1814

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1814 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1814
MDCCCXIV
Ab urbe condita 2567
Armenian calendar 1263
ԹՎ ՌՄԿԳ
Assyrian calendar 6564
Balinese saka calendar 1735–1736
Bengali calendar 1221
Berber calendar 2764
British Regnal year 54  Geo. 3   55  Geo. 3
Buddhist calendar 2358
Burmese calendar 1176
Byzantine calendar 7322–7323
Chinese calendar 癸酉(Water  Rooster)
4510 or 4450
     to 
甲戌年 (Wood  Dog)
4511 or 4451
Coptic calendar 1530–1531
Discordian calendar 2980
Ethiopian calendar 1806–1807
Hebrew calendar 5574–5575
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1870–1871
 - Shaka Samvat 1735–1736
 - Kali Yuga 4914–4915
Holocene calendar 11814
Igbo calendar 814–815
Iranian calendar 1192–1193
Islamic calendar 1229–1230
Japanese calendar Bunka 11
(文化11年)
Javanese calendar 1740–1741
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar 4147
Minguo calendar 98 before ROC
民前98年
Nanakshahi calendar 346
Thai solar calendar 2356–2357
Tibetan calendar 阴水鸡年
(female Water-Rooster)
1940 or 1559 or 787
     to 
阳木狗年
(male Wood-Dog)
1941 or 1560 or 788
January 29: Battle of Brienne Battle of Brienne Napoleon vs Cossacks.jpg
January 29: Battle of Brienne

1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar  and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1814th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 814th year of the 2nd millennium, the 14th year of the 19th century, and the 5th year of the 1810s decade. As of the start of 1814, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Contents

Events

January

February 1: Cagsawa Church is destroyed by eruption of Mount Mayon. Oldcagsawapi2.jpg
February 1: Cagsawa Church is destroyed by eruption of Mount Mayon.

February

March

March 9: The schooner Enterprise returns from the Caribbean. EnterpriseTripoli.jpg
March 9: The schooner Enterprise returns from the Caribbean.

AprilJune

JulySeptember

September 13: Bombardment of Fort McHenry Ft. Henry bombardement 1814.jpg
September 13: Bombardment of Fort McHenry

OctoberDecember

Date unknown

Births

JanuaryJune

Heinrich Geissler Heinrich Geissler.jpg
Heinrich Geissler

JulyDecember

Anders Jonas Angstrom Anders Jonas Angstrom - 001.png
Anders Jonas Ångström
Adolphe Sax Adolphe Sax.jpg
Adolphe Sax

Date Unknown

Deaths

JanuaryJune

Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gottlieb Fichte.jpg
Johann Gottlieb Fichte

JulyDecember

Matthew Flinders Toussaint Antoine DE CHAZAL DE Chamerel - Portrait of Captain Matthew Flinders, RN, 1774-1814 - Google Art Project.jpg
Matthew Flinders
Marquis de Sade Marquis de sade.jpg
Marquis de Sade

Related Research Articles

1810s Decade of the Gregorian calendar

The 1810s decade ran from January 1, 1810, to December 31, 1819.

1813 1813

1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1813th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 813th year of the 2nd millennium, the 13th year of the 19th century, and the 4th year of the 1810s decade. As of the start of 1813, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Napoleonic Wars Series of early 19th century European wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and led by the United Kingdom. It produced a brief period of French domination over most of Europe. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), the Fifth (1809), the Sixth (1813–14), and the Seventh (1815).

Battle of Lützen (1813) battle during the War of the Sixth Coalition, 1813

In the Battle of Lützen, Napoleon I of France halted the advances of the Sixth Coalition after the French invasion of Russia and the massive French losses in the campaign. The Russian commander, Prince Peter Wittgenstein, attempting to forestall Napoleon's capture of Leipzig, attacked the isolated French right wing near Lützen, Germany. After a day of heavy fighting, the combined Prussian and Russian force retreated; due to French losses and a shortage of French cavalry, Napoleon was unable to conduct a pursuit.

