1777 Last updated February 06, 2019 Events January –March January 2 – American Revolutionary War: American forces under the command of George Washington repulsed a British attack at the Battle of the Assunpink Creek near Trenton, New Jersey. January 3 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Princeton: American general George Washington's army defeats British troops. January 11 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of the Assunpink Creek: American general George Washington's army repulses a British attack by Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis, in a second battle at Trenton, New Jersey. January 12 – Mission Santa Clara de Asís is founded in what becomes Santa Clara, California. January 15 – Vermont declares its independence from New York, becoming the Vermont Republic, an independent country, a status it retains until it joins the United States as the 14th state in 1791. January 20 – The Continental Congress approves a resolution "that an authentic copy, with names of the signers of the Declaration of independence, be sent to each of the United States.  February 5 – Under the 1st Constitution of Georgia, 8 counties were chartered: Burke, Camden, Chatham, Effingham, Glynn, Liberty, Richmond, and Wilkes. This dissolved the existing parishes of St. George, St. Mary's, St. Thomas, St. Phillip, Christ Church, St. David, St. Matthews, St. Andrew, St. James, St. Johns, and St. Paul.  February 24 – King Joseph I of Portugal dies, and is succeeded by his brother and son-in-law Peter III of Portugal, and his daughter Maria I of Portugal. March 4 – The Fourth Continental Congress, with John Hancock as President, begins a 199 day session in Philadelphia, lasting until September 18.  March 29 – 30 – Third voyage of James Cook: English explorer Captain Cook discovers Mangaia and Atiu in the Cook Islands.  April –June April 1 – Friedrich Maximilian Klinger's play is premiered by the Sturm und Drang Seyler Theatre Company in Leipzig, giving its name to the whole movement in Sturm und Drang German literature. April 13 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Bound Brook: A British and Hessian force led by Charles Cornwallis surprises a Continental Army outpost in New Jersey, commanded by Major General Benjamin Lincoln. April 27 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Ridgefield: The British Army defeats Patriot militias, galvanizing resistance in the Connecticut Colony. May 8 – Richard Brinsley Sheridan's comedy of manners, , is first performed at the The School for Scandal Theatre Royal, Drury Lane in London.  May 16 – Lachlan McIntosh and Button Gwinnett shoot each other during a duel near Savannah, Georgia. Gwinnett, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence, dies three days later. June 13 – American Revolution: The Marquis de Lafayette lands near Georgetown, South Carolina, to help the Continental Congress train its army. June 14: US Flag (had various star patterns) July –December July 8 – The 1777 Constitution of Vermont is signed, officially abolishing slavery. July 6 – American Revolutionary War – Siege of Fort Ticonderoga: After a bombardment by British artillery under General John Burgoyne, American forces retreat from Fort Ticonderoga, New York. July 7 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Hubbardton: British forces capture over 200 of the American rearguard, from Fort Ticonderoga. August 6 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Oriskany: Loyalists gain a tactical victory over Patriots; Iroquois fight on both sides. August 16 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Bennington: British and Brunswicker forces are decisively defeated by American troops. August 22 – American Revolutionary War – The Siege of Fort Stanwix is ended by withdrawal of British forces, following a ruse by Benedict Arnold to persuade them that a much larger force is arriving. September 3 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Cooch's Bridge: British and Hessian forces defeat an American militia, in a minor skirmish in New Castle County, Delaware. September 11 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Brandywine: The British gain a major victory in Chester County, Pennsylvania. September 19 – American Revolutionary War – First Battle of Saratoga ( Battle of Freeman's Farm): Patriot forces withstand a British attack at Saratoga, New York. September 26 – American Revolutionary War – British troops occupy Philadelphia; members of the Continental Congress flee to Lancaster, Pennsylvania where they meet and hold a one day session as the Fifth Congress before fleeing again.  September 30 – American Revolutionary War – The Sixth Continental Congress opens its session at York, Pennsylvania, and continues for 272 days until June 27, 1778.  