1844

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1844 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1844
MDCCCXLIV
Ab urbe condita 2597
Armenian calendar 1293
ԹՎ ՌՄՂԳ
Assyrian calendar 6594
Bahá'í calendar 0–1
Balinese saka calendar 1765–1766
Bengali calendar 1251
Berber calendar 2794
British Regnal year 7  Vict. 1   8  Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar 2388
Burmese calendar 1206
Byzantine calendar 7352–7353
Chinese calendar 癸卯(Water  Rabbit)
4540 or 4480
     to 
甲辰年 (Wood  Dragon)
4541 or 4481
Coptic calendar 1560–1561
Discordian calendar 3010
Ethiopian calendar 1836–1837
Hebrew calendar 5604–5605
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1900–1901
 - Shaka Samvat 1765–1766
 - Kali Yuga 4944–4945
Holocene calendar 11844
Igbo calendar 844–845
Iranian calendar 1222–1223
Islamic calendar 1259–1260
Japanese calendar Tenpō 15 / Kōka 1
(弘化元年)
Javanese calendar 1771–1772
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar 4177
Minguo calendar 68 before ROC
民前68年
Nanakshahi calendar 376
Thai solar calendar 2386–2387
Tibetan calendar 阴水兔年
(female Water-Rabbit)
1970 or 1589 or 817
     to 
阳木龙年
(male Wood-Dragon)
1971 or 1590 or 818

1844 (MDCCCXLIV) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar  and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1844th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 844th year of the 2nd millennium, the 44th year of the 19th century, and the 5th year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1844, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Contents

Events

January–March

February 28: USS Princeton deaths. USS Princeton (1843).jpg
February 28: USS Princeton deaths.

April–June

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June 3: great auk

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January–March

Minna Canth Minna Canth.jpg
Minna Canth
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Patrick Collins
Garret Hobart Garret Augustus Hobart.jpg
Garret Hobart
John Boyle O'Reilly John Boyle O'Reilly cph.3a38519.jpg
John Boyle O'Reilly

April–June

Mary Cassatt Mary Cassatt photograph 1913.jpg
Mary Cassatt

July–September

Emily Ruete Emily Ruete (Sayyida Salme), Princess of Zanzibar.jpg
Emily Ruete
Friedrich Nietzsche Nietzsche187a.jpg
Friedrich Nietzsche
Ludwig Grillich Ludwig Grillich7.jpg
Ludwig Grillich
Karl Benz Carl Benz.png
Karl Benz
Queen Alexandra of Denmark Queen Alexandra, the Princess of Wales.jpg
Queen Alexandra of Denmark

October–December

Date unknown

Deaths

January–June

July–December

Melchor Muzquiz Melchor Muzquiz (Joaquin Ramirez).jpg
Melchor Múzquiz

Date unknown

Related Research Articles

ʻAbdul-Bahá Son of Baháʼulláh and leader of the Baháʼí Faith

ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, born ʻAbbás, was the eldest son of Baháʼu'lláh and served as head of the Baháʼí Faith from 1892 until 1921. ʻAbdu'l-Bahá was later canonized as the last of three "central figures" of the religion, along with Baháʼu'lláh and the Báb, and his writings and authenticated talks are regarded as a source of Baháʼí sacred literature.

Baháʼí Faith Monotheistic religion founded by Baháʼulláh

The Baháʼí Faith is a relatively new religion teaching the essential worth of all religions and the unity of all people. Established by Baháʼu'lláh in the 19th century, it initially developed in Iran and parts of the Middle East, where it has faced ongoing persecution since its inception. The religion is estimated to have over five million adherents, known as Baháʼís, spread throughout most of the world's countries and territories.

The Badíʻ calendar used in the Baháʼí Faith is a solar calendar consisting of 19 months and 4-5 Intercalary Days, with new year at the northern spring equinox. Each month is named after virtues, as are the days of the week. The first year is dated from 1844 CE, the year in which the Báb began teaching.

