1781

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1781 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1781
MDCCLXXXI
Ab urbe condita 2534
Armenian calendar 1230
ԹՎ ՌՄԼ
Assyrian calendar 6531
Balinese saka calendar 1702–1703
Bengali calendar 1188
Berber calendar 2731
British Regnal year 21  Geo. 3   22  Geo. 3
Buddhist calendar 2325
Burmese calendar 1143
Byzantine calendar 7289–7290
Chinese calendar 庚子(Metal  Rat)
4477 or 4417
     to 
辛丑年 (Metal  Ox)
4478 or 4418
Coptic calendar 1497–1498
Discordian calendar 2947
Ethiopian calendar 1773–1774
Hebrew calendar 5541–5542
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1837–1838
 - Shaka Samvat 1702–1703
 - Kali Yuga 4881–4882
Holocene calendar 11781
Igbo calendar 781–782
Iranian calendar 1159–1160
Islamic calendar 1195–1196
Japanese calendar An'ei 10 / Tenmei 1
(天明元年)
Javanese calendar 1706–1707
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar 4114
Minguo calendar 131 before ROC
民前131年
Nanakshahi calendar 313
Thai solar calendar 2323–2324
Tibetan calendar 阳金鼠年
(male Iron-Rat)
1907 or 1526 or 754
     to 
阴金牛年
(female Iron-Ox)
1908 or 1527 or 755
March 13: Uranus is discovered. Uranus with rings PIA01280.jpg
March 13: Uranus is discovered.

1781 ( MDCCLXXXI ) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar  and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar , the 1781st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 781st year of the 2nd millennium , the 81st year of the 18th century , and the 2nd year of the 1780s decade. As of the start of 1781, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days, as distinguished from a leap year, which has 366. More generally, a common year is one without intercalation. The Gregorian calendar,, employs both common years and leap years to keep the calendar aligned with the tropical year, which does not contain an exact number of days.

A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Monday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is G. The most recent year of such kind was 2018 and the next one will be 2029 in the Gregorian calendar, or likewise, 2013, 2019, and 2030 in the obsolete Julian calendar. The century year, 1900, was also a common year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar. See below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year of this type contains two Friday the 13ths in April and July. Leap years starting on Sunday share this characteristic, but also have another in January.

Contents

Events

JanuaryMarch

January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as New Year's Day. It is, on average, the coldest month of the year within most of the Northern Hemisphere and the warmest month of the year within most of the Southern Hemisphere. In the Southern hemisphere, January is the seasonal equivalent of July in the Northern hemisphere and vice versa.

William Pitt the Younger 18th/19th-century British statesman

William Pitt the Younger was a prominent British Tory statesman of the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries. He became the youngest Prime Minister of Great Britain in 1783 at the age of 24 and the first UK Prime Minister in January 1801. He left office in March 1801, but served as Prime Minister again from 1804 until his death in 1806. He was Chancellor of the Exchequer for all of his time as Prime Minister.

Parliament of Great Britain parliament from 1708 to 1800

The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. The Acts created a new unified Kingdom of Great Britain and dissolved the separate English and Scottish parliaments in favour of a single parliament, located in the former home of the English parliament in the Palace of Westminster, near the City of London. This lasted nearly a century, until the Acts of Union 1800 merged the separate British and Irish Parliaments into a single Parliament of the United Kingdom with effect from 1 January 1801.

AprilJune

April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 269 days remain until the end of the year.

Túpac Amaru II leader of a large Andean uprising against the Spanish in Peru

José Gabriel Túpac Amaru — known as Túpac Amaru II — was the leader of a large Andean uprising against the Spanish in Peru, whose quelling resulted in his death. He later became a mythical figure in the Peruvian struggle for independence and indigenous rights movement, as well as an inspiration to myriad causes in Spanish America and beyond.

Checacupe or Ch'iqa Kupi is one of eight districts of the Canchis Province in the Cusco Region in Peru.

JulySeptember

July 27 is the 208th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 157 days remain until the end of the year.

Francis Henry de la Motte, or François Henri de la Motte, was a French citizen and ex-French army officer executed in London for High Treason on 27 July 1781. He had been arrested in January 1781 on suspicion of being a spy, and held for six months in the Tower of London. At an Old Bailey trial on 23 July he was found guilty of running an operation which sent secret naval intelligence to France—a country which supported the rebellious American colonists, and with which Great Britain had been at war since 1778.

