1790 and 1791 United States House of Representatives elections

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1790 and 1791 United States House of Representatives elections
Flag of the United States (1777-1795).svg
  1788 & 1789 April 27, 1790 – October 11, 1791 [lower-alpha 1] 1792 & 1793  

All 67 seats in the United States House of Representatives [lower-alpha 2]
34 seats needed for a majority
 Majority partyMinority party
  JonathanTrumbull.jpg Frederick Muhlenberg.jpg
Leader Jonathan Trumbull Jr. Frederick Muhlenberg [lower-alpha 3]
Party Pro-Administration Anti-Administration
Leader's seat Connecticut 4th Pennsylvania 2nd
Last election37 seats28 seats
Seats won4027
Seat changeIncrease2.svg 3Decrease2.svg 1

UnitedStatesHouseofRepresentativesElection1790.png
Results:
     Pro-Administration     Anti-Administration

Speaker before election

Frederick Muhlenberg
Pro-Administration

Elected Speaker

Jonathan Trumbull Jr.
Pro-Administration

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 2nd Congress took place in 1790 and 1791, in the middle of President George Washington's first term. While formal political parties still did not exist, coalitions of pro-Washington (pro-Administration) representatives and anti-Administration representatives each gained two seats as a result of the addition of new states to the union.

Contents

Speaker Frederick Muhlenberg, who had led the Pro-Administrationists in 1789, switched loyalties to the Anti-Administrationists during the tenure of the 1st Congress. He failed to win election to the Speakership as their leader as a result of these elections, and was succeeded by Jonathan Trumbull Jr., who became the 2nd Speaker of the House.

Retirements

Either five or six incumbents did not seek re-election.

Anti-Administration

  1. Maryland 4: William Smith retired.
  2. Virginia 6: Isaac Coles retired.


Aedanus Burke, a U.S. Representative from South Carolina's 2nd Congressional District, either retired or lost re-election but it is not known

Pro-Administration

  1. Pennsylvania at-large: George Clymer retired.
  2. Pennsylvania at-large: Henry Wynkoop retired.
  3. Pennsylvania at-large: Thomas Scott retired.

Election summaries

In this period, each state fixed its own date for congressional general elections, a In this period, each state fixed its own date for congressional general elections early as April 27, 1790 (in New York) and as late as October 11, 1791 (in Pennsylvania). Elections to a Congress took place both in the even-numbered year before and in the odd-numbered year when the Congress convened. In some states, the congressional delegation was not elected until after the legal start of the Congress (on the 4th day of March in the odd-numbered year). The first session of this Congress was convened in Philadelphia on October 24, 1791.

Kentucky and Vermont became states during the 2nd Congress, adding two seats each. [1] The legislation admitted Vermont was passed at the end of the 1st Congress taking effect on March 4, 1791, the first day of the 2nd Congress, so that Vermont was represented from the start of the Congress, while Kentucky was unrepresented until the 2nd session.

StateTypeDate ↑Total
seats
Pro-
Administration
Anti-
Administration
SeatsChangeSeatsChange
New York DistrictsApril 27–29, 179065Increase2.svg21Decrease2.svg2
New Hampshire At-largeAugust 30, 179033Increase2.svg10Decrease2.svg1
Virginia DistrictsSeptember 1, 1790102Decrease2.svg18Increase2.svg1
Connecticut At-largeSeptember 20, 179055Steady2.svg0Steady2.svg
Maryland Mixed [lower-alpha 4] October 4, 179063Increase2.svg13Decrease2.svg1
Massachusetts DistrictsOctober 4, 1790 [lower-alpha 5] 87Increase2.svg11Decrease2.svg1
South Carolina DistrictsOctober 12, 179053Increase2.svg12Decrease2.svg1
Rhode Island At-largeOctober 19, 179011Steady2.svg0Steady2.svg
Delaware At-largeNovember 8, 179011Steady2.svg0Steady2.svg
Georgia DistrictJanuary 3, 179130Steady2.svg3Steady2.svg
New Jersey At-largeJanuary 26, 179144Steady2.svg0Steady2.svg
North Carolina DistrictsJanuary 28, 179152Steady2.svg3Steady2.svg
Late elections (after the March 4, 1791 beginning of the term)
Vermont DistrictsJuly 13, 1791 [lower-alpha 6] 20Steady2.svg2Increase2.svg2
Pennsylvania DistrictsOctober 11, 179184Decrease2.svg24Increase2.svg2
Total6740
59.7%
Increase2.svg 327
40.3%
Decrease2.svg 1
House seats
Pro-Admin
59.70%
Anti-Admin
40.30%

