1769

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1769 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1769
MDCCLXIX
Ab urbe condita 2522
Armenian calendar 1218
ԹՎ ՌՄԺԸ
Assyrian calendar 6519
Balinese saka calendar 1690–1691
Bengali calendar 1176
Berber calendar 2719
British Regnal year 9  Geo. 3   10  Geo. 3
Buddhist calendar 2313
Burmese calendar 1131
Byzantine calendar 7277–7278
Chinese calendar 戊子(Earth  Rat)
4465 or 4405
     to 
己丑年 (Earth  Ox)
4466 or 4406
Coptic calendar 1485–1486
Discordian calendar 2935
Ethiopian calendar 1761–1762
Hebrew calendar 5529–5530
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1825–1826
 - Shaka Samvat 1690–1691
 - Kali Yuga 4869–4870
Holocene calendar 11769
Igbo calendar 769–770
Iranian calendar 1147–1148
Islamic calendar 1182–1183
Japanese calendar Meiwa 6
(明和6年)
Javanese calendar 1694–1695
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar 4102
Minguo calendar 143 before ROC
民前143年
Nanakshahi calendar 301
Thai solar calendar 2311–2312
Tibetan calendar 阳土鼠年
(male Earth-Rat)
1895 or 1514 or 742
     to 
阴土牛年
(female Earth-Ox)
1896 or 1515 or 743
April 13: James Cook arrives in Tahiti on the Endeavour. Endeavour replica in Cooktown harbour.jpg
April 13: James Cook arrives in Tahiti on the Endeavour.

1769 ( MDCCLXIX ) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar  and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar , the 1769th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 769th year of the 2nd millennium , the 69th year of the 18th century , and the 10th and last year of the 1760s decade. As of the start of 1769, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days, as distinguished from a leap year, which has 366. More generally, a common year is one without intercalation. The Gregorian calendar,, employs both common years and leap years to keep the calendar aligned with the tropical year, which does not contain an exact number of days.

A common year starting on Sunday is any non-leap year that begins on Sunday, 1 January, and ends on Sunday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is A. The most recent year of such kind was 2017 and the next one will be 2023 in the Gregorian calendar, or, likewise, 2018 and 2029 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year contains two Friday the 13ths in January and October.

Contents

Events

JanuaryMarch

January 5 is the fifth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 360 days remain until the end of the year.

James Watt British engineer

James Watt was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1776, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.

Watt steam engine Industrial Revolution era stream engine design

The Watt steam engine, alternatively known as the Boulton and Watt steam engine, was the first practical steam engine and was one of the driving forces of the industrial revolution. James Watt developed the design sporadically from 1763 to 1775 with support from Matthew Boulton. Watt's design saved significantly more fuel compared to earlier designs that they were licensed based on the amount of fuel they would save. Watt never ceased developing the steam engine, introducing double-acting designs and various systems for taking off rotary power. Watt's design became synonymous with steam engines, and it was many years before significantly new designs began to replace the basic Watt design.

AprilJune

April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 262 days remain until the end of the year.

James Cook 18th-century British explorer

Captain James Cook was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

Tahiti Largest island of French Polynesia in central Southern Pacific Ocean

Tahiti is the largest island in the Windward group of French Polynesia. The island is located in the archipelago of the Society Islands in the central Southern Pacific Ocean; it is divided into two parts: the bigger, northwestern part, Tahiti Nui, and the smaller, southeastern part, Tahiti Iti. The island was formed from volcanic activity and is high and mountainous with surrounding coral reefs. The population is 189,517 inhabitants, making it the most populous island of French Polynesia and accounting for 68.7% of its total population.

JulySeptember

July 3 is the 184th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 181 days remain until the end of the year.

Richard Arkwright textile entrepreneur; developer of the cotton mill

Sir Richard Arkwright was an English inventor and a leading entrepreneur during the early Industrial Revolution. He is credited as the driving force behind the development of the spinning frame, known as the water frame after it was adapted to use water power; and he patented a rotary carding engine to convert raw cotton to "cotton lap" prior to spinning. He was the first to develop factories housing both mechanised carding and spinning operations.

Spinning frame Industrial Revolution invention for spinning thread in a mechanized way

The spinning frame is an Industrial Revolution invention for spinning thread or yarn from fibres such as wool or cotton in a mechanized way. It was developed in 18th-century Britain by Richard Arkwright and John Kay.

OctoberDecember

October 7 is the 280th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 85 days remain until the end of the year.

October 9 is the 282nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 83 days remain until the end of the year.

Māori people Indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand

The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand. Māori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of canoe voyages some time between 1250 and 1300. Over several centuries in isolation, the Polynesian settlers developed a unique culture, with their own language, a rich mythology, and distinctive crafts and performing arts. Early Māori formed tribal groups based on eastern Polynesian social customs and organisation. Horticulture flourished using plants they introduced; later, a prominent warrior culture emerged.

October 23: Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot demonstrates his steam-wagon. CugnotAppleton.jpg
October 23: Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot demonstrates his steam-wagon.

October 23 is the 296th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 69 days remain until the end of the year.

Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot was a French inventor who built the first working self-propelled land-based mechanical vehicle, the world's first automobile.

Kingdom of France kingdom in Western Europe from 843 to 1791

The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was among the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War. It was also an early colonial power, with possessions around the world.

