1852

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1852 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1852
MDCCCLII
Ab urbe condita 2605
Armenian calendar 1301
ԹՎ ՌՅԱ
Assyrian calendar 6602
Bahá'í calendar 8–9
Balinese saka calendar 1773–1774
Bengali calendar 1259
Berber calendar 2802
British Regnal year 15  Vict. 1   16  Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar 2396
Burmese calendar 1214
Byzantine calendar 7360–7361
Chinese calendar 辛亥(Metal  Pig)
4548 or 4488
     to 
壬子年 (Water  Rat)
4549 or 4489
Coptic calendar 1568–1569
Discordian calendar 3018
Ethiopian calendar 1844–1845
Hebrew calendar 5612–5613
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1908–1909
 - Shaka Samvat 1773–1774
 - Kali Yuga 4952–4953
Holocene calendar 11852
Igbo calendar 852–853
Iranian calendar 1230–1231
Islamic calendar 1268–1269
Japanese calendar Kaei 5
(嘉永5年)
Javanese calendar 1780–1781
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar 4185
Minguo calendar 60 before ROC
民前60年
Nanakshahi calendar 384
Thai solar calendar 2394–2395
Tibetan calendar 阴金猪年
(female Iron-Pig)
1978 or 1597 or 825
     to 
阳水鼠年
(male Water-Rat)
1979 or 1598 or 826

1852 ( MDCCCLII ) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar  and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar , the 1852nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 852nd year of the 2nd millennium , the 52nd year of the 19th century , and the 3rd year of the 1850s decade. As of the start of 1852, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

Roman numerals are a numeral system that originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Modern usage employs seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value:

A leap year is a calendar year containing one additional day added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year. Because seasons and astronomical events do not repeat in a whole number of days, calendars that have the same number of days in each year drift over time with respect to the event that the year is supposed to track. By inserting an additional day or month into the year, the drift can be corrected. A year that is not a leap year is called a common year.

A leap year starting on Thursday is any year with 366 days that begins on Thursday 1 January, and ends on Friday 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are DC, such as the years 1880, 1920, 1948, 1976, 2004, 2032, 2060, and 2088, in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 1988, 2016, and 2044 in the obsolete Julian calendar. Any leap year that starts on Monday, Wednesday or Thursday has two Friday the 13ths. This leap year contains two Friday the 13ths in February and August.

Contents

Events

The world in 1852 1852 Colton's Map of the World on Mercator's Projection ( Pocket Map ) - Geographicus - World-colton-1852.jpg
The world in 1852

JanuaryMarch

January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 351 days remain until the end of the year.

Napoleon III French emperor, president, and member of the House of Bonaparte

Napoleon III, the nephew of Napoleon I, was the first elected President of France from 1848 to 1852. When he could not constitutionally be re-elected, he seized power in 1851 and became the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870. He founded the Second French Empire and was its only emperor until the defeat of the French army and his capture by Prussia and its allies in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. He worked to modernize the French economy, rebuilt the center of Paris, expanded the overseas empire, and engaged in the Crimean War and the war for Italian unification. After his defeat and downfall, he went into exile and died in England in 1873.

French Constitution of 1852 Basic Law of France during the end of the Second Republic and during the entire Second Empire

The French Constitution of 1852 was enacted on 14 January 1852 by Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte. Slightly modified later that year, on 25 December 1852 the constitution became the basis for the creation of the French Second Empire.

AprilJune

April 1 is the 91st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 274 days remain until the end of the year.

The Second Anglo-Burmese War or the Second Burma War was the second of the three wars fought between the Burmese and British forces during the 19th century, with the outcome of the gradual extinction of Burmese sovereignty and independence.

April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 257 days remain until the end of the year.

JulySeptember

July 1 is the 182nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 183 days remain until the end of the year.

Henry Clay American politician

Henry Clay Sr. was an American attorney and statesman who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives, served as 7th speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives, and served as the 9th U.S. secretary of state. He received electoral votes for president in the 1824, 1832, and 1844 presidential elections and helped found both the National Republican Party and the Whig Party. For his role in defusing sectional crises, he earned the appellation of the "Great Compromiser."

Lying in state public funerary custom

Lying in state is the tradition in which the body of a dead official is placed in a state building, either outside or inside a coffin, to allow the public to pay their respects. It traditionally takes place in the principal government building of a country, state, or city. While the practice differs among countries, a viewing in a location other than the principal government building may be referred to as lying in repose.

OctoberDecember

October 7 is the 280th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 85 days remain until the end of the year.

Matthew C. Perry 19th-century American admiral

Matthew Calbraith Perry was a Commodore of the United States Navy who commanded ships in several wars, including the War of 1812 and the Mexican–American War (1846–48). He played a leading role in the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.

Nicholas I of Russia Emperor of Russia

Nicholas I reigned as Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. He was also the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. He has become best known as a political conservative whose reign was marked by geographical expansion, repression of dissent, economic stagnation, poor administrative policies, a corrupt bureaucracy, and frequent wars that culminated in Russia's defeat in the Crimean War of 1853–56. Nicholas had a happy marriage that produced a large family; seven children survived childhood. His biographer Nicholas V. Riasanovsky says that Nicholas displayed determination, singleness of purpose, and an iron will, along with a powerful sense of duty and a dedication to very hard work. He saw himself as a soldier—a junior officer totally consumed by spit and polish. A handsome man, he was highly nervous and aggressive. Trained as an engineer, he was a stickler for minute detail. In his public persona, says Riasanovsky, "Nicholas I came to represent autocracy personified: infinitely majestic, determined and powerful, hard as stone, and relentless as fate." He was the younger brother of his predecessor, Alexander I. Nicholas inherited his brother's throne despite the failed Decembrist revolt against him and went on to become the most reactionary of all Russian leaders.