Hanged, drawn and quartered Legal punishment in England for persons convicted of high treason

To be hanged, drawn and quartered was from 1352 a statutory penalty in England for men convicted of high treason, although the ritual was first recorded during the reign of King Henry III (1216–1272). A convicted traitor was fastened to a hurdle, or wooden panel, and drawn by horse to the place of execution, where he was then hanged, emasculated, disembowelled, beheaded, and quartered. The traitor's remains were often displayed in prominent places across the country, such as London Bridge. For reasons of public decency, women convicted of high treason were instead burned at the stake.

September 5: Battle of the Chesapeake BattleOfVirginiaCapes.jpg
September 5: Battle of the Chesapeake

September 5 is the 248th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 117 days remain until the end of the year.

American Revolution Revolt in which the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt which occurred between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) with the assistance of France, winning independence from Great Britain and establishing the United States of America.

Battle of the Chesapeake Naval battle of the American Revolutionary War

The Battle of the Chesapeake, also known as the Battle of the Virginia Capes or simply the Battle of the Capes, was a crucial naval battle in the American Revolutionary War that took place near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay on 5 September 1781. The combatants were a British fleet led by Rear Admiral Sir Thomas Graves and a French fleet led by Rear Admiral Francois Joseph Paul, the Comte de Grasse. The battle was strategically decisive, in that it prevented the Royal Navy from reinforcing or evacuating the besieged forces of Lieutenant General Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia. The French were able to achieve control of the sea lanes against the British and provided the Franco-American army with siege artillery and French reinforcements. These proved decisive in the Siege of Yorktown, effectively securing independence for the Thirteen Colonies.

OctoberDecember

October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 80 days remain until the end of the year.

Bagpipes Musical instrument

Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. The Scottish Great Highland bagpipes are the best known in the Anglophone world; however, bagpipes have been played for a millennium or more throughout large parts of Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia, including Anatolia, the Caucasus, and around the Persian Gulf. The term bagpipe is equally correct in the singular or plural, though pipers usually refer to the bagpipes as "the pipes", "a set of pipes" or "a stand of pipes".

Falkirk town in Scotland

Falkirk is a large town in the Central Lowlands of Scotland, historically within the county of Stirlingshire. It lies in the Forth Valley, 23.3 miles (37.5 km) north-west of Edinburgh and 20.5 miles (33.0 km) north-east of Glasgow.

Date unknown

Births

Swaminarayan Lord Swaminarayan writing the Shikshapatri.jpg
Swaminarayan
George Stephenson GeorgeStephenson.PNG
George Stephenson

date unknown

Deaths

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Gotthold Ephraim Lessing.PNG
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
Tupac Amaru II Tupac Amaru II, oleo.jpg
Túpac Amaru II

Related Research Articles

American Revolutionary War War between Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies, which won independence as the United States of America

The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America.

1770s decade

The 1770s decade ran from January 1, 1770, to December 31, 1779.

1780s decade

The 1780s decade ran from January 1, 1780, to December 31, 1789.

1789 Year

1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1789th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 789th year of the 2nd millennium, the 89th year of the 18th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1780s decade. As of the start of 1789, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1779 Year

1779 (MDCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1779th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 779th year of the 2nd millennium, the 79th year of the 18th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1770s decade. As of the start of 1779, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1780 Year

1780 (MDCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1780th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 780th year of the 2nd millennium, the 80th year of the 18th century, and the 1st year of the 1780s decade. As of the start of 1780, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1777 Year

1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1777th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 777th year of the 2nd millennium, the 77th year of the 18th century, and the 8th year of the 1770s decade. As of the start of 1777, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Siege of Yorktown last major battle of the American Revolutionary War

The siege of Yorktown, also known as the Battle of Yorktown, the surrender at Yorktown, German Battle or the siege of Little York, ending on October 19, 1781, at Yorktown, Virginia, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British army commanded by British peer and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis. The culmination of the Yorktown campaign, the siege proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War in the North American theater, as the surrender by Cornwallis, and the capture of both him and his army, prompted the British government to negotiate an end to the conflict. The battle boosted faltering American morale and revived French enthusiasm for the war, as well as undermining popular support for the conflict in Great Britain.