Riḍván is a twelve-day festival in the Baháʼí Faith, commemorating Baháʼu'lláh's declaration that he was a Manifestation of God. In the Baháʼí calendar, it begins at sunset on the 13th of Jalál, which translates to the 20th or 21st of April, depending on the date of the March equinox. On the first, ninth and twelfth days of Ridván, work and school should be suspended.

The following is a basic timeline of the Bábí and Baháʼí religions emphasizing dates that are relatively well known. For a more comprehensive chronology of the timeline, see the references at the bottom.

The Baháʼí/Bábí split occurred when most Bábís accepted Baháʼu'lláh as the promised one of the Báb's writings, leading them to become Baháʼís, and leaving a remnant of Bábís who became known as Azalis. The split occurred after Baháʼí founder Baháʼu'lláh made his public claim in 1863, leading to expressions of support from the majority of the Bábí community, and opposition from Subh-i-Azal, who became the leader of the remaining group.

The history of the Baháʼí Faith is often traced through a sequence of leaders, beginning with the Báb's declaration in Shiraz on the evening of May 22, 1844, and ultimately resting on an Administrative Order established by the central figures of the religion. The Baháʼí Faith had its background in two earlier movements in the nineteenth century, Shaykhism and Bábism. Shaykhism centred on theosophical doctrines and many Shaykhis expected the return of the hidden Twelfth Imam. Many Shaykhis joined the messianic Bábí movement in the 1840s where the Báb proclaimed himself to be the return of the hidden Imam. As the Bábí movement spread in Iran, violence broke out between the ruling Shiʻa Muslim government and the Bábís, and ebbed when government troops massacred them, and executed the Báb in 1850.

The Baháʼí Faith has eleven holy days, which are important anniversaries in the history of the religion. On nine of these holy days, work is suspended. There is no fixed format for any of the holy days, and Baháʼí communities organize their own commemorative meetings.

The Baháʼí Faith and related topics have appeared multiple forms of fiction. The mention of this religion can be seen in science fiction, fantasy, short stories, novelettes, novels, and TV series. In 2005, an estimated value of 30 references could be found relating Baháʼí Faith to different forms of fiction. An estimated 3rd of these references have a significant relationship with the religion in the way that these forms of fiction show the Baháʼí Faith as a crucial aspect of the story. The first occurrence known is perhaps in the writings of Marie von Najmajer wrote a poem dedicated to Tahirih in Gurret-úl-Eyn: Ein Bild aus Persiens Neuzeit which was published in 1874. After a series of works covering the events of the Bábí period, most of the focus shifted towards Baháʼí specific related connections. Soon Khalil Gibran wrote two books - The Prophet and Jesus, The Son of Man. There is some second-hand evidence for the sustained influence of ʻAbdu'l-Bahá in these works. In modern times the first known occurrence is of a short story by non-Baháʼí Tom Ligon The Devil and the Deep Black Void, - he also wrote a sequel The Gardener. The next fictional publication, in 1991, which references the Baháʼí Faith may be a short story "Home Is Where…" by Baháʼí Maya Kaathryn Bohnhoff,

Ayyám-i-Há refers to a period of intercalary days in the Baháʼí calendar, when Baháʼís celebrate the Festival of Ayyám-i-Há. The four or five days of this period are inserted between the last two months of the calendar. The length of Ayyám-i-Há varies according to the timing of the following vernal equinox so that the next year always starts on the vernal equinox.

Birth of Baháʼulláh Baháʼí religious observance; birthday of Baháʼulláh

The Birth of Baháʼu'lláh is one of nine holy days in the Baháʼí calendar that is celebrated by adherents of the Baháʼí Faith and during which work is suspended. The holy day celebrates the birth of Baháʼu'lláh, the founder of the Baháʼí Faith. The 2020 date is October 19.

Naw-Rúz is the first day of the Baháʼí calendar year and one of nine holy days for adherents of the Baháʼí Faith. It occurs on the vernal equinox, on or near March 21, which is the traditional Iranian and Afghanistan New Year.

