of Chotusitz, also known as Chotusice or Czaslau, took place on 17 May 1742, in Bohemia, now the Czech Republic; it was part of the 1740 to 1742 First Silesian War, itself a subsidiary of the wider War of the Austrian Succession.

Second Silesian War 18th-century war between Prussia and Austria

The Second Silesian War was a conflict between Prussia and Austria lasting from 1744 to 1745, which confirmed Prussia's control of the region of Silesia. The war was fought mainly in Silesia, Bohemia, and Upper Saxony and formed one theatre of the wider War of the Austrian Succession. It was the second in a series of three Silesian Wars fought between Frederick the Great's Prussia and Maria Theresa's Austria in the mid-18th century, all three of which ended in Prussian control of Silesia.

Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria Elector of Bavaria

Maximilian III Joseph was a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire and Duke of Bavaria from 1745 to 1777.

Treaty of Dresden

The Treaty of Dresden was signed on 25 December 1745 at the Saxon capital of Dresden between Austria, Saxony and Prussia, ending the Second Silesian War.

Electorate of Bavaria state in the Holy Roman Empire

The Electorate of Bavaria was an independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1623 to 1806, when it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Bavaria.

First Silesian War 18th-century war between Prussia and Austria

The First Silesian War was a conflict between Prussia and Austria lasting from 1740 to 1742, which resulted in Prussia's seizure from Austria of most of the region of Silesia. The war was fought mainly in Silesia, Moravia and Bohemia and formed one theatre of the wider War of the Austrian Succession. It was the first in a series of three Silesian Wars fought between Frederick the Great's Prussia and Maria Theresa's Austria in the mid-1700s, all three of which ended in Prussian control of Silesia.

Austria–Prussia rivalry Cooperation and rivalry between Austria and Prussia up to 1866

Austria and Prussia were the most powerful principalities in the Holy Roman Empire by the 18th and 19th centuries and had engaged in a struggle for supremacy in Central Europe. Locally known as Deutscher Dualismus, 'German dualism', the rivalry was characterized by major territorial conflicts, economic, cultural and political contention for sovereign leadership among the German-speaking peoples.

The imperial election of 1792 was the final imperial election held to select the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. It took place in Frankfurt on July 5.

References

  1. "War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748)", in Wars That Changed History: 50 of the World's Greatest Conflicts: 50 of the World's Greatest Conflicts, ed. by Spencer C. Tucker (ABC-CLIO, 2015) p214
  2. "Treaty of Quadruple Alliance", International Military Alliances, 1648-2008, ed. by Douglas M. Gibler (Congressional Quarterly Press, Oct 15, 2008) p94
  3. William Reed, The History of Sugar and Sugar-yielding Plants (Longmans, Green, and Co., 1866) p50
  4. Marion F. Godfroy, Kourou and the Struggle for a French America (Springer, 2015) p193
  5. Larrie D. Ferreiro, Measure of the Earth: The Enlightenment Expedition That Reshaped Our World (Basic Books, 2011) p253
  6. 1 2 3 Maureen Cassidy-Geiger, Fragile Diplomacy (Yale University Press, 2007) p66-74
  7. 1 2 Spencer Tucker, Almanac of American Military History (ABC-CLIO, 2013) p137
  8. "War of the Austrian Succession (1740—1748)" in Wars That Changed History: 50 of the World's Greatest Conflicts, by Spencer C. Tucker (ABC-CLIO, 2015) p214
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History . London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 310–311. ISBN   0-304-35730-8.
  10. Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 217–218. ISBN   0-7126-5616-2.
  11. "War of Austrian Succession", in Germany at War: 400 Years of Military History, ed. by David T. Zabecki (ABC-CLIO, 2014) p1371
  12. J. L. Heilbron, Electricity in the 17th and 18th Centuries: A Study of Early Modern Physics (University of California Press, 1979) p311
  13. Mahinder N. Gulati, Comparative Religious And Philosophies: Anthropomorphlsm And Divinity (Atlantic Publishers, 2008) p307
  14. Mark Anielski, The Economics of Happiness: Building Genuine Wealth (New Society Publishers, 2007) p197
  15. "The White Rose on the Border", by Alison Buckler, in The Gentleman's Magazine (July 1896) p28
  16. David R. Starbuck, The Great Warpath: British Military Sites from Albany to Crown Point (University Press of New England, 1999) p28
  17. Unless the Battle of Graveney Marsh (1940) is counted.