Battle of Leipzig 1813 battle in the Napoleonic Wars

The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony. The Coalition armies of Austria, Prussia, Sweden, and Russia, led by Emperor Alexander I and Karl von Schwarzenberg, decisively defeated the Grande Armée of French Emperor Napoleon I. Napoleon's army also contained Polish and Italian troops, as well as Germans from the Confederation of the Rhine. The battle was the culmination of the German Campaign of 1813 and involved 500,000 soldiers, 2,200 artillery pieces, the expenditure of 200,000 rounds of artillery ammunition, and 127,000 casualties, making it the largest battle in Europe prior to World War I.

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher Prussian field marshal

Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Fürst von Wahlstatt, Graf (count), later elevated to Fürst von Wahlstatt, was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall. He earned his greatest recognition after leading his army against Napoleon I at the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig in 1813 and the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.

Hundred Days Period from Napoleons escape from Elba to the second restoration of King Louis XVIII

The Hundred Days War, also known as the War of the Seventh Coalition, marked the period between Napoleon's return from exile on the island of Elba to Paris on 20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815. This period saw the War of the Seventh Coalition, and includes the Waterloo Campaign, the Neapolitan War as well as several other minor campaigns. The phrase les Cent Jours was first used by the prefect of Paris, Gaspard, comte de Chabrol, in his speech welcoming the king back to Paris on 8 July.

Napoleonic era European history in the 1800s

The Napoleonic era is a period in the history of France and Europe. It is generally classified as including the fourth and final stage of the French Revolution, the first being the National Assembly, the second being the Legislative Assembly, and the third being the Directory. The Napoleonic era begins roughly with Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'état, overthrowing the Directory, establishing the French Consulate, and ends during the Hundred Days and his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo. The Congress of Vienna soon set out to restore Europe to pre-French Revolution days. Napoleon brought political stability to a land torn by revolution and war. He made peace with the Roman Catholic Church and reversed the most radical religious policies of the Convention. In 1804 Napoleon promulgated the Civil Code, a revised body of civil law, which also helped stabilize French society. The Civil Code affirmed the political and legal equality of all adult men and established a merit-based society in which individuals advanced in education and employment because of talent rather than birth or social standing. The Civil Code confirmed many of the moderate revolutionary policies of the National Assembly but retracted measures passed by the more radical Convention. The code restored patriarchal authority in the family, for example, by making women and children subservient to male heads of households.

War of the Sixth Coalition Part of the Napoleonic Wars

In the War of the Sixth Coalition, sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and a number of German States defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba. After the disastrous French invasion of Russia of 1812 in which they had been forced to support France, Prussia and Austria joined Russia, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Portugal and the rebels in Spain who were already at war with France.

Waterloo campaign One hundred Days

The Waterloo campaign was fought between the French Army of the North and two Seventh Coalition armies, an Anglo-allied army and a Prussian army. Initially the French army was commanded by Napoleon Bonaparte, but he left for Paris after the French defeat at the Battle of Waterloo. Command then rested on Marshals Soult and Grouchy, who were in turn replaced by Marshal Davout, who took command at the request of the French Provisional Government. The Anglo-allied army was commanded by the Duke of Wellington and the Prussian army by Prince Blücher.

Six Days Campaign conflict

The Six Days Campaign was a final series of victories by the forces of Napoleon I of France as the Sixth Coalition closed in on Paris.

Battle of Paris (1814) Battle of the War of the Sixth Coalition

The Battle of Paris was fought on March 30–31, 1814 between the Sixth Coalition, consisting of Russia, Austria, and Prussia, against the French Empire. After a day of fighting in the suburbs of Paris, the French surrendered on March 31, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition and forcing Emperor Napoleon to abdicate and go into exile.

Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Bülow Prussian general of the Napoleonic Wars

Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Bülow, Graf von Dennewitz was a Prussian general of the Napoleonic Wars.

Battle of the Katzbach battle

The Battle of the Katzbach on 26 August 1813, was a major battle of the Napoleonic Wars between the forces of the First French Empire under Marshal MacDonald and a Russo-Prussian army of the Sixth Coalition under Prussian Marshal Graf (Count) von Blücher. It occurred during a heavy thunderstorm at the Katzbach river between Wahlstatt and Liegnitz in the Prussian province of Silesia. With the involvement of more than 200,000 troops, it was one of the largest battles of the Napoleonic Wars. Taking place the same day as the Battle of Dresden, it resulted in a Coalition victory.

