1810 United States Census

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1810 United States Census
Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
1810 US Census.gif
A page of the 1810 United States Census
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenAugust 6, 1810 (1810-08-06)
Total population7,239,881

The United States Census of 1810 was the third Census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on August 6, 1810. It showed that 7,239,881 people were living in the United States, of which 1,191,362 were slaves.

United States federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.


The 1810 Census included one new state: Ohio. The original census returns for the District of Columbia, Georgia, Mississippi, New Jersey, and Ohio were lost or destroyed over the years. [1] Most of Tennessee's original forms were also lost, other than Grainger and Rutherford counties. [2]

This was the first census in which New York was ranked as the most populous state. It would occupy this spot for the next fifteen censuses, before being overtaken by California in 1970. This would also be the last census until 1860 in which Philadelphia was ranked as the second-most populous city.

New York (state) State of the United States of America

New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that formed the United States. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city in the state with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State.

Philadelphia Largest city in Pennsylvania, United States

Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.

Census questions

The 1810 Census form contained the following information (identical to the 1800 census):

  1. City or township
  2. Name of the head of family
  3. Number of free white males under age 10
  4. Number of free white males age 10-15
  5. Number of free white males age 16-25
  6. Number of free white males age 26-44
  7. Number of free white males age 45 and over
  8. Number of free white females under age 10
  9. Number of free white females age 10-15
  10. Number of free white females age 16-25
  11. Number of free white females age 26-44
  12. Number of free white females age 45 and over
  13. Number of all other free persons
  14. Number of slaves

Note to researchers

Census taking was not yet an exact science. Before 1830, enumerators lacked pre-printed forms, and some drew up their own, resulting in pages without headings. Some enumerators did not tally their results. As a result, census records for many towns before 1830 are idiosyncratic. This is not to suggest that they are less reliable than subsequent censuses, but that they may require more work on the part of the researcher.

Data availability

No microdata from the 1810 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.

In the study of survey and census data, microdata is information at the level of individual respondents. For instance, a national census might collect age, home address, educational level, employment status, and many other variables, recorded separately for every person who responds; this is microdata.

In statistics, aggregate data are data combined from several measurements. When data are aggregated, groups of observations are replaced with summary statistics based on those observations.

The National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS) is a historical GIS project to create and freely disseminate a database incorporating all available aggregate census information for the United States between 1790 and 2010. The project has created one of the largest collections in the world of statistical census information, much of which was not previously available to the research community because of legacy data formats and differences between metadata formats. The statistical and geographic data are disseminated free of charge through a sophisticated online data access system.

State rankings

01New York959,049
04North Carolina556,526
06South Carolina415,115
12New Jersey245,555
XMaine [3] 228,705
15New Hampshire214,360
XWest Virginia [4] 105,469
16Rhode Island76,931
XDistrict of Columbia [5] 15,471

City rankings

RankCityStatePopulation [6] Region (2016) [7]
01 New York New York 96,373 Northeast
02 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 53,722 Northeast
03 Baltimore Maryland 46,555 South
04 Boston Massachusetts 33,787 Northeast
05 Charleston South Carolina 24,711 South
06 Northern Liberties Pennsylvania 19,874 Northeast
07 New Orleans Louisiana 17,242 South
08 Southwark Pennsylvania 13,707 Northeast
09 Salem Massachusetts 12,613 Northeast
10 Albany New York 10,762 Northeast
11 Providence Rhode Island 10,071 Northeast
12 Richmond Virginia 9,735 South
13 Norfolk Virginia 9,193 South
14 Washington District of Columbia 8,208 South
15 Newport Rhode Island 7,907 Northeast
16 Newburyport Massachusetts 7,634 Northeast
17 Alexandria District of Columbia 7,227 South
18 Portland Maine 7,169 Northeast
19 Portsmouth New Hampshire 6,934 Northeast
20 Nantucket Massachusetts 6,807 Northeast
21 Gloucester Massachusetts 5,943 Northeast
22 Schenectady New York 5,903 Northeast
23 Marblehead Massachusetts 5,900 Northeast
24 New Haven Connecticut 5,772 Northeast
25 Petersburg Virginia 5,668 South
26 New Bedford Massachusetts 5,651 Northeast
27 Lancaster Pennsylvania 5,405 Northeast
28 Savannah Georgia 5,215 South
29 Charlestown Massachusetts 4,959 Northeast
30 Georgetown District of Columbia 4,948 South
31 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 4,768 Northeast
32 Beverly Massachusetts 4,608 Northeast
33 Brooklyn New York 4,402 Northeast
34 Middleborough Massachusetts 4,400 Northeast
35 Lexington Kentucky 4,326 South
36 Plymouth Massachusetts 4,228 Northeast
37 Lynn Massachusetts 4,087 Northeast
38 Hudson New York 4,048 Northeast
39 Hartford Connecticut 3,955 Northeast
40 Reading Pennsylvania 3,462 Northeast
41 New London Connecticut 3,238 Northeast
42 Trenton New Jersey 3,002 Northeast
43 Elizabeth New Jersey 2,977 Northeast
44 Norwich Connecticut 2,976 Northeast
45 York Pennsylvania 2,847 Northeast
46 Cincinnati Ohio 2,540 Midwest

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  1. Dollarhide, William (2001). The Census Book: A Genealogists Guide to Federal Census Facts, Schedules and Indexes. North Salt Lake, Utah: HeritageQuest. p. 8.
  2. "Tennessee Census Availability at TSLA and Online". March 5, 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
  3. Between 1790 and 1820, the District of Maine was part of the state of Massachusetts.
  4. Between 1790 and 1860, the state of West Virginia was part of Virginia; the data for each states reflect the present-day boundaries.
  5. The District of Columbia is not a state but was created with the passage of the Residence Act of 1790. The territory that formed that federal capital was originally donated by both Maryland and Virginia; however, the Virginia portion was returned by Congress in 1846.
  6. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  7. "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.