1844

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1844 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1844
MDCCCXLIV
Ab urbe condita 2597
Armenian calendar 1293
ԹՎ ՌՄՂԳ
Assyrian calendar 6594
Baháʼí calendar 0–1
Balinese saka calendar 1765–1766
Bengali calendar 1251
Berber calendar 2794
British Regnal year 7  Vict. 1   8  Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar 2388
Burmese calendar 1206
Byzantine calendar 7352–7353
Chinese calendar 癸卯年 (Water  Rabbit)
4540 or 4480
     to 
甲辰年 (Wood  Dragon)
4541 or 4481
Coptic calendar 1560–1561
Discordian calendar 3010
Ethiopian calendar 1836–1837
Hebrew calendar 5604–5605
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1900–1901
 - Shaka Samvat 1765–1766
 - Kali Yuga 4944–4945
Holocene calendar 11844
Igbo calendar 844–845
Iranian calendar 1222–1223
Islamic calendar 1259–1260
Japanese calendar Tenpō 15 / Kōka 1
(弘化元年)
Javanese calendar 1771–1772
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar 4177
Minguo calendar 68 before ROC
民前68年
Nanakshahi calendar 376
Thai solar calendar 2386–2387
Tibetan calendar 阴水兔年
(female Water-Rabbit)
1970 or 1589 or 817
     to 
阳木龙年
(male Wood-Dragon)
1971 or 1590 or 818

1844 (MDCCCXLIV) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar  and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1844th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 844th year of the 2nd millennium, the 44th year of the 19th century, and the 5th year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1844, the Gregorian calendar was 12days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Contents

In the Philippines, it was the only leap year with 365 days, as December 31 was skipped when 1845 began after December 30.

Events

January–March

February 28: USS Princeton deaths. USS Princeton (1843).jpg
February 28: USS Princeton deaths.

April–June

June 3: great auk Greatauk-london.jpg
June 3: great auk

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January–March

Minna Canth Minna Canth.jpg
Minna Canth
Patrick Collins Mayor PA Collins.png
Patrick Collins
Garret Hobart Garret Augustus Hobart.jpg
Garret Hobart
John Boyle O'Reilly John Boyle O'Reilly cph.3a38519.jpg
John Boyle O'Reilly

April–June

Mary Cassatt Mary Cassatt photograph 1913.jpg
Mary Cassatt

July–September

Emily Ruete Emily Ruete (Sayyida Salme), Princess of Zanzibar.jpg
Emily Ruete
Friedrich Nietzsche Nietzsche187a.jpg
Friedrich Nietzsche
Ludwig Grillich Ludwig Grillich7.jpg
Ludwig Grillich
Karl Benz Carl Benz.png
Karl Benz
Queen Alexandra of Denmark Queen Alexandra, the Princess of Wales.jpg
Queen Alexandra of Denmark

October–December

Date unknown

Deaths

January–June

July–December

Melchor Muzquiz Melchor Muzquiz (Joaquin Ramirez).jpg
Melchor Múzquiz

Date unknown

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">ʻAbdu'l-Bahá</span> Son of Baháʼulláh and leader of the Baháʼí Faith (1844–1921)

ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, born ʻAbbás, was the eldest son of Baháʼu'lláh and served as head of the Baháʼí Faith from 1892 until 1921. ʻAbdu'l-Bahá was later canonized as the last of three "central figures" of the religion, along with Baháʼu'lláh and the Báb, and his writings and authenticated talks are regarded as sources of Baháʼí sacred literature.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1819</span> Calendar year

1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1819th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 819th year of the 2nd millennium, the 19th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1810s decade. As of the start of 1819, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1825</span> Calendar year

1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1825th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 825th year of the 2nd millennium, the 25th year of the 19th century, and the 6th year of the 1820s decade. As of the start of 1825, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Bábism, also known as the Bábi Faith, is a monotheistic religion which professes that there is one incorporeal, unknown, and incomprehensible God who manifests his will in an unending series of theophanies, called Manifestation of God. It has no more than a few thousand adherents according to current estimates, most of whom are concentrated in Iran. It was founded by ʻAli Muhammad Shirazi who first assumed the title of Báb from which the religion gets its name, out of the belief that he was the gate to the Twelfth Imam. However, throughout his ministry his titles and claims underwent much evolution as the Báb progressively outlined his teachings.

The Badíʻ calendar used in the Baháʼí Faith is a solar calendar consisting of 19 months and 4-5 Intercalary Days, with new year at the northern spring equinox on the date that equinox occurs in Tehran. Each month is named after virtues, as are the days of the week. The first year is dated from 1844 CE, the year in which the Báb began teaching.

Riḍván is a twelve-day festival in the Baháʼí Faith, commemorating Baháʼu'lláh's declaration that he was a Manifestation of God. In the Baháʼí calendar, it begins at sunset on the 13th of Jalál, which translates to the 20th or 21st of April, depending on the date of the March equinox. On the first, ninth and twelfth days of Ridván, work and school should be suspended.

The following is a basic timeline of the Bábí and Baháʼí religions emphasizing dates that are relatively well known. For a more comprehensive chronology of the timeline, see the references at the bottom.