October 4 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Germantown: Troops under George Washington are repelled by British troops under Sir William Howe. October 6 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery: British troops capture Fort Clinton and Fort Montgomery (Hudson River), and are able to dismantle the Hudson River Chain. October 7 – American Revolutionary War – Second Battle of Saratoga ( Battle of Bemis Heights): British General John Burgoyne is defeated by American troops. October 17 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Saratoga: British General John Burgoyne surrenders to the American troops. November 15 – American Revolution: After 16 months of debate, the Continental Congress approves the Articles of Confederation, in the temporary American capital at York, Pennsylvania. November 17 – American Revolution: The Articles of Confederation are submitted to the states for ratification. November 29 – San Jose, California is founded. It is the first in Spanish pueblo Alta California. December 18 – The United States celebrates its first Thanksgiving, marking October's victory by the American rebels over British General John Burgoyne at Saratoga. December 19 – American Revolutionary War – George Washington's Continental Army goes into winter quarters at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. December 24 – Third voyage of James Cook: English explorer Captain Cook locates Kiritimati (Christmas Island). December 30 – Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria dies and is succeeded by his distant cousin Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria. Births January –March January – William Barton, English cricketer (d. 1825) January 2 – Christian Daniel Rauch, German sculptor (d. 1857) January 7 – Lorenzo Bartolini, Italian sculptor (d. 1850) January 11 – Vincenzo Borg, Maltese merchant, rebel leader (d. 1837) January 13 – Elisa Bonaparte, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, sister of Napoleon Bonaparte (d. 1820) January 25 – Karoline Jagemann, German actor (d.1848) February 3 – John Cheyne, British physician, surgeon and author (d. 1836) February 10 – Amable Berthelot, Quebec lawyer, author and political figure (d. 1847) February 12 February 18 – Andreas Arntzen, Norwegian politician (d. 1837) February 20 – Zacheus Burnham, Canadian farmer, judge and public figure (d. 1857) February 26 – Matija Nenadović, Prime Minister of Serbia (d. 1854) March 3 – Adolphe Dureau de la Malle, French geographer, naturalist, historian and artist (d. 1857) March 10 – Robert Allison (Pennsylvania), U.S. Representative (d. 1840) March 13 – Charles Lot Church, Nova Scotia politician (d. 1864) Roger B. Taney April –June Carl Friedrich Gauss April 30 – Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, astronomer and physicist (d. 1855) May 4 – Richard Bourke, Australian governor (d. 1855) May 8 – Mateli Magdalena Kuivalatar, Finnish-Karelian folksinger (d. 1846) May 11 – Samuel Bridger, English cricketer May 12 – Mary Reibey, Australian businessperson (d. 1855) May 18 – John George Children, British chemist, mineralogist and zoologist (d. 1852) June 12 – Robert Clark, American politician (d. 1837) June 14 – Heman Allen (of Milton), U.S. Representative (d. 1844) June 15 – David Daniel Davis, British physician (d. 1841) June 22 June 23 – Frederick Bates, American politician (d. 1825) July –September July – Thomas Clayton, American lawyer, politician (d. 1854) July 9 – Henry Hallam, English historian (d. 1859) July 23 – Philipp Otto Runge, German painter (d. 1810) July 26 – Robert Hamilton Bishop, Scottish-American educator, minister (d. 1855) July 27 July 31 – Pedro Ignacio de Castro Barros, Argentine statesman, priest (d. 1849) August 11 – Giuseppe Bossi, Italian painter (d. 1815) August 12 – George Wolf, American politician (d. 1840) Hans Christian Ørsted October –December Heinrich von Kleist November 7 – Richard Bassett (clergyman), Welsh cleric (d. 1852) November 14 – Nathaniel Claiborne, American politician (d. 1859) November 24 – Samuel Butts, American militia officer (d. 1814) December 1 – Thomas Bradford, British Army officer (d. 1853) December 4 – Juliette Récamier, French writer (d. 1849) December 10 – William Conner, American trader, politician (d. 1855) December 14 – Du Pré Alexander, 2nd Earl of Caledon, Irish peer, landlord and colonial administrator (d. 1839) December 15 – Agostino Aglio, Italian painter, decorator and engraver (d. 1857) December 21 – John Campbell, 7th Duke of Argyll, Scottish peer, Whig politician (d. 1847) Alexander I of Russia Date unknown Suleiman al-Halabi, Syrian student, assassin (d. 1800) Carlos Anaya, Uruguayan politician (d. 1862) Charles James Apperley, English sportsman, sporting writer (d. 1843) Carlo Armellini, Italian politician, activist and jurist (d. 1863) Mevlana Halid-i Bagdadi, Ottoman mystic (d. 1826) Connell James Baldwin, Irish soldier, civil servant (d. 1861) Karl Friedrich Becker, German educator, historian (d. 1806) Vicente Benavides, Chilean soldier (d. 1822) John Bennett (Hampshire cricketer) (d. 1857) William Bellinger Bulloch, U.S. Senator (d. 1852) Sophia Campbell, Australian artist (d. 1833) Abiel Chandler, U.S. philanthropist (d. 1851) John Claiborne, U.S. politician (d. 1808) Charles Othon Frédéric Jean-Baptiste de Clarac, French artist, scholar and archaeologist (d. 1847) Thomas Cochran (judge), Canadian judge (d. 1804) Anselmo de la Cruz, Chilean political figure (d. 1833) Thomas