1844

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1844 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1844
MDCCCXLIV
Ab urbe condita 2597
Armenian calendar 1293
ԹՎ ՌՄՂԳ
Assyrian calendar 6594
Bahá'í calendar 0–1
Balinese saka calendar 1765–1766
Bengali calendar 1251
Berber calendar 2794
British Regnal year 7  Vict. 1   8  Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar 2388
Burmese calendar 1206
Byzantine calendar 7352–7353
Chinese calendar 癸卯(Water  Rabbit)
4540 or 4480
     to 
甲辰年 (Wood  Dragon)
4541 or 4481
Coptic calendar 1560–1561
Discordian calendar 3010
Ethiopian calendar 1836–1837
Hebrew calendar 5604–5605
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1900–1901
 - Shaka Samvat 1765–1766
 - Kali Yuga 4944–4945
Holocene calendar 11844
Igbo calendar 844–845
Iranian calendar 1222–1223
Islamic calendar 1259–1260
Japanese calendar Tenpō 15 / Kōka 1
(弘化元年)
Javanese calendar 1771–1772
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar 4177
Minguo calendar 68 before ROC
民前68年
Nanakshahi calendar 376
Thai solar calendar 2386–2387
Tibetan calendar 阴水兔年
(female Water-Rabbit)
1970 or 1589 or 817
     to 
阳木龙年
(male Wood-Dragon)
1971 or 1590 or 818

1844 ( MDCCCXLIV ) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar  and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar , the 1844th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 844th year of the 2nd millennium , the 44th year of the 19th century , and the 5th year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1844, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

A leap year is a calendar year containing one additional day added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year. Because seasons and astronomical events do not repeat in a whole number of days, calendars that have the same number of days in each year drift over time with respect to the event that the year is supposed to track. By inserting an additional day or month into the year, the drift can be corrected. A year that is not a leap year is called a common year.

A leap year starting on Monday is any year with 366 days that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are GF, such as the years 1912, 1940, 1968, 1996, 2024, 2052, 2080, and 2120 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2008, 2036, and 2064 in the obsolete Julian calendar. Any leap year that starts on Monday, Wednesday or Thursday has two Friday the 13ths. This leap year contains two Friday the 13ths in September and December. Common years starting on Tuesday share this characteristic.

Contents

Events

January–March

January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 350 days remain until the end of the year.

University of Notre Dame Private Catholic university in Notre Dame, Indiana, United States

The University of Notre Dame du Lac is a private Catholic research university in Notre Dame, Indiana. The main campus covers 1,261 acres (510 ha) in a suburban setting and it contains a number of recognizable landmarks, such as the Golden Dome, the Word of Life mural, the Notre Dame Stadium, and the Basilica. The school was founded on November 26, 1842, by Edward Sorin, who was also its first president.

Notre Dame, Indiana Census-designated place in Indiana, United States

Notre Dame is a census-designated place north of the city of South Bend in St. Joseph County, in the U.S. state of Indiana. It includes the campuses of three colleges: the University of Notre Dame, Saint Mary's College, and Holy Cross College. Notre Dame is split between Clay and Portage Townships. As of the 2010 census, its population was 5,973.

February 28: USS Princeton deaths. USS Princeton (1843).jpg
February 28: USS Princeton deaths.

February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 306 days remain until the end of the year.

Potomac River river in the mid-Atlantic United States

The Potomac River is found within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States and flows from the Potomac Highlands into the Chesapeake Bay. The river is approximately 405 miles (652 km) long, with a drainage area of about 14,700 square miles (38,000 km2). In terms of area, this makes the Potomac River the fourth largest river along the Atlantic coast of the United States and the 21st largest in the United States. Over 5 million people live within the Potomac watershed.

March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 298 days remain until the end of the year.

April–June

April 2 is the 92nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 273 days remain until the end of the year.

Fleet Prison 12th-century prison in London

Fleet Prison was a notorious London prison by the side of the River Fleet. The prison was built in 1197, was rebuilt several times, and was in use until 1844. It was demolished in 1846.