The history of the Baháʼí Faith is often traced through a sequence of leaders, beginning with the Báb's declaration in Shiraz on the evening of May 22, 1844, and ultimately resting on an Administrative Order established by the central figures of the religion. The Baháʼí Faith had its background in two earlier movements in the nineteenth century, Shaykhism and Bábism. Shaykhism centred on theosophical doctrines and many Shaykhis expected the return of the hidden Twelfth Imam. Many Shaykhis joined the messianic Bábí movement in the 1840s where the Báb proclaimed himself to be the return of the hidden Imam. As the Bábí movement spread in Iran, violence broke out between the ruling Shiʻa Muslim government and the Bábís, and ebbed when government troops massacred them, and executed the Báb in 1850.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baháʼí pilgrimage</span> Pilgrimage to several Baháʼí sacred sites in Israel

A Baháʼí pilgrimage currently consists of visiting the holy places in Haifa, Acre, and Bahjí at the Baháʼí World Centre in Northwest Israel. Baháʼís do not have access to other places designated as sites for pilgrimage.

The Baháʼí Faith has eleven holy days, which are important anniversaries in the history of the religion. On nine of these holy days, work is suspended. There is no fixed format for any of the holy days, and Baháʼí communities organize their own commemorative meetings.

Ayyám-i-Há is a period of intercalary days in the Baháʼí calendar, when Baháʼís celebrate the Festival of Ayyám-i-Há. The four or five days of this period are inserted between the last two months of the calendar. The length of Ayyám-i-Há varies according to the timing of the following vernal equinox so that the next year always starts on the vernal equinox.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Birth of Baháʼu'lláh</span> Baháʼí religious observance; birthday of Baháʼulláh

The Birth of Baháʼu'lláh is one of nine holy days in the Baháʼí calendar that is celebrated by adherents of the Baháʼí Faith and during which work is suspended. The holy day celebrates the birth of Baháʼu'lláh, the founder of the Baháʼí Faith. The 2022 date is October 27.

Naw-Rúz is the first day of the Baháʼí calendar year and one of eleven holy days for adherents of the Baháʼí Faith. It occurs on the vernal equinox, on or near March 21, which is the traditional Iranian New Year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Muhammad Mustafá Baghdádí</span> One of the nineteen Apostles of Baháulláh

Mírzá Muḥammad Muṣṭafá al-Baghdádí (1837/8—1910) was a prominent Iraqi adherent of the Baháʼí faith and one of 19 Apostles of Baháʼu'lláh. Mustafá was among the leading Baháʼís in Iraq until he moved to Beirut in the late 1870s, where he coordinated pilgrims going to see Baháʼu'lláh in ʻAkká, and later he was involved with the movement of the Báb's remains to ʻAkká.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Báb</span> Iranian prophet and founder of Bábism, also venerated in the Baháʼí Faith

The Báb, born Sayyed ʿAlí Muḥammad Shírází, was the founder of Bábism, and one of the central figures of the Baháʼí Faith.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baháʼu'lláh</span> Founder of the Baháʼí Faith

Baháʼu'lláh (1817–1892) was the prophet-founder of the Baháʼí Faith. He was born to an aristocratic family in Iran, and was exiled due to his adherence to the messianic Bábí Faith. In 1863, in Iraq, he first announced his claim to a revelation from God, and spent the rest of his life in further imprisonment in the Ottoman Empire. His teachings revolved around the principles of unity and religious renewal, ranging from moral and spiritual progress to world governance.

The Baháʼí Faith is a relatively new religion teaching the essential worth of all religions and the unity of all people, established by Baháʼu'lláh in the 19th-century Middle East and now estimated to have a worldwide following of 5–8 million adherents, known as Baháʼís.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baháʼí Faith in France</span>

The Baháʼí Faith in France started after French citizens observed and studied the religion in its native Persia in the mid-19th century. The first followers of the religion declared their belief shortly before 1900, the community grew and the understanding of Baha'u'llah's Revelation was assisted by ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's trip to France in late 1911 and early 1913. The number of Baha'is grew, tests and difficulties were overcome, and the community established its National Assembly in 1958. The community has been reviewed a number of times by researchers. According to the 2005 Association of Religion Data Archives data there are close to some 4,400 Baháʼís in France and the French government is among the many who have been alarmed at the persecution of Baháʼís in modern Iran.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baháʼí Faith in Europe</span>

The Baháʼí Faith was discussed in the writings of various Europeans during the lifetime of its founder, Baháʼu'lláh. His son and successor, ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, travelled to France and Great Britain and gave talks to audiences there. There is a Baháʼí House of Worship in Langenhain, Germany, which was completed in 1964. The Association of Religion Data Archives reported national Baháʼí populations ranging from hundreds to over 35,000 in 2005. The European Union and several European countries have condemned the persecution of Baháʼís in Iran.

The Festivals of the Twin Birthdays or the Twin Holy Birthdays refers to two successive holy days in the Baháʼí calendar that celebrate the births of two central figures of the Baháʼí Faith. The two holy days are the birth of the Báb on the first day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and the birth of Baháʼu'lláh on the second day of Muharram.

References

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