1820 United States Census

Last updated

1820 United States Census
  1810
1830  
Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenAugust 7, 1820 (1820-08-07)
Total population9,638,453

The United States Census of 1820 was the fourth Census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on August 7, 1820. The 1820 Census included six new states: Louisiana, Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama and Maine. There has been a district wide loss of 1820 Census records for Arkansas Territory, Missouri Territory and New Jersey, however.

United States federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Contents

The total population was determined to be 9,638,453, of which 1,538,022 were slaves. The center of population was about 120 miles (193 km) west-northwest of Washington in Hardy County, Virginia (now in West Virginia).

Washington, D.C. Capital of the United States

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father. As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is also one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually.

Hardy County, West Virginia county in West Virginia, United States

Hardy County is a county in the U.S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,025. Its county seat is Moorefield. The county was created from Hampshire County in 1786 and named for Samuel Hardy, a distinguished Virginian.

Virginia State of the United States of America

Virginia, officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U.S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2017 is over 8.4 million.

This was the first census in which a state recorded a population of over one million – New York and Pennsylvania – as well as the first in which a city recorded a population of over 100,000 – New York. It was also the first census in which Baltimore was ranked as the country's second-most populous city.

New York (state) State of the United States of America

New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that formed the United States. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city in the state with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State.

Pennsylvania State of the United States of America

Pennsylvania, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. The Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east.

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States and thus also in the state of New York. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Census questions

The 1820 census contains a great deal more information than previous censuses. Enumerators listed the following data in columns, left to right:

  1. Name of the head of family
  2. # of free white males under age 10
  3. # of free white males age 10-16
  4. # of free white males age 16-18
  5. # of free white males age 16-26
  6. # of free white males age 26-45
  7. # of free white males age 45 and up
  8. # of free white females under age 10
  9. # of free white females age 10-16
  10. # of free white females age 16-26
  11. # of free white females age 26-45
  12. # of free white females age 45 and up
  13. # of foreigners not naturalized
  14. # of persons engaged in agriculture
  15. # of persons engaged in commerce
  16. # of persons engaged in manufacture
  17. # of male slaves under 14
  18. # of male slaves age 14-26
  19. # of male slaves age 26-45
  20. # of male slaves age 45 and up
  21. # of female slaves under 14
  22. # of female slaves age 14-26
  23. # of female slaves age 26-45
  24. # of female slaves age 45 and up
  25. # of free male colored persons under 14
  26. # of free male colored persons age 14-26
  27. # of free male colored persons age 26-45
  28. # of free male colored persons age 45 and up
  29. # of free female colored persons under 14
  30. # of free female colored persons age 14-26
  31. # of free female colored persons age 26-45
  32. # of free female colored persons age 45 and up
  33. # of all other persons except Indians not taxed

Several of these columns were for special counts, and not to be included in the aggregate total. Doing so would have resulted in counting some individuals twice. Census takers were asked to use double lines, red ink or some other method of distinguishing these columns so that double counting would not occur. For example, the count of free white males between 16 and 18 was a special count, because these individuals were also supposed to be tabulated in the column for free white males of age 16 and under 26.

The other special counts were foreigners not naturalized, persons engaged in agriculture, persons engaged in commerce, and persons engaged in manufacture.

Census takers were also instructed to count each individual in only one of the occupational columns. For example, if an individual was engaged in agriculture, commerce, and manufacture, the census taker had to judge which one the individual was primarily engaged in.

Note to Researchers

Censustaking was not yet an exact science. Before 1830, enumerators lacked pre-printed forms, and drew up their own, sometimes resulting in pages without headings, line tallies, or column totals. As a result, census records for many towns before 1830 are idiosyncratic. This is not to suggest that they are less reliable than subsequent censuses, but that they may require more work on the part of the researcher.

State rankings

RankStatePopulation
01New York1,372,812
02Pennsylvania1,049,458
03Virginia938,261
04North Carolina638,829
05Ohio581,434
06Kentucky564,317
07Massachusetts523,287
08South Carolina502,741
09Tennessee422,813
10Maryland407,350
11Georgia340,989
12Maine298,335
13New Jersey277,575
14Connecticut275,202
15New Hampshire244,161
16Vermont235,764
17Louisiana153,407
18Indiana147,178
XWest Virginia [1] 136,808
19Alabama127,901
20Rhode Island83,059
21Mississippi75,448
22Delaware72,749
XMissouri66,586
23Illinois55,211
XDistrict of Columbia [2] 23,336
XArkansas14,273
XMichigan7,452
XWisconsin1,444