Battle of Laon battle

The Battle of Laon was the victory of Blücher's Prussian army over Napoleon's French army near Laon. During the Battle of Craonne on 7 March, Blücher's army was forced to retreat into Laon after a failed attempt to halt Napoleon's east flank. Along the way to Laon, reinforcements from Russian forces under Ferdinand von Wintzingerode and a Prussian corps led by Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Bülow joined the defensive. Blücher opted to face Napoleon at Laon because it was the site of a strategically important road junction, and because of its highly defensible position.

Campaign in north-east France (1814)

The 1814 campaign in north-east France was Napoleon's final campaign of the War of the Sixth Coalition. Following their victory at Leipzig in 1813, the Austrian, Prussian, Russian, and other German armies of the Sixth Coalition invaded France. Despite the disproportionate forces in favour of the Coalition, Napoleon managed to inflict many defeats, especially during the Six Days' Campaign. However, the Coalition kept advancing towards Paris, which capitulated in late March 1814. As a result, Napoleon was deposed and exiled to Elba and the victorious powers started to redraw the map of Europe during the First Treaty of Paris and during the early stages of the Congress of Vienna.

German Campaign of 1813 Conflict between France and an alliance

The German Campaign was fought in 1813. Members of the Sixth Coalition, including the German states of Austria and Prussia, plus Russia and Sweden, fought a series of battles in Germany against the French Emperor Napoleon, his Marshals, and armies of the Confederation of the Rhine - an alliance of most of the other German states - which ended the domination of the First French Empire.

Reduction of the French fortresses in 1815

After the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo and the advance on Paris by the Coalition armies during the months of June and July 1815, although they besieged and took some towns and fortresses as they advance, they bypassed many of them and detached forces to observe and reduce them. The last of the French fortresses did not capitulate until September of that year.

The Treaty of Troyes was an agreement of 22 February 1814 by Austria, Russia and Prussia following a council of war with senior generals, Tsar Alexander I of Russia and King Frederick William III of Prussia. The treaty determined the movements of the Austrian and Prussian-Russian armies following a series of defeats during the invasion of north-east France. Despite dissent from the Russian and Prussian leaders, Austrian General Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg secured support for a withdrawal ahead of the French forces of Emperor Napoleon I who was seeking to bring the allies to battle.

References

  1. Jones, Neal T., ed. (1984). A Book of Days for the Literary Year . London; New York: Thames and Hudson. ISBN   0-500-01332-2.
  2. 1 2 "Montevideo", in Dictionary of Battles and Sieges, Tony Jaques, ed. (Greenwood Publishing, 2007) p682.
  3. Mudie, James (1820). An Historical and Critical Account of a Grand Series of National Medals. Colburn. p. 123.
  4. Cummings, Michael J. (2008). "Byron's She Walks in Beauty." Cummings Study Guides. Retrieved 2014-07-10.
  5. House of Commons (1816). Report from the Committee upon Expired and Expiring Laws. p. 6.
  6. "Waverley". Walter Scott. Edinburgh University Library. December 19, 2011. Archived from the original on April 30, 2013. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
  7. "Vienna, Congress of", in The Americana: A Universal Reference Library (Scientific American, 1912)
  8. Pettett, David (2014). "Samuel Marsden – Christmas Day 1814. What did he say? The Content of New Zealand's first Christian Sermon". In Lange, Stuart; Davidson, Allan; Lineham, Peter; Puckey, Adrienne (eds.). Te Rongopai 1814 'Takoto Te Pai!' Bicentenary Reflections on Christian Beginnings and Developments in Aotearoa New Zealand. Aukland: General Synod Office, 'Tuia', of the Anglican Church in Aotearoa New Zealand and Polynesia. pp. 72–85.
  9. Muir, Diana. "Chapter 10". Reflections in Bullough's Pond: Economy and Ecosystem in New England. Lebanon, New Hampshire: University Press of New England. ISBN   978-0-87451-909-9.
  10. Wikisource-logo.svg  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain :  Stephen, Leslie, ed. (1886). "Bingham, Margaret". Dictionary of National Biography . 5. London: Smith, Elder & Co.

Further reading