Debtors prison prison for people who are unable to pay debt

A debtors' prison is a prison for people who are unable to pay debt. Through the mid 19th century, debtors' prisons were a common way to deal with unpaid debt in places like Western Europe. Destitute persons who were unable to pay a court-ordered judgment would be incarcerated in these prisons until they had worked off their debt via labour or secured outside funds to pay the balance. The product of their labour went towards both the costs of their incarceration and their accrued debt. Increasing access and lenience throughout the history of bankruptcy law have made prison terms for unaggravated indigence illegal over most of the world.

July–September

July 3 is the 184th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 181 days remain until the end of the year.

Treaty of Wanghia Treaty signed by Qing dynasty of China and United States in 1844. One of the first series of unequal treaties in modern Chinese history.

The Treaty of Wanghia was a diplomatic agreement between Qing dynasty of China and United States, signed on July 3, 1844 in the Kun Iam Temple. Its official title name is the Treaty of peace, amity, and commerce, between the United States of America and the Chinese Empire. Following passage by the U.S. Congress, it was ratified by President John Tyler on January 17, 1845. It formally remained in effect until the 1943 Sino-American Treaty for the Relinquishment of Extraterritorial Rights in China.

Great auk Extinct flightless seabird from the North Atlantic

The great auk is an extinct species of flightless alcid that became extinct in the mid-19th century. It was the only modern species in the genus Pinguinus. It is not closely related to the birds now known as penguins, which were discovered later and so named by sailors because of their physical resemblance to the great auk.

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January–June

Patrick Collins Mayor PA Collins.png
Patrick Collins
Garret Hobart Garret Augustus Hobart.jpg
Garret Hobart
John Boyle O'Reilly John Boyle O'Reilly cph.3a38519.jpg
John Boyle O'Reilly

July–December

Emily Ruete Emily Ruete (Sayyida Salme), Princess of Zanzibar.jpg
Emily Ruete
Friedrich Nietzsche Nietzsche187a.jpg
Friedrich Nietzsche
Ludwig Grillich Ludwig Grillich7.jpg
Ludwig Grillich
Karl Benz Carl Benz.png
Karl Benz
Queen Alexandra of Denmark Queen Alexandra, the Princess of Wales.jpg
Queen Alexandra of Denmark

Date unknown

Deaths

January–June

July–December

Melchor Muzquiz Melchor Muzquiz (Joaquin Ramirez).jpg
Melchor Múzquiz

Date unknown

Related Research Articles

1807 Year

1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1807th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 807th year of the 2nd millennium, the 7th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1807, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1812 Year

1812 (MDCCCXII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1812th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 812th year of the 2nd millennium, the 12th year of the 19th century, and the 3rd year of the 1810s decade. As of the start of 1812, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1819 Year

1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1819th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 819th year of the 2nd millennium, the 19th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1810s decade. As of the start of 1819, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1830 Year

1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1830th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 830th year of the 2nd millennium, the 30th year of the 19th century, and the 1st year of the 1830s decade. As of the start of 1830, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. It is known in European history as a rather tumultuous year with the Revolutions of 1830 in France, Belgium, Poland, Switzerland and Italy.

1803 Year

1803 (MDCCCIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1803rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 803rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 3rd year of the 19th century, and the 4th year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1803, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1817 Year

1817 (MDCCCXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1817th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 817th year of the 2nd millennium, the 17th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1810s decade. As of the start of 1817, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Bábism, also known as the Bayání Faith, is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is one incorporeal, unknown, and incomprehensible God who manifests his will in an unending series of theophanies, called Manifestations of God. It has no more than a few thousand adherents according to current estimates, most of whom are concentrated in Iran. It was founded by ‘Ali Muhammad Shirazi who first assumed the title of Báb (lit. "Gate") from which the religion gets its name, out of the belief that he was the gate to the Twelfth Imam. However throughout his ministry his titles and claims underwent much evolution as the Báb progressively outlined his teachings.

The Bahá'í Calendar, also called the Badíʿ Calendar, is a solar calendar with years composed of 19 months of 19 days each (361 days) plus an extra period of "Intercalary Days". Years begin at Naw-Rúz, on the day of the vernal equinox in Tehran, Iran, coinciding with March 20 or 21.

