1860

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1860 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1860
MDCCCLX
Ab urbe condita 2613
Armenian calendar 1309
ԹՎ ՌՅԹ
Assyrian calendar 6610
Bahá'í calendar 16–17
Balinese saka calendar 1781–1782
Bengali calendar 1267
Berber calendar 2810
British Regnal year 23  Vict. 1   24  Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar 2404
Burmese calendar 1222
Byzantine calendar 7368–7369
Chinese calendar 己未(Earth  Goat)
4556 or 4496
     to 
庚申年 (Metal  Monkey)
4557 or 4497
Coptic calendar 1576–1577
Discordian calendar 3026
Ethiopian calendar 1852–1853
Hebrew calendar 5620–5621
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1916–1917
 - Shaka Samvat 1781–1782
 - Kali Yuga 4960–4961
Holocene calendar 11860
Igbo calendar 860–861
Iranian calendar 1238–1239
Islamic calendar 1276–1277
Japanese calendar Ansei 7 / Man'en 1
(万延元年)
Javanese calendar 1788–1789
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar 4193
Minguo calendar 52 before ROC
民前52年
Nanakshahi calendar 392
Thai solar calendar 2402–2403
Tibetan calendar 阴土羊年
(female Earth-Goat)
1986 or 1605 or 833
     to 
阳金猴年
(male Iron-Monkey)
1987 or 1606 or 834

1860 ( MDCCCLX ) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar  and a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar , the 1860th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 860th year of the 2nd millennium , the 60th year of the 19th century , and the 1st year of the 1860s decade. As of the start of 1860, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A leap year is a calendar year containing one additional day added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year. Because seasons and astronomical events do not repeat in a whole number of days, calendars that have the same number of days in each year drift over time with respect to the event that the year is supposed to track. By inserting an additional day or month into the year, the drift can be corrected. Any year that is not a leap year is called a common year.

A leap year starting on Sunday is any year with 366 days that begins on Sunday, 1 January, and ends on Monday, 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are AG, such as the years 1888, 1928, 1956, 1984, 2012, 2040, 2068, 2096, 2108, 2136, 2164, and 2192 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 1996 and 2024 in the obsolete Julian calendar.

Contents

Events

JanuaryMarch

January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 363 days remaining until the end of the year.

Vulcan (hypothetical planet) hypothetical Planet

Vulcan is a small hypothetical planet that was proposed to exist in an orbit between Mercury and the Sun. Attempting to explain peculiarities of Mercury's orbit, the 19th-century French mathematician Urbain Le Verrier hypothesized that they were the result of another planet, which he named "Vulcan".

French Academy of Sciences learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research

The French Academy of Sciences is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, and is one of the earliest Academies of Sciences.

AprilJune

April 2 is the 92nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 273 days remaining until the end of the year.

Italian Parliament legislature of Italy

The Italian Parliament is the national parliament of the Italian Republic. The Parliament is the representative body of Italian citizens and is the successor to the Parliament of the Kingdom of Sardinia (1848–1861) and the Parliament of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946). It is a bicameral legislature with 945 elected members and a small number of unelected members (parlamentari). It is composed of the Chamber of Deputies, with 630 members (deputati) elected on a national basis, and the Senate of the Republic, with 315 members (senatori) elected on a regional basis, plus a small number of senators for life, either appointed or ex officio. The two houses are independent from one another and never meet jointly except under circumstances specified by the Constitution.

Turin Comune in Piedmont, Italy

Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy. It is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Turin and of the Piedmont region, and was the first capital city of Italy from 1861 to 1865. The city is located mainly on the western bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley, and is surrounded by the western Alpine arch and Superga Hill. The population of the city proper is 878,074 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million.

JulySeptember

July 2 is the 183rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 182 days remaining until the end of the year.

Vladivostok City in Primorsky Krai, Russia

Vladivostok is a city and the administrative center of Far Eastern Federal District and Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea. The population of the city as of 2017 was 606,589, up from 592,034 recorded in the 2010 Russian census. Harbin in China is about 515 kilometres (320 mi) away, whilst Sapporo in Japan is about 775 kilometres (482 mi) east across the Sea of Japan.

July 9 is the 190th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 175 days remaining until the end of the year.

OctoberDecember

October tenth month in the Julian and Gregorian calendars

October is the tenth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the sixth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The eighth month in the old Roman calendar, October retained its name after January and February were inserted into the calendar that had originally been created by the Romans. In Ancient Rome, one of three Mundus patet would take place on October 5, Meditrinalia October 11, Augustalia on October 12, October Horse on October 15, and Armilustrium on October 19. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar. Among the Anglo-Saxons, it was known as Ƿinterfylleþ, because at this full moon (fylleþ) winter was supposed to begin.

John Hanning Speke British military officer and explorer

John Hanning Speke was an English explorer and officer in the British Indian Army who made three exploratory expeditions to Africa. He is most associated with the search for the source of the Nile and was the first European to reach Lake Victoria. He is also known for propounding the Hamitic hypothesis in 1863, in which he supposed that the Wahuma ethnic group were descendants of the biblical figure Ham, and had lighter skin and more Hamitic features than the Bantu over whom they ruled.

