1854 and 1855 United States House of Representatives elections

Last updated

1854 and 1855 United States House of Representatives elections
Flag of the United States (1851-1858).svg
  1852 & 1853 August 4, 1854 – November 6, 1855 1856 & 1857  

All 234 seats in the United States House of Representatives [1]
118 seats needed for a majority
 First partySecond partyThird party
 
William Alexander Richardson - Brady-Handy.jpg
Nathaniel Banks pre-war (cropped).jpg
Leader William A. Richardson Henry M. Fuller Nathaniel P. Banks
Party Democratic Whig Know Nothing
Leader's seat Illinois 5th Pennsylvania 12th Massachusetts 7th
Last election150 seats68 seats0 seats
Seats won83 [lower-alpha 1] [2] [3] 54 [lower-alpha 2] 51 [2] [3] [lower-alpha 3]
Seat changeDecrease2.svg 69Decrease2.svg 14Increase2.svg 51
Popular vote1,418,553 [lower-alpha 4] 580,929631,510
Percentage43.95%18.00%19.56%
SwingDecrease2.svg 5.87%Decrease2.svg 23.61%Increase2.svg 19.25%

 Fourth partyFifth partySixth party
 
Party Anti-Nebraska Republican People's
Last electionPre-creationPre-creationPre-creation
Seats won22 [lower-alpha 2] 13 [lower-alpha 2] 9 [4] [lower-alpha 2]
Seat changeIncrease2.svg 22Increase2.svg 13Increase2.svg 9
Popular vote196,461182,245102,423
Percentage6.09%5.65%3.17%
SwingNew PartyNew PartyNew Party

 Seventh partyEighth party
 
Party Free Soil Independent
Last election4 seats3 seats
Seats won1 [lower-alpha 2] 1 [lower-alpha 5]
Seat changeDecrease2.svg 3Decrease2.svg 2
Popular vote22,92884,196 [lower-alpha 6]
Percentage0.71%2.61%
SwingDecrease2.svg 3.28%Decrease2.svg 0.18%

1854 House of Representatives.svg
Results:
     Democratic gain     Whig gain
     Democratic hold     Whig hold
     American gain     Anti-Nebraska gain
     Republican gain     People's gain
     Independent gain

Speaker before election

Linn Boyd
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Nathaniel P. Banks
Know Nothing/American

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 34th Congress were held during President Franklin Pierce's term at various dates in different states from August 1854 to November 1855.

Contents

This midterm election was among the most disruptive in American history, auguring the collapse of the Second Party System.

Both major parties, the Democratic Party and the Whig Party, organized as rivals for roughly 20 years, lost critical voter support. Northern voters strongly opposed to the Kansas–Nebraska Act shifted sharply against Democrats, who lost 69 seats, nearly half their House delegation. Whigs also lost seats as the party disintegrated over slavery.

The elected majority temporarily coalesced as the Opposition Party. This transitional party included Whigs, Free Soil members, American Party members (or Know Nothings), the People's Party of Indiana, Anti-Nebraska candidates, disaffected Northern Democrats, and members of the nascent Republican Party, which would soon absorb most of these factions and replace the Whigs as rival to the Democrats.

Candidates opposed to the Democratic Party won widely in the North through November 1854. The American Party, ignoring slavery and opposing immigration (particularly by Catholics from Ireland and Germany) won seats from both major parties, but to the net loss of Democrats, in New England and the South from November 1854 into 1855.

Congress had passed the Kansas–Nebraska Act in May 1854 after aggressive sponsorship by the Pierce Administration and Democrats led by Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas, including radical pro-slavery legislators. The Act repealed the 1820 Missouri Compromise and triggered the Bleeding Kansas conflict. With widely foreseen risks and immediately negative results, the Act publicly discredited the Democratic Party, fueling new partisan and sectional rancor. It created violent uncertainty on the frontier by abruptly making slavery potentially legal in territories originally comprising the northern portion of the Louisiana Purchase and attractive to contemporary settlers. Settlers were expected to determine the status of slavery locally. This idea appealed to Democratic politicians and to some voters in its shape and intent, but proved unworkable in Kansas where the status of slavery would be violently disputed between more numerous Northern settlers and geographically closer Southern settlers. Even some pro-slavery legislators and voters, particularly Southern Whigs, felt repealing the Missouri Compromise was politically reckless and attempting to push slavery by law and force into territories where most settlers predictably were unlikely to want it endangered its continued legal protection anywhere, even in the South. These fears proved prescient.