Day, American judge (d. 1855) Benjamin D'Urban, British general, colonial administrator (d. 1849) Tu'i Malila, Malagasy-born tortoise, longest living animal on record (d. 1965) Deaths Enrichetta d'Este died 30 January Pierre-Herman Dosquet died 4 March Cornelia Schlosser died 8 June Consort Shu died 4 July Infante Philip, Duke of Calabria died 19 September Charles Antoine de La Roche-Aymon died 27 October Sir Charles Knowles, 1st Baronet died 9 December January–March January 10 – Spranger Barry, Irish actor (b. 1719) January 12 – Hugh Mercer, American Revolutionary War officer, mortally wounded in battle (b. 1726) January 13 – James Rait, Anglican clergyman, served in the Scottish Episcopal Church as Bishop of Brechin 1742–1777 (b. 1689) January 27 – Hubert de Brienne, French naval commander (b. 1690) January 30 – Enrichetta d'Este, Duchess of Parma (b. 1702) February 9 February 11 – Sir Gilbert Elliot, 3rd Baronet, of Minto (b. 1722) February 24 – King Joseph I of Portugal (b. 1714) February 28 – Joab Hoisington (b. 1736) March 1 March 2 – Empress Xiaoshengxian, the mother of the Qianlong Emperor of China (b. 1692) March 4 – Pierre-Herman Dosquet, fourth bishop of Quebec (b. 1691) March 6 – Jeremias Friedrich Reuß, German theologian (b. 1700) March 20 – Jean-François-Joseph de Rochechouart, French Roman Catholic Cardinal (b. 1708) March 23 – Sir Hugh Paterson, 2nd Baronet, Scottish Jacobite and Member of the Parliament of Great Britain (b. 1685) March 31 – Richard Terrick, Church of England clergyman, Bishop of Peterborough 1757–1764 and Bishop of London 1764–1777 (b. 1710) April–June April 7 – Anna Chamber, British noblewoman and poet (b. 1709) April 29 – Antonio Joli, Italian painter of vedute and capricci (b. 1700) May 5 – Raphael Hayyim Isaac Carregal (b. 1733) May 7 – Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Roch de Ramezay (b. 1708) May 9 – Heneage Finch, 3rd Earl of Aylesford, Member of the Parliament of Great Britain (b. 1715) May 11 – George Pigot, 1st Baron Pigot, British governor of Madras (b. 1719) May 19 – Button Gwinnett, signatory of the American Declaration of Independence (b. 1735) May 22 – David Wooster, American general in the French and Indian War and in the American Revolutionary War (b. 1711) May 28 – William Douglas, American military officer, led regiments from Connecticut in the American Revolutionary War (b. 1742) May 31 – Henry Fane of Wormsley (b. 1703) June 8 – Cornelia Schlosser, sister and only sibling of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe to survive to adulthood (b. 1750) June 21 – Georg Friedrich Meier, German philosopher and aesthetician (b. 1718) July–September July 4 – Consort Shu (b. 1728) July 13 – Guillaume Coustou the Younger, French artist (b. 1716) August 14 August 23 – Celia Grillo Borromeo, Italian scientist, mathematician (b. 1684) August 30 – John Clavering, British Army officer (b. 1722) September 7 – Tekle Haymanot II (b. 1754) September 16 – Simon Harcourt, 1st Earl Harcourt (b. 1714) September 18 – Princess Amalia of Nassau-Dietz, wife of Frederick (b. 1710) September 19 – Infante Philip, Duke of Calabria (b. 1747) September 20 – Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk, British peer (b. 1686) September 22 – John Bartram, American botanist (b. 1699) September 25 – Johann Heinrich Lambert, Swiss mathematician, physicist and astronomer (b. 1728) October–December October 3 – Jeremias van Riemsdijk, Dutch colonial governor (b. 1712) October 4 – Francis Nash, American brigadier general, killed at the Battle of Germantown (b. c. 1742) October 6 – Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin, French salon holder (b. 1699) October 7 – Simon Fraser of Balnain, British general during the American Revolutionary War, killed in battle (b. 1729) October 21 – Samuel Foote, English dramatist and actor (b. 1720) October 25 – Carl von Donop, Hessian colonel who fought in the American Revolutionary War (b. 1732) October 27 – Charles Antoine de La Roche-Aymon (b. 1697) October 30 – John Hart, militia officer during King George's War and the French and Indian War (b. 1706) November 1 – Jonathan Hampton, American colonial surveyor (b. 1712) November 6 – Bernard de Jussieu, French naturalist (b. 1699) November 10 – Cornstalk, Shawnee chief (b. c. 1720) November 13 – William Bowyer, English printer (b. 1699) November 17 – Pratap Singh Shah (b. 1751) November 18 – Thomas Foley, 1st Baron Foley (b. 1716) November 27 – Henry Stauffer (b. 1724) December 9 – Sir Charles Knowles, 1st Baronet, officer of the Royal Navy (b. c. 1704) December 12 – Albrecht von Haller, Swiss anatomist and physiologist (b. 1708) December 25 – Charles Chauncey, English physician (b. 1706) December 26 December 27 – Frederick Keppel, Church of England clergyman (b. 1728) December 30 – Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria, Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire and Duke of Bavaria 1745–1777 (b. 1727) October 22 – Friedrich Baum, German dragoon Lieutenant Colonel of Brunswick in British service during the American Revolutionary War (b. 1748)
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