Change in composition

End of the last Congress

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Majority →P
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PP

Beginning of the next Congress

AAAA
AAAAAAAAAA
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AAAAAVPPPP
Majority →P
PPPPPPPPPP
PPPPPPPPPP
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Key:
A Anti-Administration
PPro-Administration
VVacant

Special elections

There were special elections in 1790 and 1791 during the 1st United States Congress and 2nd United States Congress. New states and newly-ratified states are not included as special elections.

Elections are sorted by date then district.

1st Congress

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Virginia 9 Theodorick Bland Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent died June 1, 1790.
New member elected July 1790.
Anti-Administration hold.
Winner was later elected to the next term, see below.
Connecticut at-large Pierpont Edwards Pro-Administration 1790 Predecessor declined election.
New member elected December 16, 1790.
Pro-Administration hold.
Winner had already been elected to the next term, see below.

2nd Congress

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
New York 1 VacantRepresentative-elect James Townsend (Pro-Administration) died May 24, 1790.
New member elected April 26–28, 1791.
Anti-Administration gain.
Connecticut at-large Roger Sherman Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent-and-Representative-elect resigned March 31, 1791 to become U.S. Senator.
New member elected September 19, 1791.
Pro-Administration hold.
Maryland 3 William Pinkney Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent resigned.
New member elected October 26–29, 1791.
Anti-Administration gain.
Winner seated February 5, 1792.

Connecticut

Connecticut elected all five of its representatives at-large on a general ticket on September 20, 1790.

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Connecticut at-large
5 seats
Roger Sherman Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Winner declined to serve and a new member would later be elected in a special election.
Benjamin Huntington Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
Jonathan Sturges Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Jonathan Trumbull Jr. Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Jeremiah Wadsworth Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
Winner declined to serve and the incumbent was re-elected in a special election.

There were two subsequent special elections. The first was held to fill the vacancy left by Pierpont Edwards (Pro-Administration) declining to serve and was won by Jeremiah Wadsworth (Pro-Administration). The second was held September 19, 1791 to fill the vacancy left by Roger Sherman (Pro-Administration)'s election to the Senate and was won by Amasa Learned (Pro-Administration).

Delaware

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates [lower-alpha 7]
Delaware at-large John M. Vining Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.

Georgia

Georgia switched to a conventional district system for the Second Congress. At the time, the districts were not numbered, but are retroactively renumbered as the 1st , 2nd , and 3rd respectively here.

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Georgia 1
"Southern (or Eastern) District"
James Jackson Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
Election was subsequently challenged, the House determined that electoral fraud had occurred, and the seat was declared void.
Georgia 2
"Middle District"
Abraham Baldwin Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Georgia 3
"Northern (or Western) District"
George Mathews Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.

Kentucky

Kentucky was admitted during the 2nd Congress and elected its first representatives in 1792.

Maryland

Under Maryland law for the election for the 1st and 2nd Congresses "candidates were elected at-large but had to be residents of a specific district with the statewide vote determining winners from each district."

