1844

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1844 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1844
MDCCCXLIV
Ab urbe condita 2597
Armenian calendar 1293
ԹՎ ՌՄՂԳ
Assyrian calendar 6594
Baháʼí calendar 0–1
Balinese saka calendar 1765–1766
Bengali calendar 1251
Berber calendar 2794
British Regnal year 7  Vict. 1   8  Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar 2388
Burmese calendar 1206
Byzantine calendar 7352–7353
Chinese calendar 癸卯年 (Water  Rabbit)
4541 or 4334
     to 
甲辰年 (Wood  Dragon)
4542 or 4335
Coptic calendar 1560–1561
Discordian calendar 3010
Ethiopian calendar 1836–1837
Hebrew calendar 5604–5605
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1900–1901
 - Shaka Samvat 1765–1766
 - Kali Yuga 4944–4945
Holocene calendar 11844
Igbo calendar 844–845
Iranian calendar 1222–1223
Islamic calendar 1259–1260
Japanese calendar Tenpō 15 / Kōka 1
(弘化元年)
Javanese calendar 1771–1772
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar 4177
Minguo calendar 68 before ROC
民前68年
Nanakshahi calendar 376
Thai solar calendar 2386–2387
Tibetan calendar 阴水兔年
(female Water-Rabbit)
1970 or 1589 or 817
     to 
阳木龙年
(male Wood-Dragon)
1971 or 1590 or 818

1844 (MDCCCXLIV) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar  and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1844th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 844th year of the 2nd millennium, the 44th year of the 19th century, and the 5th year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1844, the Gregorian calendar was 12days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Contents

In the Philippines, this was the only leap year with 365 days, when Tuesday, December 31 was skipped as Monday, December 30 was immediately followed by Wednesday, January 1, 1845, the next day after. [1] The change also applied to Caroline Islands, Guam, Marianas Islands, Marshall Islands and Palau as part of the Captaincy General of the Philippines; these became the first places on Earth to redraw the International Date Line.

Events

May 24:The first telegraph message is sent. Christian Schussele - Men of Progress - Google Art Project.jpg
May 24:The first telegraph message is sent.

January–March

February 28: USS Princeton deaths. USS Princeton (1843).jpg
February 28: USS Princeton deaths.

April–June

June 3: great auk Greatauk-london.jpg
June 3: great auk

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January–March

Minna Canth Minna Canth.jpg
Minna Canth
Patrick Collins Mayor PA Collins.png
Patrick Collins
John Boyle O'Reilly John Boyle O'Reilly cph.3a38519.jpg
John Boyle O'Reilly

April–June

Mary Cassatt Mary Cassatt photograph 1913.jpg
Mary Cassatt

July–September

Emily Ruete Emily Ruete (Sayyida Salme), Princess of Zanzibar.jpg
Emily Ruete
Friedrich Nietzsche Nietzsche187a.jpg
Friedrich Nietzsche
Ludwig Grillich Ludwig Grillich7.jpg
Ludwig Grillich
Karl Benz Carl Benz.png
Karl Benz
Queen Alexandra of Denmark Queen Alexandra, the Princess of Wales.jpg
Queen Alexandra of Denmark

October–December

Francis William Reitz WFReitz CHM VA0957.jpg
Francis William Reitz
W.C. Bonnerjee WCBonnerjee.jpg
W.C. Bonnerjee

Date unknown

Deaths

January–June

July–December

Melchor Muzquiz Melchor Muzquiz (Joaquin Ramirez).jpg
Melchor Múzquiz

Date unknown

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">ʻAbdu'l-Bahá</span> Head of the Baháʼí Faith from 1892 to 1921

ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, born ʻAbbás, was the eldest son of Baháʼu'lláh and served as head of the Baháʼí Faith from 1892 until 1921. ʻAbdu'l-Bahá was later canonized as the last of three "central figures" of the religion, along with Baháʼu'lláh and the Báb, and his writings and authenticated talks are regarded as sources of Baháʼí sacred literature.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baháʼí Faith</span> Religion established in the 19th century

The Baháʼí Faith is a religion founded in the 19th century that teaches the essential worth of all religions and the unity of all people. Established by Baháʼu'lláh, it initially developed in Iran and parts of the Middle East, where it has faced ongoing persecution since its inception. The religion is estimated to have 5 to 8 million adherents, known as Baháʼís, spread throughout most of the world's countries and territories.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bábism</span> Abrahamic monotheistic religion

Bábism, also known as the Bábi Faith, is a monotheistic religion founded in 1844 by the Báb. The Báb, an Iranian merchant-turned-prophet, professed that there is one incorporeal, unknown, and incomprehensible God who manifests his will in an unending series of theophanies, called Manifestations of God. The Báb's ministry, throughout which there was much evolution as he progressively outlined his teachings, was turbulent and short lived and ended with his public execution in Tabriz in 1850. A campaign of extermination followed, in which thousands of followers were killed in what has been described as potentially one of the bloodiest actions of the Iranian military in the 19th century.

The Baháʼí calendar used in the Baháʼí Faith is a solar calendar consisting of nineteen months and four or five intercalary days, with new year at the moment of Northern spring equinox. Each month is named after a virtue, as are the days of the week. The first year is dated from 1844 CE, the year in which the Báb began teaching.