More than 21 Representatives vied for the post of Speaker. After two months and 133 ballots, American Party Representative Nathaniel Banks of Massachusetts, also a Free Soiler, defeated Democrat William Aiken of South Carolina by plurality, 103-100. [5] Banks is also the only Speaker from a third party to date.

Election summaries

34th Congress United States House of Representatives.svg
StateTypeDateTotal
seats
Opposition Democratic Know Nothing
SeatsChange [lower-alpha 7] SeatsChangeSeatsChange
Arkansas DistrictsAugust 4, 185420Steady2.svg2Steady2.svg0Steady2.svg
Iowa DistrictsAugust 7, 185421Steady2.svg1Steady2.svg0Steady2.svg
Missouri Districts76Increase2.svg21Decrease2.svg20Steady2.svg
Vermont DistrictsSeptember 5, 185433Steady2.svg0Steady2.svg0Steady2.svg
California At-largeSeptember 6, 185420Steady2.svg2Steady2.svg0Steady2.svg
Maine DistrictsSeptember 11, 185465Increase2.svg21Decrease2.svg20Steady2.svg
Florida At-largeOctober 2, 185410Steady2.svg1Steady2.svg0Steady2.svg
South Carolina DistrictsOctober 9–10, 185460Steady2.svg6Steady2.svg0Steady2.svg
Indiana DistrictsOctober 10, 1854119Increase2.svg82Decrease2.svg80Steady2.svg
Ohio Districts2121Increase2.svg120Decrease2.svg120Steady2.svg
Pennsylvania Districts2517Increase2.svg87Decrease2.svg91Increase2.svg1
Illinois DistrictsNovember 7, 1854
(Election Day) [lower-alpha 8]
94Steady2.svg5Steady2.svg0Steady2.svg
Michigan Districts43Increase2.svg31Decrease2.svg30Steady2.svg
New Jersey Districts54Increase2.svg31Decrease2.svg30Steady2.svg
New York Districts3325Increase2.svg135Decrease2.svg163Increase2.svg3
Wisconsin Districts32Increase2.svg21Decrease2.svg20Steady2.svg
Massachusetts DistrictsNovember 12, 1854110Decrease2.svg100Decrease2.svg111Increase2.svg11
Delaware At-largeNovember 14, 185410Steady2.svg0Decrease2.svg11Increase2.svg1
Late elections (after the March 4, 1855 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire DistrictsMarch 13, 185530Steady2.svg0Decrease2.svg33Increase2.svg3
Connecticut DistrictsApril 2, 185540Steady2.svg0Decrease2.svg44Increase2.svg4
Rhode Island DistrictsApril 4, 185520Steady2.svg0Decrease2.svg22Increase2.svg2
Virginia DistrictsMay 24, 1855130Steady2.svg12Decrease2.svg11Increase2.svg1
North Carolina DistrictsAugust 2, 185580Decrease2.svg35Steady2.svg3Increase2.svg3
Tennessee Districts100Decrease2.svg55Steady2.svg5Increase2.svg5
Alabama DistrictsAugust 6, 185570Decrease2.svg15Decrease2.svg12Increase2.svg2
Kentucky Districts100Decrease2.svg54Decrease2.svg16Increase2.svg6
Texas Districts20Steady2.svg1Decrease2.svg11Increase2.svg1
Georgia DistrictsOctober 1, 185580Decrease2.svg26Steady2.svg2Increase2.svg2
Louisiana DistrictsNovember 5, 185540Decrease2.svg13Steady2.svg1Increase2.svg1
Mississippi Districts [lower-alpha 9] November 5–6, 185550Steady2.svg4Decrease2.svg11Increase2.svg1
Maryland DistrictsNovember 6, 185560Decrease2.svg22Decrease2.svg24Increase2.svg4
Total234100 [2] [3]
42.7%
Increase2.svg29 [lower-alpha 10] 83 [2] [3]
35.0%
Decrease2.svg7551 [2] [3]
21.8%
Increase2.svg51
8351100
DemocraticKnow NothingOpposition
Popular vote
Democratic
43.95%
Know Nothing
19.56%
Whig
18.00%
Anti-Nebraska
6.09%
Republican
5.65%
People's
3.17%
Independent
2.61%
Free Soil
0.71%
Others
0.26%
House seats
Democratic
34.62%
Whig
23.08%
Know Nothing
21.79%
Anti-Nebraska
9.40%
Republican
5.56%
People's
3.85%
Independent
0.43%
Free Soil
0.43%

Special elections

There were two special elections to the 33rd United States Congress, listed here by date and district.