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Maryland 1 Michael J. Stone Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Maryland 2 Joshua Seney Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green check.svgY Joshua Seney (Anti-Administration) 57.1%
  • James Tilghman 42.9%
Maryland 3 Benjamin Contee Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Winner later resigned due to questions of ineligibility due to his residence [3] and was replaced in a special election by John Francis Mercer (Anti-Administration).
Maryland 4 William Smith Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
Maryland 5 George Gale Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
Maryland 6 Daniel Carroll Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.

Massachusetts

Massachusetts law required a majority for election. This condition was met in four of the eight districts, the remaining four required between 2 and 9 ballots for election.

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Massachusetts 1 Fisher Ames Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 2 Benjamin Goodhue Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 3 Elbridge Gerry Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 4 Theodore Sedgwick Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 5 George Partridge Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent resigned August 14, 1790.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
First ballot (October 4, 1790):

Second ballot (November 26, 1790):
Massachusetts 6 George Leonard
Redistricted from the 7th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.First ballot (October 4, 1790):
Walter Spooner 25.5%
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Administration) 22.6%
George Leonard (Pro-Administration) 22.3%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Pro-Administration) 16.7%
David Cobb 12.9%

Second ballot (November 26, 1790):
Walter Spooner 24.8%
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Administration) 28.4%
George Leonard (Pro-Administration) 12.5%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Pro-Administration) 25.7%
David Cobb 8.6%

Third ballot (January 25, 1791):
Walter Spooner 28.3%
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Administration) 33.9%
George Leonard (Pro-Administration) 8.5%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Pro-Administration) 24.0%
David Cobb 5.3%

Fourth ballot (April 4, 1791):
Walter Spooner 38.8%
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Administration) 38.8%
George Leonard (Pro-Administration) 5.3%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Pro-Administration) 15.7%
David Cobb 1.5%

Fifth ballot (July 18, 1791):
Walter Spooner 6.6%
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Administration) 42.3%
George Leonard (Pro-Administration) 29.3%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Pro-Administration) 21.8%

Sixth ballot (September 8, 1791):
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Administration) 42.2%
George Leonard (Pro-Administration) 41.6%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Pro-Administration) 16.2%

Seventh ballot (November 11, 1791):

Eighth ballot (December 26, 1791):

Ninth ballot (April 2, 1792):
Massachusetts 7 Jonathan Grout
Redistricted from the 8th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
First ballot (October 4, 1790):

Second ballot (November 26, 1790):
Massachusetts 8 George Thatcher
Redistricted from the 6th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.First ballot (October 4, 1790):

Second ballot (November 26, 1790):

Third ballot (January 25, 1791):

Fourth ballot (April 4, 1791):

New Hampshire

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
New Hampshire at-large
3 seats on a general ticket
Abiel Foster Pro-Administration 1789 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
Samuel Livermore Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected as Pro-Administration.
Nicholas Gilman Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.

New Jersey

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates [lower-alpha 7]
New Jersey at-large
4 seats on a general ticket
Elias Boudinot Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Lambert Cadwalader Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
James Schureman Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
Thomas Sinnickson Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.

New York

New York's districts were not numbered at the time, therefore the numbering here is retroactive.

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
New York 1 William Floyd Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Winner died May 24, 1790, before the start of the 2nd Congress. A special election was then held, see above.
New York 2 John Laurance Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 3 Egbert Benson Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 4 John Hathorn Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
New York 5 Peter Silvester Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green check.svgY Peter Silvester (Pro-Administration) 58.4%
  • John Livingston (Anti-Administration) 41.6%
New York 6 Jeremiah Van Rensselaer Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.

North Carolina

North Carolina ratified the Constitution November 21, 1789 and elected its representatives after admission.