Date unknown

Births

Princess Pauline of Anhalt-Bernburg Pauline01.jpg
Princess Pauline of Anhalt-Bernburg
DeWitt Clinton DeWitt Clinton by Rembrandt Peale.jpg
DeWitt Clinton

Deaths

Pope Clement XIII Anton Raphael Mengs (1728-1779) - Portret van paus Clemens XIII (1758) - Bologna Pinacoteca Nazionale - 26-04-2012 9-53-03.jpg
Pope Clement XIII
Prince Constantine Mavrocordatos Constantine Maurocordato.JPG
Prince Constantine Mavrocordatos
Joseph Friedrich Ernst, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen JosefFriedrErnstHohenzSig.jpg
Joseph Friedrich Ernst, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen

Related Research Articles

1809 Year

1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1809th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 809th year of the 2nd millennium, the 9th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1809, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1707 Year

1707 (MDCCVII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1707th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 707th year of the 2nd millennium, the 7th year of the 18th century, and the 8th year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1707, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Tuesday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

1582 Year

1582 (MDLXXXII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1582nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 582nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 82nd year of the 16th century, and the 3rd year of the 1580s decade. As of the start of 1582, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which had previously been the universally accepted calendar in Christian nations. However, this year saw the beginning of the Gregorian Calendar switch, when the Papal bull known as Inter gravissimas introduced the Gregorian calendar, adopted by Spain, Portugal, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and most of present-day Italy from the start. In these countries, the year continued as normal until Thursday, October 4. However, the next day became Friday, October 15, in those countries. Other countries continued using the Julian calendar for decades or, in some cases, centuries. The complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was not entirely done until 1923. In the Proleptic Gregorian calendar, 1582 is a common year starting on Friday.

1730 Year

1730 (MDCCXXX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1730th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 730th year of the 2nd millennium, the 30th year of the 18th century, and the 1st year of the 1730s decade. As of the start of 1730, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1652 (MDCLII) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1652nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 652nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 52nd year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1652, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1680 Year

1680 (MDCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1680th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 680th year of the 2nd millennium, the 80th year of the 17th century, and the 1st year of the 1680s decade. As of the start of 1680, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1830 Year

1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1830th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 830th year of the 2nd millennium, the 30th year of the 19th century, and the 1st year of the 1830s decade. As of the start of 1830, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. It is known in European history as a rather tumultuous year with the Revolutions of 1830 in France, Belgium, Poland, Switzerland and Italy.

1605 Year

1605 (MDCV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1605th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 605th year of the 2nd millennium, the 5th year of the 17th century, and the 6th year of the 1600s decade. As of the start of 1605, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1758 Year

1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1758th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 758th year of the 2nd millennium, the 58th year of the 18th century, and the 9th year of the 1750s decade. As of the start of 1758, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1592 Year

1592 (MDXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1592nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 592nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 92nd year of the 16th century, and the 3rd year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1592, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1585 Year

1585 (MDLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1585th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 585th year of the 2nd millennium, the 85th year of the 16th century, and the 6th year of the 1580s decade. As of the start of 1585, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1740 Year

1740 (MDCCXL) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1740th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 740th year of the 2nd millennium, the 40th year of the 18th century, and the 1st year of the 1740s decade. As of the start of 1740, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1591 Year

1591 (MDXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1591st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 591st year of the 2nd millennium, the 91st year of the 16th century, and the 2nd year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1591, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1590 Year

1590 (MDXC) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1590th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 590th year of the 2nd millennium, the 90th year of the 16th century, and the 1st year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1590, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1667 Year

1667 (MDCLXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1667th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 667th year of the 2nd millennium, the 67th year of the 17th century, and the 8th year of the 1660s decade. As of the start of 1667, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1717 Year

1717 (MDCCXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1717th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 717th year of the 2nd millennium, the 17th year of the 18th century, and the 8th year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1717, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1713 Year

1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1713th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 713th year of the 2nd millennium, the 13th year of the 18th century, and the 4th year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1713, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1712 Year

1712 (MDCCXII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1712th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 712th year of the 2nd millennium, the 12th year of the 18th century, and the 3rd year of the 1710s decade. As of the start of 1712, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it began as a leap year starting on Monday and remained so until Thursday, February 29. By adding a second leap day Sweden reverted to the Julian calendar and the rest of the year was in sync with the Julian calendar. Sweden finally made the switch from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar in 1753. This year has 367 days.

1702 (MDCCII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1702nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 702nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 2nd year of the 18th century, and the 3rd year of the 1700s decade. As of the start of 1702, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In the Swedish calendar it was a common year starting on Wednesday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar.

1693 Year

1693 (MDCXCIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1693rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 693rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 93rd year of the 17th century, and the 4th year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1693, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

References

  1. Sir Eric Roll, An Early Experiment in Industrial Organization: History of the Firm of Boulton and Watt 1775-1805 (Frank Cass and Company, 1930) p13
  2. 1 2 3 Denis De Lucca, Jesuits and Fortifications: The Contribution of the Jesuits to Military Architecture in the Baroque Age (BRILL, 2012) pp315-316
  3. "The Ethics and Philosophy of By-Elections", by J.G. Swift MacNeill, in The Fortnightly Review (April 1, 1920) p557
  4. Patent 913; specification accepted January 5.
  5. Palmer, Alan; Palmer, Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 224–225. ISBN   0-7126-5616-2.
  6. Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 325. ISBN   0-304-35730-8.
  7. Joan Garvey and Mary Lou Widmer, Beautiful Crescent: A History of New Orleans (Pelican Publishing, 2012) pp62-63
  8. Martin Terry and Susan Hall, Cook's Endeavour Journal: The Inside Story (National Library Australia, 2008) p90
  9. "Spanish Penetrations to the North of New Spain", by Oakah L. Jones, Jr., in North American Exploration, Volume 2: A Continent Defined, ed. by John Logan Allen ((University of Nebraska Press, 1997) p62
  10. John Barrow, Some Account of the Public Life, and a Selection from the Unpublished Writings of the Earl of Macartney (Volume II, Cadell and Davies, 1807) p151

Further reading