1809

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1809 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1809
MDCCCIX
Ab urbe condita 2562
Armenian calendar 1258
ԹՎ ՌՄԾԸ
Assyrian calendar 6559
Balinese saka calendar 1730–1731
Bengali calendar 1216
Berber calendar 2759
British Regnal year 49  Geo. 3   50  Geo. 3
Buddhist calendar 2353
Burmese calendar 1171
Byzantine calendar 7317–7318
Chinese calendar 戊辰(Earth  Dragon)
4505 or 4445
     to 
己巳年 (Earth  Snake)
4506 or 4446
Coptic calendar 1525–1526
Discordian calendar 2975
Ethiopian calendar 1801–1802
Hebrew calendar 5569–5570
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1865–1866
 - Shaka Samvat 1730–1731
 - Kali Yuga 4909–4910
Holocene calendar 11809
Igbo calendar 809–810
Iranian calendar 1187–1188
Islamic calendar 1223–1224
Japanese calendar Bunka 6
(文化6年)
Javanese calendar 1735–1736
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar 4142
Minguo calendar 103 before ROC
民前103年
Nanakshahi calendar 341
Thai solar calendar 2351–2352
Tibetan calendar 阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
1935 or 1554 or 782
     to 
阴土蛇年
(female Earth-Snake)
1936 or 1555 or 783
January 16: Battle of Corunna Battle of Corunna.jpg
January 16: Battle of Corunna

1809 ( MDCCCIX ) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar  and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar , the 1809th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 809th year of the 2nd millennium , the 9th year of the 19th century , and the 10th and last year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1809, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days, as distinguished from a leap year, which has 366. More generally, a common year is one without intercalation. The Gregorian calendar,, employs both common years and leap years to keep the calendar aligned with the tropical year, which does not contain an exact number of days.

A common year starting on Sunday is any non-leap year that begins on Sunday, 1 January, and ends on Sunday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is A. The most recent year of such kind was 2017 and the next one will be 2023 in the Gregorian calendar, or, likewise, 2018 and 2029 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year contains two Friday the 13ths in January and October.

Contents

Events

JanuaryMarch

February 11: Robert Fulton patents steamboat Fulton.jpg
February 11: Robert Fulton patents steamboat

January 5 is the fifth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 360 days remaining until the end of the year.

The Treaty of the Dardanelles was concluded between the Ottoman Empire and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 5 January 1809 at Çanak, Ottoman Empire. The treaty ended the Anglo-Turkish War. The Porte restored extensive British commercial and legal privileges in the empire. The United Kingdom promised to protect the integrity of the Ottoman Empire against the French threat, both with its own fleet and through weapons supplies to Constantinople. The treaty affirmed the principle that no warships of any power should enter the straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosporus. The treaty anticipated the London Straits Convention of 1841, by which the other major powers committed themselves to this same principle.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Historical sovereign state from 1801 to 1927

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

AprilJune

April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 266 days remaining until the end of the year.

Tyrol (state) State of Austria

Tyrol is a federal state (Bundesland) in western Austria. It comprises the Austrian part of the historical Princely County of Tyrol. It is a constituent part of the present-day Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino. The capital of Tyrol is Innsbruck.

Andreas Hofer Tirolean innkeeper and patriot

Andreas Hofer was a Tyrolean innkeeper and drover, who in 1809 became the leader of the Tyrolean Rebellion against the revolutionary Napoleonic invasion during the War of the Fifth Coalition. He was subsequently captured and executed.

JulySeptember

OctoberDecember

Date unknown

Births

JanuaryJune

Louis Braille Braille.jpg
Louis Braille
Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe, circa 1849, restored, squared off.jpg
Edgar Allan Poe
Felix Mendelssohn Mendelssohn Bartholdy.jpg
Felix Mendelssohn
Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln head on shoulders photo portrait.jpg
Abraham Lincoln
Charles Darwin Charles Darwin seated crop.jpg
Charles Darwin

JulyDecember

Kit Carson Kit Carson photograph restored.jpg
Kit Carson

Date Unknown

Deaths

JanuaryJune

Joseph Haydn Joseph Haydn.jpg
Joseph Haydn
Thomas Paine Portrait of Thomas Paine.jpg
Thomas Paine
Daniel Lambert Marshall Lambert.jpg
Daniel Lambert

JulyDecember

Matthew Boulton Matthew Boulton - Carl Frederik von Breda.jpg
Matthew Boulton

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1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1796th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 796th year of the 2nd millennium, the 96th year of the 18th century, and the 7th year of the 1790s decade. As of the start of 1796, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1815 Year

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1800 Year

1800 (MDCCC) was an exceptional common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1800th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 800th year of the 2nd millennium, the 100th and last year of the 18th century, and the 1st year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1800, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. As of March 1, when the Julian calendar acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar did not, the Julian calendar fell one day further behind, bringing the difference to 12 days until 1899.

1813 Year

1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1813th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 813th year of the 2nd millennium, the 13th year of the 19th century, and the 4th year of the 1810s decade. As of the start of 1813, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1805 Year

1805 (MDCCCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1805th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 805th year of the 2nd millennium, the 5th year of the 19th century, and the 6th year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1805, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. After thirteen years the First French Empire abolished the French Republican Calendar in favour of the Gregorian calendar.