1st Congress

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
North Carolina 1
"Roanoke division"
State ratified the U.S. Constitution November 21, 1789.First member elected March 24, 1790.
Anti-Administration win.
Winner was later elected to the next term, see below.
North Carolina 2
"Edenton and New Bern division"
State ratified the U.S. Constitution November 21, 1789.First member elected March 24, 1790.
Anti-Administration win.
Winner was later elected to the next term, see below.
North Carolina 3
"Cape Fear division"
State ratified the U.S. Constitution November 21, 1789.First member elected March 24, 1790.
Anti-Administration win.
Winner later lost re-election to the next term, see below.
North Carolina 4
"Yadkin division"
State ratified the U.S. Constitution November 21, 1789.First member elected March 24, 1790.
Pro-Administration win.
Winner was later elected to the next term, see below.
North Carolina 5
"Western division"
State ratified the U.S. Constitution November 21, 1789.First member elected March 24, 1790.
Pro-Administration win.
District covered areas beyond the Appalachian Mountains that were ceded to in May 1790 to form the Southwest Territory, but member retained seat for the remainder of term.

2nd Congress

Due to the cession of North Carolina's trans-Appalachian territory to form the Southwest Territory, the territory of the old 5th district was lost. North Carolina retained the same number of Representatives, and so it redistricted for the Second Congress.

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
North Carolina 1
"Yadkin Division"
John Steele
Redistricted from the 4th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green check.svgY John Steele (Pro-Administration) 87.3%
  • Joseph MacDowell (Anti-Administration) 12.7%
North Carolina 2
"Centre Division"
None (District created)New seat
Anti-Administration gain.
North Carolina 3 John Baptista Ashe
Redistricted from the 1st district
Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 4
"Albemarle Division"
Hugh Williamson
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 5
"Cape Fear Division"
Timothy Bloodworth
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania had elected its Representatives at-large in the 1st Congress, but switched to using districts in the 2nd Congress. Five incumbents ran for re-election, four of whom won, while three others retired leaving three open seats. Two districts had no incumbents residing in them, while one (the 8th district ) had a single representative who declined to run for re-election and one (the 2nd district ) had three incumbents, only one of whom ran for re-election.

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates [4]
Pennsylvania 1 Thomas Fitzsimons
Redistricted from the at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green check.svgY Thomas Fitzsimons (Pro-Administration) 85.1%
  • Charles Thompson (Anti-Administration) 14.9%
Pennsylvania 2 Frederick Muhlenberg
Redistricted from the at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected as Anti-Administration.
George Clymer
Redistricted from the at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent retired.
Pro-Administration loss.
Henry Wynkoop
Redistricted from the at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent retired.
Pro-Administration loss.
Pennsylvania 3 Peter Muhlenberg
Redistricted from the at-large district
Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Pennsylvania 4 Daniel Hiester
Redistricted from the at-large district
Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 5 None (District created)New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Pennsylvania 6 None (District created)New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
  • Green check.svgY Andrew Gregg (Anti-Administration) 51.2%
  • John Allison (Pro-Administration) 18.3%
  • James McLean (Anti-Administration) 10.9%
  • Thomas Johnston (Pro-Administration) 10.3%
  • William Montgomery (Anti-Administration) 9.3%
Pennsylvania 7 Thomas Hartley
Redistricted from the at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 8 Thomas Scott
Redistricted from the at-large district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.

Rhode Island

1st Congress

Rhode Island ratified the Constitution May 29, 1790. It elected its representatives after admission.

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Rhode Island at-large State ratified the U.S. Constitution May 29, 1790.First member elected August 31, 1790.
Pro-Administration win.
Winner was later elected to the next term, see below.

2nd Congress

Rhode Island held elections for the 2nd Congress on October 18, 1790, about six weeks after elections for the 1st Congress due to the state's late ratification of the Constitution.

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Rhode Island at-large Benjamin Bourne Pro-Administration August 1790 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green check.svgY Benjamin Bourne (Pro-Administration) 56.6%
  • Paul Mumford 33.0%
  • James Sheldon 10.1%

South Carolina

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
South Carolina 1
"Charleston Division"
William L. Smith Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 2
"Beaufort Division"
Aedanus Burke Anti-Administration 1788 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
South Carolina 3
"Georgetown Division"
Daniel Huger Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 4
"Camden Division"
Thomas Sumter Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 5
"Ninety-Six Division"
Thomas Tudor Tucker Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.