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Pennsylvania 8 Henry A. Muhlenberg Democratic 1852 Incumbent died January 9, 1854.
New member elected February 4, 1854.
Democratic hold.
Massachusetts 1 Zeno Scudder Whig 1850 Incumbent resigned March 4, 1854.
New member elected April 17, 1854.
Whig hold.
New York 12 Gilbert Dean Democratic 1850 Incumbent resigned July 3, 1854.
New member elected November 7, 1854.
Whig gain.
Kentucky 3 Presley Ewing Whig 1851 Incumbent died September 27, 1854.
New member elected November 13, 1854.
Whig hold.

Alabama

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Alabama 1 Philip Phillips Democratic 1853 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.
Alabama 2 James Abercrombie Whig 1851 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Alabama 3 James Ferguson Dowdell Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 4 William Russell Smith Democratic 1851 Incumbent re-elected.
Know Nothing gain.
Alabama 5 George S. Houston Democratic 1843 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 6 Williamson Robert Winfield Cobb Democratic 1847 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 7 Sampson Willis Harris Democratic 1847 Incumbent re-elected.

Arkansas

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Arkansas 1 Alfred B. Greenwood Democratic 1852 Incumbent re-elected.
Arkansas 2 Edward A. Warren Democratic 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Green check.svgY Albert Rust (Democratic) 65.95%
  • E.G. Walker (Whig) 34.05%

California

Note: From statehood to 1864, California's representatives were elected at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858.

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
California at-large
2 seats
Milton S. Latham Democratic 1852 Incumbent withdrew.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
(Elected on a general ticket)
James A. McDougall Democratic 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.

Connecticut

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Connecticut 1 James T. Pratt Democratic 1853 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.
Connecticut 2 Colin M. Ingersoll Democratic 1851 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.
Connecticut 3 Nathan Belcher Democratic 1853 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.
  • Green check.svgY Sidney Dean (Know Nothing) 67.51%
  • Joel W. White (Democratic) 32.49%
Connecticut 4 Origen S. Seymour Democratic 1851 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.

Delaware

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Delaware at-large George R. Riddle Democratic 1850 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.

Florida

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Florida at-large Augustus Maxwell Democratic 1852 Incumbent re-elected.

Georgia

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Georgia 1 James Lindsay Seward Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Georgia 2 Alfred H. Colquitt Democratic 1853 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Georgia 3 David Jackson Bailey Democratic 1851 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.
Georgia 4 William Barton Wade Dent Democratic 1853 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Georgia 5 Elijah Webb Chastain Democratic 1851 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Georgia 6 Junius Hillyer Democratic 1851 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Green check.svgY Howell Cobb (Democratic) 63.78%
  • Leonidas Franklin (Know Nothing) 36.22%
Georgia 7 David Addison Reese Whig 1853 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.
Georgia 8 Alexander Stephens Whig 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Democratic gain.

Illinois

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Illinois 1 Elihu B. Washburne Whig 1852 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Republican gain.
  • Green check.svgY Elihu B. Washburne (Republican) 69.33%
  • William M. Jackson (Democratic) 22.99%
  • E. P. Ferry (Anti-Nebraska) 7.68%
Illinois 2 John Wentworth Democratic 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
  • Green check.svgY James H. Woodworth (Republican) 53.05%
  • Robert S. Blackwell (Whig) 19.84%
  • John B. Turner (Democratic) 19.48%
  • Edward L. Mayo (Anti-Nebraska) 7.63%
Illinois 3 Jesse O. Norton Whig 1852 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Republican gain.
Illinois 4 James Knox Whig 1852 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Republican gain.
Illinois 5 William A. Richardson Democratic 1847 (special) Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois 6 Richard Yates Whig 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Illinois 7 James C. Allen Democratic 1852 Incumbent re-elected.
Election disqualified.
Democratic loss.
Illinois 8 William Henry Bissell Independent Democratic 1848 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
  • Green check.svgY Lyman Trumbull (Anti-Nebraska) 59.87%
  • Philip Bond Fouke (Democratic) 40.13%
Illinois 9 Willis Allen Democratic 1850 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Green check.svgY Samuel S. Marshall (Democratic) 64.67%
  • G. Jay S. Turney (Republican) 22.15%
  • DeWitt C. Barber (Unknown) 9.71%
  • A. Grow (Unknown) 2.05%
  • S. A. Rowan (Unknown) 1.42%