History of the United States (1776–1789) aspect of history

Between 1776 and 1789, the United States of America emerged as an independent country, creating and ratifying its new constitution and establishing its national government. In order to assert their traditional rights, American Patriots seized control of the colonies and launched a war for independence. The Americans declared independence on July 4, 1776, proclaiming "all men are created equal". Congress raised the Continental Army under the command of General George Washington, forged a military alliance with France and defeated the two main British invasion armies. Nationalists replaced the governing Articles of Confederation to strengthen the federal government's powers of defense and taxation with the Constitution of the United States of America in 1789, still in effect today.

Charles OHara British Army general

General Charles O'Hara was a British military officer who served in the Seven Years' War, American War of Independence, and French Revolutionary War, and later served as Governor of Gibraltar. During his career O'Hara personally surrendered to both George Washington and Napoleon Bonaparte.

Yorktown campaign 1781 military campaign of the American Revolutionary War

The Yorktown or Virginia campaign was a series of military maneuvers and battles during the American Revolutionary War that culminated in the decisive Siege of Yorktown in October 1781. The result of the campaign was the surrender of the British Army force of General Charles Earl Cornwallis, an event that led directly to the beginning of serious peace negotiations and the eventual end of the war. The campaign was marked by disagreements, indecision, and miscommunication on the part of British leaders, and by a remarkable set of cooperative decisions, at times in violation of orders, by the French and Americans.

Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War The military conflicts in then-Southern United States during the American Revolution

The Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War was the central theater of military operations in the second half of the American Revolutionary War, 1778–1781. It encompassed engagements primarily in Virginia, Georgia and South Carolina. Tactics consisted of both strategic Battles and guerrilla warfare.

1776 Year

1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1776th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 776th year of the 2nd millennium, the 76th year of the 18th century, and the 7th year of the 1770s decade. As of the start of 1776, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II Uprising of native and mestizo peasants against the Bourbon reforms in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru

The Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II was an uprising of native and mestizo peasants against the Bourbon reforms in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. While Túpac Amaru II, an early leader of the rebellion, was captured and executed in 1781, the rebellion continued for at least another year under other leaders.

1777 in the United States USA-related events during the year of 1777

Events from the year 1777 in the United States.

1781 in the United States USA-related events during the year of 1781

Events from the year 1781 in the United States.

<i>Surrender of Lord Cornwallis</i> painting by John Trumbull

The Surrender of Lord Cornwallis is an oil painting by John Trumbull. The painting was completed in 1820, and hangs in the rotunda of the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.

Cornwallis in North America

Charles, Earl Cornwallis (1738–1805) was a military officer who served in the British Army during the American War of Independence. He is best known for surrendering his army after the 1781 Siege of Yorktown, an act that ended major hostilities in North America and led directly to peace negotiations and the eventual end of the war.

Virginia in the American Revolution

The history of Virginia in the American Revolution begins with the role the Colony of Virginia played in early dissent against the British government and culminates with the defeat of General Cornwallis by the allied forces at the Siege of Yorktown in 1781, an event signaled the effective military end to the conflict. Numerous Virginians played key roles in the Revolution, including George Washington, Patrick Henry, and Thomas Jefferson.

References

  1. Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 333–334. ISBN   0-304-35730-8.
  2. Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN   0-14-102715-0.
  3. "The Rebellion of Tupac-Amaru II", in The Hispanic American Historical Review (February 1919) p20
  4. William J. Bennett and John T.E. Cribb, The American Patriot's Almanac: Daily Readings on America (Thomas Nelson, Inc. 2013) p125
  5. "John Paul Jones and Our First Triumphs on the Sea", in The American Monthly Review of Reviews" (July 1905) p42
  6. Albert Bushnell Hart, ed., American History Told by Contemporaries (Macmillan, 1908) p600
  7. Michael Lee Lannin, African Americans in the Revolutionary War (Citadel Press, 2005) p86
  8. "BBC History British History Timeline". Archived from the original on September 9, 2007. Retrieved September 3, 2007.
  9. "History & Facts". Washington & Jefferson College. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved September 10, 2010.

Further reading