Vermont

Vermont was admitted at the end of the First Congress, with the admission taking effect at the start of the Second Congress. Vermont was entitled to elect two representatives. Vermont law at the time required a majority to win an office. In the 1st district , no candidate won a majority, necessitating a run-off.

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates [lower-alpha 7]
Vermont 1
"Western Division"
New state admitted.First member elected.
Anti-Administration win.
First ballot (July 13, 1791):

Second ballot (September 6, 1791):
Vermont 2
"Eastern Division"
New state admitted.First member elected.
Anti-Administration win.

Virginia

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Virginia 1 Alexander White Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 2 John Brown Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 3 Andrew Moore Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 4 Richard Bland Lee Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 5 James Madison Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 6 Isaac Coles Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
Virginia 7 John Page Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 8 Josiah Parker Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 9 William B. Giles Anti-Administration 1790 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green check.svgY William B. Giles (Anti-Administration) 59.3%
  • Thomas Edmonds 40.6%
  • John Mason 0.1%
Virginia 10 Samuel Griffin Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected as Anti-Administration.

See also

Notes

  1. Excluding states that joined during the Second Congress and a very late run-off election in Massachusetts's 6th congressional district .
  2. 2 more seats were added by the admission of new states after the start of this Congress
  3. Frederick Muhlenberg changed from Pro-Administration to Anti-Administration)
  4. Maryland had six representatives elected by the whole state electorate, who had to choose one candidate from each district.
  5. add Massachusetts required a majority for electionitional trials were required in 4 districts, held between November 26, 1790 and April 2, 1792.
  6. A majority was required for election, which was not met in one of the districts necessitating a second election on September 6, 1791
  7. 1 2 3 4 Only candidates with at least 1% of the vote listed
  8. Source does not give first name
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Source does not give numbers of votes or has incomplete data
  10. Changed from Pro-Administration to Anti-Administration between the 1st and 2nd Congresses
  11. Changed from Pro-Administration to Anti-Administration between the 1st and 2nd Congresses
  12. and Had been Pro-Administration previous electionwould switch back to Pro-Administration in the next election

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1788 and 1789 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1788 and 1789 were the first elections for the United States Senate, which coincided with the election of President George Washington. As of this election, formal organized political parties had yet to form in the United States, but two political factions were present: The coalition of senators who supported George Washington's administration were known as "Pro-Administration", and the senators against him as "Anti-Administration".

Elections for the United States House of Representatives for the 2nd Congress were held in Massachusetts beginning October 4, 1790, with subsequent elections held in four districts due to a majority not being achieved on the first ballot.

Elections to the United States House of Representatives in Pennsylvania were held on October 11, 1791 for the 2nd Congress.

1788–89 United States elections

The United States elections of 1788–1789 were the first federal elections in the United States following the ratification of the United States Constitution in 1788. In the elections, George Washington was elected as the first president and the members of the 1st United States Congress were selected.

1790 United States elections

The 1790 United States elections occurred in the middle of President George Washington's first term. Members of the 2nd United States Congress were chosen in this election. Formal political parties did not exist, but Congress was broadly divided between a faction supporting the policies of the Washington administration and a faction opposed to those policies. Despite modest gains for the anti-administration faction, the pro-administration faction retained control of both houses of Congress. Vermont and Kentucky joined the union during the 2nd Congress.

References

  1. 1  Stat.   191
  2. "Connecticut 1790 U.S. House of Representatives". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University . Retrieved March 22, 2018., citing The Connecticut Gazette (New London, CT). October 22, 1790.
  3. "Second Congress (membership roster)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 6, 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
  4. Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project

Bibliography