Indiana

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Indiana 1 Smith Miller Democratic 1852 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green check.svgY Smith Miller (Democratic) 52.15%
  • Sam Hall (People's) 47.85%
Indiana 2 William Hayden English Democratic 1852 Incumbent re-elected.
Indiana 3 Cyrus L. Dunham Democratic 1849 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
People's gain.
Indiana 4 James H. Lane Democratic 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
People's gain.
Indiana 5 Samuel W. Parker Whig 1851 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
People's gain.
Indiana 6 Thomas A. Hendricks Democratic 1851 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
People's gain.
Indiana 7 John G. Davis Democratic 1851 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
People's gain.
Indiana 8 Daniel Mace Democratic 1851 Incumbent re-elected.
People's gain.
  • Green check.svgY Daniel Mace (People's) 56.92%
  • James Davis (Democratic) 43.08%
Indiana 9 Norman Eddy Democratic 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
People's gain.
Indiana 10 Ebenezer M. Chamberlain Democratic 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
People's gain.
Indiana 11 Andrew J. Harlan Democratic 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
People's gain.

Iowa

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Iowa 1 Bernhart Henn Democratic 1850 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Green check.svgY Augustus Hall (Democratic) 50.27%
  • R.L. Clark (Whig) 49.50%
  • J.L. Ashbaugh (Independent) 0.23%
Iowa 2 William Vandever Whig 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig hold.

Kansas Territory

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Kentucky

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Kentucky 1
Kentucky 2
Kentucky 3
Kentucky 4
Kentucky 5
Kentucky 6
Kentucky 7
Kentucky 8
Kentucky 9
Kentucky 10

Louisiana

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Louisiana 1
Louisiana 2
Louisiana 3
Louisiana 4

Maine

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Maine 1 Moses Macdonald Democratic 1850 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
  • Green check.svgY John M. Wood (Republican) 59.36%
  • Samuel Wells (Democratic) 39.91%
  • Lorenzo D. Wilkinson (Independent) 0.74%
Maine 2 Samuel Mayall Democratic 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
  • Green check.svgY John J. Perry (Republican) 56.88%
  • William K. Kimball (Democratic) 42.46%
  • Charles J. Gilman (Independent) 0.66%
Maine 3 E. Wilder Farley Whig 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Maine 4 Samuel P. Benson Whig 1852 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Republican gain.
Maine 5 Israel Washburn Jr. Whig 1850 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Republican gain.
Maine 6 Thomas J. D. Fuller Democratic 1848 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green check.svgY Thomas J. D. Fuller (Democratic) 42.39%
  • James A. Milliken (Republican) 38.74%
  • Noah Smith (Whig) 18.88%

Maryland

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Maryland 1
Maryland 2
Maryland 3
Maryland 4
Maryland 5
Maryland 6

Massachusetts

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Massachusetts 1 Thomas D. Eliot Whig 1854 (special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Know-Nothing gain.
Massachusetts 2 Samuel L. Crocker Whig 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Know-Nothing gain.
Massachusetts 3 J. Wiley Edmands Whig 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Know-Nothing gain.
  • Green check.svgY William S. Damrell (American) 74.76%
  • Nathaniel F. Safford (Whig) 16.67%
  • Edward Avery (Democratic) 5.38%
  • Arthur W. Austin (Independent) 2.26%
Massachusetts 4 Samuel H. Walley Whig 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Know-Nothing gain.
Massachusetts 5 William Appleton Whig 1850 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Know-Nothing gain.
Massachusetts 6 Charles W. Upham Whig 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Know-Nothing gain.
Massachusetts 7 Nathaniel P. Banks Democratic 1852 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Know-Nothing gain.
Massachusetts 8 Tappan Wentworth Whig 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Know-Nothing gain.
Massachusetts 9 Alexander DeWitt Free Soil 1852 Incumbent re-elected to a new party.
Know-Nothing gain.
  • Green check.svgY Alexander DeWitt (American) 76.97%
  • Isaac Davis (Democratic) 13.36%
  • Ira M. Barton (Whig) 7.45%
  • Alfred Mowrey (Independent) 1.42%
  • William P. Marble (Independent) 0.46%
  • Scattering 0.34%
Massachusetts 10 Edward Dickinson Whig 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Know-Nothing gain.
Massachusetts 11 John Z. Goodrich Whig 1852 Know-Nothing gain.