Riḍván is a twelve-day festival in the Bahá'í Faith commemorating Bahá'u'lláh's declaration that he was a Manifestation of God. In the Bahá'í calendar, it begins at sunset on the 13th of Jalál, which translates to the 20th or 21 April, depending on the date of the March equinox. In 2024, it begins in the evening of 19 April. On the first, ninth and twelfth days of Ridván, work and school should be suspended.

The following is a basic timeline of the Bábí and Baháʼí religions emphasizing dates that are relatively well known. For a more comprehensive chronology of the timeline, see the references at the bottom.

The Baháʼí Faith has its background in two earlier movements in the nineteenth century, Shaykhism and Bábism. Shaykhism centred on theosophical doctrines and many Shaykhis expected the return of the hidden Twelfth Imam. Many Shaykhis joined the messianic Bábí movement in the 1840s where the Báb proclaimed himself to be the return of the hidden Imam. As the Bábí movement spread in Iran, violence broke out between the ruling Shiʿa Muslim government and the Bábís, and ebbed when government troops massacred them, and executed the Báb in 1850.

The Apostles of Baháʼu'lláh were nineteen prominent early followers of Baháʼu'lláh, the founder of the Baháʼí Faith. The apostles were designated as such by Shoghi Effendi, head of the religion in the earlier half of the 20th century, and the list was included in The Baháʼí World, Vol. III (pp. 80–81).

Baháʼí literature covers a variety of topics and forms, including scripture and inspiration, interpretation, history and biography, introduction and study materials, and apologia. Sometimes considerable overlap between these forms can be observed in a particular text.

The Baháʼí Faith has eleven holy days, which are important anniversaries in the history of the religion. On nine of these holy days, work is suspended. There is no fixed format for any of the holy days, and Baháʼí communities organize their own commemorative meetings.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Birth of Baháʼu'lláh</span> Baháʼí religious observance; birthday of Baháʼulláh

The Birth of Baháʼu'lláh is one of nine holy days in the Baháʼí calendar that is celebrated by adherents of the Baháʼí Faith and during which work is suspended. The holy day celebrates the birth of Baháʼu'lláh, the founder of the Baháʼí Faith. The 2024 date is November 3.

Naw-Rúz is the first day of the Baháʼí calendar year and one of eleven holy days for adherents of the Baháʼí Faith. It occurs on the vernal equinox, on or near March 21, which is also the traditional Persian New Year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Day of the Covenant (Baháʼí)</span> Baháí religious observance commemorating appointment of Abdul-Bahá

The Day of the Covenant is the day when Baháʼís celebrate the appointment of ʻAbdu'l-Bahá as the Centre of Baha'u'llah's Covenant. It occurs yearly on the 4th day of Speech (Qawl) which coincides with either November 25 or 26 depending on when Naw Ruz falls on that year.

Opponents of the Baháʼí Faith have accused the faith's followers of committing various acts of political mischief, such as having a supposed "dual loyalty" and being secretly in the employ of foreign powers supposedly inimical to the interest of their home state. These accusations, together with others with a more theological bent, have been used to justify persecution of adherents of the Baháʼí Faith and the religion itself.

Martyrdom in the Baháʼí Faith is the act of sacrificing one's life in the service of humanity and in the name of God. In Hidden Words, Baháʼu'lláh's revelation incites believers towards martyrdom: "O son of being! Seek a martyr's death in My path, content with My pleasure […] To tinge thy hair with thy blood is greater in My sight than the creation of the universe and the light of both worlds. Strive then to attain this, O servant!"

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Muhammad Mustafá Baghdádí</span> One of the nineteen Apostles of Baháulláh

Mírzá Muḥammad Muṣṭafá al-Baghdádí (1837/8—1910) was a prominent Iraqi adherent of the Baháʼí faith and one of 19 Apostles of Baháʼu'lláh. Mustafá was among the leading Baháʼís in Iraq until he moved to Beirut in the late 1870s, where he coordinated pilgrims going to see Baháʼu'lláh in ʻAkká, and later he was involved with the movement of the Báb's remains to ʻAkká.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Baháʼí Faith.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baháʼí Faith in France</span>

The Baháʼí Faith in France started after French citizens observed and studied the religion in its native Persia in the mid-19th century. The first followers of the religion declared their belief shortly before 1900, the community grew and the understanding of Baha'u'llah's Revelation was assisted by ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's trip to France in late 1911 and early 1913. The number of Baha'is grew, tests and difficulties were overcome, and the community established its National Assembly in 1958. The community has been reviewed a number of times by researchers. According to the 2005 Association of Religion Data Archives data there are close to some 4,400 Baháʼís in France and the French government is among the many who have been alarmed at the persecution of Baháʼís in modern Iran.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baháʼí Faith in Europe</span>

The Baháʼí Faith was discussed in the writings of various Western intellectuals and scholars during the lifetime of Baháʼu'lláh. His son and successor, ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, travelled to France and Great Britain and gave talks to audiences there. There is a Baháʼí House of Worship in Langenhain, Germany, which was completed in 1964. The Association of Religion Data Archives reported national Baháʼí populations ranging from hundreds to over 35,000 in 2005. The European Union and several European countries have condemned the persecution of Baháʼís in Iran.

References

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  5. History of youth work
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  8. Bessel, F. W. (December 1844). "On the Variations of the Proper Motions of Procyon and Sirius". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 6 (11): 136–141. Bibcode:1844MNRAS...6R.136B. doi: 10.1093/mnras/6.11.136a .
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