City rankings

RankCityStatePopulation [3] Region (2016) [4]
01 New York New York 123,706 Northeast
02 Baltimore Maryland 78,444 South
03 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 63,802 Northeast
04 Boston Massachusetts 43,298 Northeast
05 New Orleans Louisiana 27,176 South
06 Charleston South Carolina 24,780 South
07 Northern Liberties Pennsylvania 19,678 Northeast
08 Southwark Pennsylvania 14,713 Northeast
09 Washington District of Columbia 13,247 South
10 Salem Massachusetts 12,731 Northeast
11 Albany New York 12,630 Northeast
12 Richmond Virginia 12,067 South
13 Providence Rhode Island 11,767 Northeast
14 Cincinnati Ohio 9,642 Midwest
15 Portland Maine 8,581 Northeast
16 Norfolk Virginia 8,478 South
17 Alexandria District of Columbia 8,218 South
18 Savannah Georgia 7,523 South
19 Georgetown District of Columbia 7,360 South
20 Portsmouth New Hampshire 7,327 Northeast
21 Newport Rhode Island 7,319 Northeast
22 Nantucket Massachusetts 7,266 Northeast
23 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 7,248 Northeast
24 Brooklyn New York 7,175 Northeast
25 New Haven Connecticut 7,147 Northeast
26 Kensington Pennsylvania 7,118 Northeast
27 Newburyport Massachusetts 6,852 Northeast
28 Petersburg Virginia 6,690 South
29 Lancaster Pennsylvania 6,633 Northeast
30 Charlestown Massachusetts 6,591 Northeast
31 Gloucester Massachusetts 6,384 Northeast
32 Marblehead Massachusetts 5,630 Northeast
33 Hudson New York 5,310 Northeast
34 Lexington Kentucky 5,279 South
35 Troy New York 5,264 Northeast
36 Hartford Connecticut 4,726 Northeast
37 Middleborough Massachusetts 4,687 Northeast
38 Taunton Massachusetts 4,520 Northeast
39 Lynn Massachusetts 4,515 Northeast
40 Plymouth Massachusetts 4,348 Northeast
41 Reading Pennsylvania 4,332 Northeast
42 Beverly Massachusetts 4,283 Northeast
43 Roxbury Massachusetts 4,135 Northeast
44 Louisville Kentucky 4,012 South
45 New Bedford Massachusetts 3,947 Northeast
46 Trenton New Jersey 3,942 Northeast
47 Schenectady New York 3,939 Northeast
48 New Bern North Carolina 3,663 South
49 Frederick Maryland 3,640 South
50 York Pennsylvania 3,545 Northeast
51 Fayetteville North Carolina 3,532 South
52 Elizabeth New Jersey 3,515 Northeast
53 Spring Garden Pennsylvania 3,498 Northeast
54 New London Connecticut 3,330 Northeast
55 Harrisburg Pennsylvania 2,990 Northeast
56 Norwich Connecticut 2,983 Northeast
57 Utica New York 2,972 Northeast
58 Carlisle Pennsylvania 2,908 Northeast
59 Raleigh North Carolina 2,674 South
60 Hagerstown Maryland 2,670 South
61 Wilmington North Carolina 2,633 South
62 Middletown Connecticut 2,618 Northeast

Further reading

Related Research Articles

Upshur County, West Virginia county in West Virginia, United States

Upshur County is a county in the U.S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,254. Its county seat is Buckhannon. The county was formed in 1851 from Randolph, Barbour, and Lewis counties and named for Abel Parker Upshur, a distinguished statesman and jurist of Virginia. Upshur served as United States Secretary of State and Secretary of the Navy under President John Tyler.

Pocahontas County, West Virginia county in West Virginia, United States

Pocahontas County is a county located in the U.S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,719. Its county seat is Marlinton. The county was established in 1821. It is named after the daughter of the Powhatan Native American chief from Jamestown, Virginia. She married an English settler and their mixed-race children became ancestors of many of the First Families of Virginia.

Westmoreland County, Virginia county in Virginia, USA

Westmoreland County is a county located in the Northern Neck of the Commonwealth of Virginia. At the 2010 census, the population was 17,454. Its county seat is Montross.

Irwin County, Georgia county in Georgia, United States

Irwin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,538. The county seat is Ocilla. The county was created on December 15, 1818. It was named for Governor Jared Irwin.

Newburg is a former census-designated place in Jefferson County, Kentucky, United States. The population was 20,636 at the 2000 census. On January 6, 2003, the area was annexed to the city of Louisville due to a merger between the city and Jefferson County's unincorporated communities. Newburg is now a neighborhood on the south side, within the pre-merger city limits of Louisville.