Riḍván is a twelve-day festival in the Bahá'í Faith, commemorating Bahá'u'lláh's declaration that he was a Manifestation of God. In the Bahá'í Calendar, it begins at sunset on the 13th of Jalál, which translates to the 20th or 21st of April, depending on the date of the March equinox. On the first, ninth and twelfth days of Ridván, work and school should be suspended.

The following is a basic timeline of the Bábí and Bahá'í religions emphasizing dates that are relatively well known. For a more comprehensive chronology of the timeline, see the references at the bottom.

Bahá'í history is often traced through a sequence of leaders, beginning with the Báb's declaration in Shiraz on the evening of May 22, 1844, and ultimately resting on an Administrative Order established by the central figures of the religion. The religion had its background in two earlier movements in the nineteenth century, Shaykhism and Bábism. Shaykhism centred on theosophical doctrines and many Shaykhis expected the return of the hidden Twelfth Imam. Many Shaykhis joined the messianic Bábí movement in the 1840s where the Báb proclaimed himself to be the return of the hidden Imam. As the Bábí movement spread in Iran, violence broke out between the ruling Shi'a Muslim government and the Bábís, and ebbed when government troops massacred them, and executed the Báb in 1850.

The Bahá'í Faith has eleven holy days, which are important anniversaries in the history of the religion. On nine of these holy days, work is suspended. There is no fixed format for any of the holy days, and Bahá’í communities organize their own commemorative meetings.

Ayyám-i-Há refers to a period of intercalary days in the Bahá'í calendar, when Bahá'ís celebrate the Festival of Ayyám-i-Há. The four or five days of this period are inserted between the last two months of the calendar. The length of Ayyám-i-Há varies according to the timing of the following vernal equinox so that the next year always starts on the vernal equinox.

Birth of Baháulláh Baháí religious observance; the birthday of Baháulláh

The Birth of Bahá'u'lláh is one of nine holy days in the Bahá'í calendar that is celebrated by Bahá'ís and during which work is suspended. The holy day celebrates the birth of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. The 2017 date is October 22.

Naw-Rúz is the first day of the Bahá'í calendar year and one of nine holy days for adherents of the Bahá'í Faith. It occurs on the vernal equinox, on or near March 21.

1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1909th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 909th year of the 2nd millennium, the 9th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1909, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Baháulláh Founder of the Baháí Faith

Bahá'u'lláh, born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí, was a Persian religious leader, and the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, which advocates universal peace and unity among all races, nations, and religions.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and a topical guide to the Bahá'í Faith.

Baháí Faith in France

The Bahá'í Faith in France started after French citizens observed and studied the religion in its native Persia in the 19th century. Following the introduction of followers of the religion shortly before 1900, the community grew and was assisted by `Abdu'l-Bahá's trip to France in 1911 and 1912. After growth and tribulation, the community established its National Assembly in 1958. The community has been reviewed a number of times by researchers. According to the 2005 Association of Religion Data Archives data there are close to some 4,400 Bahá'ís in France and the French government is among those who have been alarmed at the treatment of Bahá'ís in modern Iran.

The Festivals of the Twin Birthdays or the Twin Holy Birthdays refers to two successive holy days in the Bahá'í Calendar that celebrate the births of two central figures of the Bahá'í Faith. The two holy days are the birth of the Báb on the first day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and the birth of Bahá'u'lláh on the second day of Muharram.

References

  1. Robert Chambers, The Book of Days: A Miscellany of Popular Antiquities in Connection with the Calendar, Including Anecdote, Biography & History, Curiosities of Literature, and Oddities of Human Life and Character (W. & R. Chambers, 1888) p466
  2. History of youth work
  3. "Doctrine and Covenants 135". www.lds.org. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  4. "Beliefs: The Official Site of the Seventh-day Adventist world church". Adventist.org. Retrieved November 16, 2015.
  5. Shoghi, Effendi (1944). God Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 58. ISBN   0-87743-020-9. Archived from the original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
  6. Magyar Közlöny – A MAGYAR KÖZTÁRSASÁG HIVATALOS LAPJA 29 September, 2011
  7. "Joseph Bonaparte | king of Spain and Naples". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved March 25, 2019.