Michigan

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Michigan 1 David Stuart Democratic 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Michigan 2 David A. Noble Democratic 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Michigan 3 Samuel Clark Democratic 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Michigan 4 Hestor L. Stevens Democratic 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.

Minnesota Territory

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Mississippi

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Mississippi 1 Daniel B. Wright Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi 2 William S. Barry Democratic 1853 Incumbent retired to run for state representative.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Mississippi 3 Otho R. Singleton Democratic 1853 Incumbent redistricted to the 4th district .
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
William Barksdale Democratic 1853 Redistricted from the at-large district .
Mississippi 4 Wiley P. Harris Democratic 1853 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.
Otho R. Singleton Democratic 1853 Redistricted from the 3rd district .
Mississippi 5 None (new district)New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Missouri

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Missouri 1 Thomas Hart Benton Opposition 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
Missouri 2 Alfred W. Lamb Democratic 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
Missouri 3 James J. Lindley Whig 1852 Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri 4 Mordecai Oliver Whig 1852 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green check.svgY Mordecai Oliver (Whig) 41.95%
  • S.L. Leonard (Democratic) 34.21%
  • Shelton J. Howe (Benton Democratic) 19.08%
  • J.F. Pitt (Ind. Whig) 4.76%
Missouri 5 John G. Miller Whig 1850 Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri 6 John S. Phelps Democratic 1844 Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri 7 Samuel Caruthers Whig 1852 Incumbent re-elected.

Nebraska Territory

See Non-voting delegates, below.

New Hampshire

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
New Hampshire 1 George W. Kittredge Democratic 1853 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.
New Hampshire 2 George W. Morrison Democratic 1853 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.
New Hampshire 3 Harry Hibbard Democratic 1849 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.

New Jersey

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
New Jersey 1
New Jersey 2
New Jersey 3
New Jersey 4
New Jersey 5

New York

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
New York 1
New York 2
New York 3
New York 4
New York 5
New York 6
New York 7
New York 8
New York 9
New York 10
New York 11
New York 12
New York 13
New York 14
New York 15
New York 16
New York 17
New York 18
New York 19
New York 20
New York 21
New York 22
New York 23
New York 24
New York 25
New York 26
New York 27
New York 28
New York 29
New York 30
New York 31
New York 32
New York 33

North Carolina

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
North Carolina 1
North Carolina 2
North Carolina 3
North Carolina 4
North Carolina 5
North Carolina 6
North Carolina 7
North Carolina 8

Ohio

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Ohio 1 David T. Disney Democratic 1848 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
Ohio 2 John Scott Harrison Whig 1852 Incumbent re-elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
Ohio 3 Lewis D. Campbell Whig 1848 Incumbent re-elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
Ohio 4 Matthias H. Nichols Democratic 1852 Incumbent re-elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
Ohio 5 Alfred Edgerton Democratic 1850 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
  • Green check.svgY Richard Mott (Anti-Nebraska) 61.62%
  • Henry S. Cowager (Democratic) 38.38%
Ohio 6 Andrew Ellison Democratic 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
Ohio 7 Aaron Harlan Whig 1852 Incumbent re-elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
Ohio 8 Moses Bledso Corwin Whig 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
  • Green check.svgY Benjamin Stanton (Anti-Nebraska) 75.84%
  • Enoch G. Dial (Democratic) 23.10%
  • J. Newell (Unknown) 1.06%
Ohio 9 Frederick W. Green Democratic 1850 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
Ohio 10 John L. Taylor Democratic 1846 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
  • Green check.svgY Oscar F. Moore (Anti-Nebraska) 65.32%
  • James W. Davis (Democratic) 34.68%
Ohio 11 Thomas Ritchey Democratic 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
Ohio 12 Edson B. Olds Democratic 1848 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
Ohio 13 William D. Lindsley Democratic 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
Ohio 14 Harvey H. Johnson Democratic 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
Ohio 15 William R. Sapp Whig 1852 Incumbent re-elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
Ohio 16 Edward Ball Whig 1852 Incumbent re-elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
  • Green check.svgY Edward Ball (Anti-Nebraska) 58.89%
  • William Galligher (Democratic) 41.11%
Ohio 17 Wilson Shannon Democratic 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
Ohio 18 George Bliss Democratic 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
Ohio 19 Edward Wade Free Soil 1852 Incumbent re-elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
  • Green check.svgY Edward Wade (Anti-Nebraska) 71.07%
  • Eli T. Wilder (Democratic) 28.42%
  • Irad Kelly (Independent) 0.51%
Ohio 20 Joshua Reed Giddings Free Soil 1843 Incumbent re-elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.
Ohio 21 Andrew Stuart Democratic 1848 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Nebraska gain.