Albany, Ohio Village in Ohio, United States

Albany is a village in Athens County, Ohio, United States. The population was 828 at the 2010 census.

Ripley, Ohio Village in Ohio, United States

Ripley is a village in Brown County, Ohio, United States, along the Ohio River 50 miles southeast of Cincinnati. The population was 1,750 at the 2010 census.

Lincolnia, Virginia Census-designated place in Virginia, United States

Lincolnia is a census-designated place (CDP) in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. The population was 22,828 at the 2010 census, an increase of over 44% from 2000.

Mount Vernon, Virginia Census-designated place in Virginia, United States

Mount Vernon is a census-designated place (CDP) and unincorporated community in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. The population was 12,416 at the 2010 census. Primarily due to its historical significance and natural recreation and beauty, the Mount Vernon area receives over one million touring visitors each year.

Glasgow, West Virginia Town in West Virginia, United States

Glasgow is a town in Kanawha County, West Virginia, USA, along the Kanawha River. The population was 905 at the 2010 census. Glasgow was incorporated on June 20, 1920. Folk etymology derives its name from a combination of the word "glass" with the word "company" for a glass factory that was built there many years ago, but the presence of many Scottish immigrants to this part of Appalachia, particularly from the Strathclyde region, indicates that the town was most likely named after the Scottish city of Glasgow in Strathclyde. Other Virginia and West Virginia locations named for places in Strathclyde include Dumbarton, Argyle, Loudoun County, Hamilton in Loudoun County, Lanark and Renfrew.

Ellenboro, West Virginia Town in West Virginia, United States

Ellenboro is a town in Ritchie County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 363 at the 2010 census. The town is located at the junction of U.S. Route 50 and West Virginia Route 16; the North Bend Rail Trail also passes through the town. The town was named for Ellen Mariah Williamson, the eldest daughter of the family that granted a right of way for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to build their line through the town; an earlier name for the community was Shumley. Ellenboro was incorporated in 1903.

Pennsboro, West Virginia City in West Virginia, United States

Pennsboro is a city in Ritchie County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 1,171 at the 2010 census. The city is located at the junction of U.S. Route 50 and West Virginia Route 74; the North Bend Rail Trail also passes through the city.

Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin.

1850 United States Census

The United States Census of 1850 was the seventh census of the United States. Conducted by the Census Office on June 1, 1850, it determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876—an increase of 35.9 percent over the 17,069,453 persons enumerated during the 1840 Census. The total population included 3,204,313 slaves.

1840 United States Census

The United States Census of 1840 was the sixth census of the United States. Conducted by the Census Office on June 1, 1840, it determined the resident population of the United States to be 17,069,453 — an increase of 32.7 percent over the 12,866,020 persons enumerated during the 1830 Census. The total population included 2,487,355 slaves. In 1840, the center of population was about 260 miles (418 km) west of Washington, near Weston, Virginia.

1790 United States Census

The United States Census of 1790 was the first census of the whole United States. It recorded the population of the United States as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws. In the first census, the population of the United States was enumerated to be 3,929,214.

1810 United States Census

The United States Census of 1810 was the third Census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on August 6, 1810. It showed that 7,239,881 people were living in the United States, of which 1,191,362 were slaves.

1830 United States Census

The United States Census of 1830, the fifth census undertaken in the United States, was conducted on June 1, 1830. The only loss of census records for 1830 involved some countywide losses in Massachusetts, Maryland, and Mississippi.

The Chestnut Ridge people (CRP) are a mixed-race community concentrated in an area northeast of Philippi, Barbour County in north-central West Virginia, USA. They are often referred to as "Mayles" or "Guineas".

Lake–Tysen House

The Lake–Tysen House is a spacious farmhouse with Dutch and Flemish architectural details. It was built by Joseph Guyon on his farmstead in Oakwood, Staten Island in the United States. Most of its original interior woodwork, including both Georgian and Federal styles of paneling remains intact. Based on the style and proportions of the house, it would be considered a middle-to-upper-class dwelling. The Lake family owned several slaves, who may have been housed in the rooms above the kitchen. The building was acquired by Historic Richmond Town, a living history museum, in 1962, and transported from Oakwood during July 9–12, 1962. The building was restored before it was opened to the public on October, 1963. Full restoration was completed in the 1970s.

References

  1. Between 1790 and 1860, the state of West Virginia was part of Virginia; the data for each states reflect the present-day boundaries.
  2. The District of Columbia is not a state but was created with the passage of the Residence Act of 1790. The territory that formed that federal capital was originally donated by both Maryland and Virginia; however, the Virginia portion was returned by Congress in 1846.
  3. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  4. "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.