Baháʼulláh Founder of the Baháʼí Faith

Baháʼu'lláh was a Persian religious leader, and the founder of the Baháʼí Faith, which advocates universal peace and unity among all races, nations, and religions.

Baháʼí World Centre Spiritual and administrative centre of the Baháʼí Faith, in and around Haifa, Israel

The Baháʼí World Centre is the name given to the spiritual and administrative centre of the Baháʼí Faith, representing sites in or near the cities of Acre and Haifa, Israel.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and a topical guide to the Baháʼí Faith.

Baháʼí Faith in France

The Baháʼí Faith in France started after French citizens observed and studied the religion in its native Persia in the mid-19th century. The first followers of the religion declared their belief shortly before 1900, the community grew and the understanding of Baha'u'llah's Revelation was assisted by ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's trip to France in late 1911 and early 1913. The number of Baha'is grew, tests and difficulties were overcome, and the community established its National Assembly in 1958. The community has been reviewed a number of times by researchers. According to the 2005 Association of Religion Data Archives data there are close to some 4,400 Baháʼís in France and the French government is among the many who have been alarmed at the persecution of Baháʼís in modern Iran.

Baháʼí Faith in Europe Overview of the topic

The Baháʼí Faith was discussed in the writings of various Europeans during the lifetime of its founder, Baháʼu'lláh. His son and successor, ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, travelled to France and Great Britain and gave talks to audiences there. There is a Baháʼí House of Worship in Langenhain, Germany, which was completed in 1964. The Association of Religion Data Archives reported national Baháʼí populations ranging from hundreds to over 35,000 in 2005. The European Union and several European countries have condemned the persecution of Baháʼís in Iran.

The Festivals of the Twin Birthdays or the Twin Holy Birthdays refers to two successive holy days in the Baháʼí calendar that celebrate the births of two central figures of the Baháʼí Faith. The two holy days are the birth of the Báb on the first day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and the birth of Baháʼu'lláh on the second day of Muharram.

The scholarly study of the Baháʼí Faith, its teachings, history and literature is currently conducted in a variety of venues, including institutes of the Baháʼí administration as well as non-affiliated universities. Some scholars study some aspect of the Baháʼí Faith as part of research on related matters while others engage in Baháʼí studies as a primary focus of their research. Scholars' comments on the religion and its predecessor Bábism date back to the at least 1845, the year after its founding. Initially, they were often Orientalists or Christian missionaries but through time both Baháʼís and non-Baháʼí researchers have addressed the religion especially in tune with the growth of the religion, which has been called significant.

References

  1. Sigurðardóttir, Heiða María; Emilsson, Páll Emil. "Hvenær var Alþingi stofnað?". visindavefur.is. Vísindavefurinn. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  2. Robert Chambers, The Book of Days: A Miscellany of Popular Antiquities in Connection with the Calendar, Including Anecdote, Biography & History, Curiosities of Literature, and Oddities of Human Life and Character (W. & R. Chambers, 1888) p466
  3. History of youth work
  4. "Doctrine and Covenants 135". www.churchofjesuschrist.org. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  5. "Beliefs: The Official Site of the Seventh-day Adventist world church". Adventist.org. Archived from the original on March 10, 2006. Retrieved November 16, 2015.
  6. Shoghi, Effendi (1944). God Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Baháʼí Publishing Trust. p. 58. ISBN   0-87743-020-9. Archived from the original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
  7. Magyar Közlöny – A MAGYAR KÖZTÁRSASÁG HIVATALOS LAPJA 29 September, 2011
  8. Maijala, Minna. "Minna Canth (1844–1897)". Klassikkogalleria. Kristiina Institute, University of Helsinki . Retrieved December 8, 2020.
  9. Panton, James (February 24, 2011). Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy. Scarecrow Press. p. 39. ISBN   978-0-8108-7497-8.
  10. "Joseph Bonaparte | king of Spain and Naples". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved March 25, 2019.