Peninsular War War by Spain, Portugal and the United Kingdom against the French Empire (1807–1814)

The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and Bourbon Spain, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war began when the French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807, and escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain, previously its ally. The war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, and is regarded as one of the first wars of national liberation, significant for the emergence of large-scale guerrilla warfare.

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Marshal General Jean-de-Dieu Soult, 1st Duke of Dalmatia, was a French general and statesman, named Marshal of the Empire in 1804 and often called Marshal Soult. Soult was one of only six officers in French history to receive the distinction of Marshal General of France. The Duke also served three times as President of the Council of Ministers, or Prime Minister of France.

War of the Sixth Coalition Part of the Napoleonic Wars

In the War of the Sixth Coalition, sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and a number of German States defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba. After the disastrous French invasion of Russia of 1812, the continental powers joined Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal and the rebels in Spain who were already at war with France.

Battle of Toulouse (1814)

The Battle of Toulouse was one of the final battles of the Napoleonic Wars, four days after Napoleon's surrender of the French Empire to the nations of the Sixth Coalition. Having pushed the demoralised and disintegrating French Imperial armies out of Spain in a difficult campaign the previous autumn, the Allied British-Portuguese and Spanish army under the Marquess of Wellington pursued the war into southern France in the spring of 1814.

William Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford British soldier and politician

General William Carr Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford, 1st Marquis of Campo Maior, was an Anglo-Irish soldier and politician. A general in the British Army and a Marshal in the Portuguese Army, he fought alongside The Duke of Wellington in the Peninsular War and held the office of Master-General of the Ordnance in 1828 in Wellington's first ministry.

Maximilien Sébastien Foy French military leader, statesman and writer

Maximilien Sébastien Foy was a French military leader, statesman and writer.

Pedro Caro, 3rd Marquis of la Romana Spanish military personnel (1761-1811)

Don Pedro Caro y Sureda, 3rd Marquis of la Romana was a Spanish general of the Peninsular War.

Events from the year 1809 in the United Kingdom.

Siege of Cádiz 1810s siege in Spain by the French

The Siege of Cádiz was a siege of the large Spanish naval base of Cádiz by a French army from 5 February 1810 to 24 August 1812 during the Peninsular War. Following the occupation of Seville, Cádiz became the Spanish seat of power, and was targeted by 70,000 French troops under the command of the Marshals Claude Victor and Nicolas Jean-de-Dieu Soult for one of the most important sieges of the war. Defending the city were 2,000 Spanish troops who, as the siege progressed, received aid from 10,000 Spanish reinforcements as well as British and Portuguese troops.

The IV Corps of the Grande Armée was a military unit during the Napoleonic Wars. It consisted several different units and commanders.

Division of the North

The Division of the North was a 19th-century Spanish infantry division.

Battle of Braga (1809) battle

The Battle of Braga or Battle of Póvoa de Lanhoso or Battle of Carvalho d'Este saw an Imperial French corps led by Marshal Nicolas Soult attack a Portuguese army commanded by Baron Christian Adolph Friedrich von Eben. Soult's professional soldiers slaughtered large numbers of their opponents, who were mostly badly disciplined and poorly armed militia. The action occurred during the Peninsular War, part of the Napoleonic Wars. Braga is situated about 45 kilometres (28 mi) north-northeast of Porto (Oporto).

The Battle of Puerto de Baños saw a Portuguese-Spanish column led by Robert Thomas Wilson attempt to defend a mountain pass against Marshal Michel Ney's VI Corps. After a nine-hour combat, Wilson's force broke up and scattered into the mountains. Baños de Montemayor is located about 45 kilometres (28 mi) northeast of Plasencia, Spain. The clash occurred during the Peninsular War, part of a larger struggle known as the Napoleonic Wars.

Campaign in south-west France (1814)

The campaign in south-west France in late 1813 and early 1814 was the final campaign of the Peninsular War. An allied army of British, Portuguese and Spanish soldiers under the command of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington fought a string of battles against French forces under the command of Marshal Jean de Dieu Soult, from the Iberian Peninsula across the Pyrenees and into south-west France ending with the capture of Toulouse and the besieging of Bayonne.

Étienne Pierre Sylvestre Ricard French politician and officer

Étienne Pierre Sylvestre Ricard was a prominent French division commander during the 1814 Campaign in Northeast France. In 1791 he joined an infantry regiment and spent several years in Corsica. Transferred to the Army of Italy in 1799, he became an aide-de-camp to Louis-Gabriel Suchet. He fought at Pozzolo in 1800. He became aide-de-camp to Marshal Nicolas Soult in 1805 and was at Austerlitz and Jena where his actions earned a promotion to general of brigade. From 1808 he functioned as Soult's chief of staff during the Peninsular War, serving at Corunna, Braga, First and Second Porto. During this time he sent a letter to Soult's generals asking them if the marshal should assume royal powers in Northern Portugal. When he found out, Napoleon was furious and he sidelined Ricard for two years.

References

  1. "Robert Fulton patented the steamboat in 1809". Thinkfinity. Verizon. Archived from the original on July 24, 2011. Retrieved April 15, 2011.
  2. "The Fulton Patents". Today in Science History. Retrieved 2011-04-15.
  3. 1 2 Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 243–244. ISBN   0-7126-5616-2.
  4. "Mary Kies - Patenting Pioneer". About.com. Retrieved 2007-05-14.
  5. Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN   0-14-102715-0.
  6. "The Boyd incident - a frontier of chaos?". New Zealand History online. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 2011-12-07. Retrieved 2012-03-03.