Date unknown

Devils Island Cayennes Prison in French Guiana

The penal colony of Cayenne, commonly known as Devil's Island, was a French penal colony that operated in the 19th and 20th century in the Salvation's Islands of French Guiana. Opened in 1852, the Devil's Island system received convicts deported from all parts of the Second French Empire, and was infamous for its harsh treatment of detainees, with a death rate of 75% at their worst, until it was closed down in 1953. Devil's Island was notorious for being used for the internal exile of French political prisoners, with the most famous being Captain Alfred Dreyfus.

French Guiana Overseas region and department of France in South America

French Guiana is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas. It borders Brazil to the east and south and Suriname to the west. Since 1981, when Belize became independent from the United Kingdom, French Guiana has been the only territory of the mainland Americas that is still part of a European country.

Smith & Wesson manufacturer of firearms and BB guns in the United States

Smith & Wesson (S&W) is an American manufacturer of firearms, ammunition and restraints. The corporate headquarters are in Springfield, Massachusetts. Smith & Wesson was founded in 1852 and after various corporate changes is now a unit of American Outdoor Brands Corporation.

Births

JanuaryJune

Elnora Monroe Babcock EUNORA MONROE BABCOCK.jpg
Elnora Monroe Babcock
John Harvey Kellogg John Harvey Kellogg ggbain.15047.jpg
John Harvey Kellogg
Friedrich Loeffler Friedrich Loeffler 3.jpg
Friedrich Loeffler
Antoni Gaudi Antoni Gaudi 1878.jpg
Antoni Gaudi
Alice Liddell Alice Liddell.jpg
Alice Liddell

JulyDecember

Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff Vant Hoff.jpg
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff
Eva Kinney Griffith EVA KINNEY GRIFFITH.jpg
Eva Kinney Griffith
Hermann Emil Fischer Ubenshvuanshvysh'.jpg
Hermann Emil Fischer
Ella Maria Ballou ELLA MARIA BALLOU.jpg
Ella Maria Ballou
Henri Becquerel Portrait of Antoine-Henri Becquerel.jpg
Henri Becquerel

Date unknown

Deaths

JanuaryJune

Etienne Maurice Gerard David Etienne Maurice Gerard.jpg
Étienne Maurice Gérard
Sara Coleridge Sara Coleridge 7.jpg
Sara Coleridge

JulyDecember

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington Sir Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington.png
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Friedrich Ludwig Jahn.jpg
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
Ada Lovelace Ada Lovelace portrait.jpg
Ada Lovelace

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1908 Year

1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1908th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 908th year of the 2nd millennium, the 8th year of the 20th century, and the 9th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1908, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1911 Year

1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1911th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 911th year of the 2nd millennium, the 11th year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1911, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1912th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 912th year of the 2nd millennium, the 12th year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1912, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1901st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 901st year of the 2nd millennium, the 1st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1901, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1907th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 907th year of the 2nd millennium, the 7th year of the 20th century, and the 8th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1907, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1906th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 906th year of the 2nd millennium, the 6th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1906, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1902nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 902nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 2nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1902, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1919th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 919th year of the 2nd millennium, the 19th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1919, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1895th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 895th year of the 2nd millennium, the 95th year of the 19th century, and the 6th year of the 1890s decade. As of the start of 1895, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1910th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 910th year of the 2nd millennium, the 10th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1910s decade. As of the start of 1910, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1888th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 888th year of the 2nd millennium, the 88th year of the 19th century, and the 9th year of the 1880s decade. As of the start of 1888, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. In Germany, 1888 is known as the Year of the Three Emperors. Currently, it is the year that, when written in Roman numerals, has the most digits (13). The next year that also has 13 digits is the year 2388. The record will be surpassed as late as 2888, which has 14 digits.

1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1897th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 897th year of the 2nd millennium, the 97th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1890s decade. As of the start of 1897, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1881st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 881st year of the 2nd millennium, the 81st year of the 19th century, and the 2nd year of the 1880s decade. As of the start of 1881, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1857 (MDCCCLVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1857th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 857th year of the 2nd millennium, the 57th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1850s decade. As of the start of 1857, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1877th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 877th year of the 2nd millennium, the 77th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1870s decade. As of the start of 1877, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1854th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 854th year of the 2nd millennium, the 54th year of the 19th century, and the 5th year of the 1850s decade. As of the start of 1854, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1892nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 892nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 92nd year of the 19th century, and the 3rd year of the 1890s decade. As of the start of 1892, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1853 (MDCCCLIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1853rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 853rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 53rd year of the 19th century, and the 4th year of the 1850s decade. As of the start of 1853, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1856 (MDCCCLVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1856th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 856th year of the 2nd millennium, the 56th year of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the 1850s decade. As of the start of 1856, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

References

  1. King, William T. (1896). History of the American Steam Fire-Engine.
  2. Kimura, Hiroshi (2008). The Kurillian Knot: A History of Japanese-Russian Border Negotiations. California: Stanford University Press. p. 23.
  3. Chateaux of the Loire. Casa Editrice Bonechi. 2007. p. 10.
  4. MacKenzie, Donald (2004). Mechanizing Proof: Computing, Risk, and Trust. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. p. 103.
  5. Scheina, Robert L. (2003). Latin America’s Wars. I. Potomac Books, Inc. p. 1849.
  6. Farrugia, Jean Young (1969). The Letter Box: A History of Post Office Pillar and Wall boxes. Fontwell: Centaur Press. p. 27. ISBN   0-90000014-7.
  7. CommunicationSolutions/ISI, "Railroad — Western Railroad Company", North Carolina Business History, 2006, accessed 1 Feb 2010.
  8. "Samuel Prout (1783-1852)". artuk.org. Retrieved January 3, 2017.

Further reading