Oregon Territory

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Pennsylvania

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Pennsylvania 1 Thomas B. Florence Democratic 1848 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 2 Joseph R. Chandler Whig 1848 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Whig hold.
Pennsylvania 3 John Robbins Democratic 1848 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
Pennsylvania 4 William Henry Witte Democratic 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.
Pennsylvania 5 John McNair Democratic 1850 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Pennsylvania 6 William Everhart Whig 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 7 Samuel A. Bridges Democratic 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 8 J. Glancy Jones Democratic 1854 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 9 Isaac E. Hiester Whig 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Independent gain.
Pennsylvania 10 Ner Middleswarth Whig 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig hold.
  • Green check.svgY John C. Kunkel (Whig) 55.99%
  • Amos Boughter (Democratic) 43.01%
  • George A. Seiler (Independent) 1.00%
Pennsylvania 11 Christian M. Straub Democratic 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
Pennsylvania 12 Hendrick B. Wright Democratic 1852 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
Pennsylvania 13 Asa Packer Democratic 1852 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green check.svgY Asa Packer (Democratic) 58.67%
  • Edward F. Stewart (Whig) 41.33%
Pennsylvania 14 Galusha A. Grow Democratic 1850 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green check.svgY Galusha A. Grow (Democratic) 95.22%
  • Jim Grow (Independent) 4.56%
  • Olin L. Hawley (Independent) 0.23%

Rhode Island

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Rhode Island 1 Thomas Davis Democratic 1853 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.
Rhode Island 2 Benjamin Babock Thurston Democratic 1851 Incumbent re-elected.
Know Nothing gain.

South Carolina

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
South Carolina 1 John McQueen Democratic 1849 (special) Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green check.svgY John McQueen (Democratic) 67.44%
  • I. D. Wilson (Unknown) 32.56%
South Carolina 2 William Aiken Jr. Democratic 1850 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 3 Laurence M. Keitt Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 4 Preston S. Brooks Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 5 James L. Orr Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 6 William W. Boyce Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.

Tennessee

Elections held late, on August 2 1855.

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Tennessee 1 Nathaniel G. Taylor Whig1854 (special)Incumbent lost re-election as a Know Nothing candidate.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Tennessee 2 William M. Churchwell Democratic 1851 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.
Tennessee 3 Samuel A. Smith Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 4 William Cullom Whig 1851 Incumbent lost re-election as a Know Nothing candidate.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Tennessee 5 Charles Ready Whig 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Know Nothing gain.
Tennessee 6 George W. Jones Democratic 1842 Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 7 Robert M. Bugg Whig 1853 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Tennessee 8 Felix Zollicoffer Whig 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Know Nothing gain.
Tennessee 9 Emerson Etheridge Whig 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Know Nothing gain.
Tennessee 10 Frederick P. Stanton Democratic 1845 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.

Texas

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Texas 1 George W. Smyth Democratic 1853 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.
Texas 2 Peter Hansborough Bell Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.

Vermont

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Vermont 1 James Meacham Whig 1849 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green check.svgY James Meacham (Whig) 71.35%
  • Solomon W. Jewett (Democratic) 28.65%
Vermont 2 Andrew Tracy Whig 1852 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
  • Green check.svgY Justin S. Morrill (Republican) 50.26%
  • J.W. Parker (Democratic) 35.07%
  • Oscar L. Shafter (Free Soil) 14.68%
Vermont 3 Alvah Sabin Whig 1852 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green check.svgY Alvah Sabin (Whig) 68.54%
  • William Heywood (Democratic) 31.46%

Virginia

DistrictIncumbentThis race
MemberPartyFirst electedResultsCandidates
Virginia 1 Thomas H. Bayly Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 2 John Millson Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 3 John S. Caskie Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green check.svgY John S. Caskie (Democratic) 52.1%
  • William C. Scott (Know Nothing) 47.9%
Virginia 4 William Goode Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 5 Thomas S. Bocock Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 6 Paulus Powell Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 7 William Smith Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 8 Charles J. Faulkner Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 9 John Letcher Democratic 1851 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 10 Zedekiah Kidwell Democratic 1853 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 11 Charles S. Lewis Democratic 1853 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Know Nothing gain.
Virginia 12