James Augustus Grant Scottish explorer

Lieutenant-Colonel James Augustus Grant was a Scottish explorer of eastern equatorial Africa. He made contributions to the journals of various learned societies, the most notable being the "Botany of the Speke and Grant Expedition" in vol. xxix of the Transactions of the Linnean Society. He married in 1865 and settled down at Nairn, where he died in 1892. He was buried in the crypt of St Paul's Cathedral. Grant's gazelle, one of the largest and handsomest of that family in Africa, was named in his honor.

December 29: HMS Warrior (restored). Hms warrior.jpg
December 29: HMS Warrior (restored).

Date unknown

Births

JanuaryJune

Takaaki Kato Takaaki Kato suit.jpg
Takaaki Kato
Charles Curtis Charles Curtis-portrait.jpg
Charles Curtis

JulyDecember

Lizzie Borden Lizzie borden.jpg
Lizzie Borden
Annie Oakley Annie Oakley by Baker's Art Gallery c1880s-crop.jpg
Annie Oakley
Joseph Cook Joseph Cook - Crown Studios 03.jpg
Joseph Cook
Georgina Fraser Newhall Georgina Fraser Newhall (1895).png
Georgina Fraser Newhall

Date Unknown

Deaths

JanuaryJune

Anne Isabella Milbanke Annabella Byron (1792-1860).jpg
Anne Isabella Milbanke

JulyDecember

Charles Goodyear Charles Goodyear.png
Charles Goodyear
Arthur Schopenhauer Schopenhauer 1852.jpg
Arthur Schopenhauer

Date unknown

Related Research Articles

1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1901st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 901st year of the 2nd millennium, the 1st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1901, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1943rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 943rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 43rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1940s decade.

1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1941st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 941st year of the 2nd millennium, the 41st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1940s decade.

1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1859th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 859th year of the 2nd millennium, the 59th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1850s decade. As of the start of 1859, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1906th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 906th year of the 2nd millennium, the 6th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1906, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1833 Year

1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1833rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 833rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 33rd year of the 19th century, and the 4th year of the 1830s decade. As of the start of 1833, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1940th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 940th year of the 2nd millennium, the 40th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1940s decade.

1807 Year

1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1807th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 807th year of the 2nd millennium, the 7th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1807, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1871st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 871st year of the 2nd millennium, the 71st year of the 19th century, and the 2nd year of the 1870s decade. As of the start of 1871, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1867th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 867th year of the 2nd millennium, the 67th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1860s decade. As of the start of 1867, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1869 (MDCCCLXIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1869th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 869th year of the 2nd millennium, the 69th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1860s decade. As of the start of 1869, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1884 Year

1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1884th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 884th year of the 2nd millennium, the 84th year of the 19th century, and the 5th year of the 1880s decade. As of the start of 1884, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1933rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 933rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 33rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1930s decade.

1830 Year

1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1830th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 830th year of the 2nd millennium, the 30th year of the 19th century, and the 1st year of the 1830s decade. As of the start of 1830, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. It is known in European history as a rather tumultuous year with the Revolutions of 1830 in France, Belgium, Poland, Switzerland and Italy.

1799 Year

1799 (MDCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1799th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 799th year of the 2nd millennium, the 99th year of the 18th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1790s decade. As of the start of 1799, the Gregorian calendar was 11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1834 Year

1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1834th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 834th year of the 2nd millennium, the 34th year of the 19th century, and the 5th year of the 1830s decade. As of the start of 1834, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Francis II of the Two Sicilies King of the Two Sicilies

Francis II was King of the Two Sicilies from 1859 to 1861. He was the last King of the Two Sicilies, as successive invasions by Giuseppe Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia ultimately brought an end to his rule, as part of Italian unification. After he was deposed, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the Kingdom of Sardinia were merged into the newly formed Kingdom of Italy.

Expedition of the Thousand event of the Italian Risorgimento which took place in 1860

The Expedition of the Thousand was an event of the Italian Risorgimento that took place in 1860. A corps of volunteers led by Giuseppe Garibaldi sailed from Quarto, near Genoa and landed in Marsala, Sicily in order to conquer the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, ruled by the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.

1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1950th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 950th year of the 2nd millennium, the 50th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the 1950s decade.

References

  1. See http://www.artistsriflesassociation.org/regiment-artists-rifles.htm.
  2. Among those rescued at sea is the crew of the brig Hannah, captained by George Jezzard, the great-great-great-grandfather of actor David Suchet.
  3. Niemann, Albert (1860). On a New Organic Base in the Coca Leaves ("Über eine neue organische Base in den Cocablättern", published version of Ph.D. dissertation).
  4. "Interior of Governors Palace, Algiers, Algeria". World Digital Library . 1899. Retrieved 2013-09-25.
  5. The college moves to Paxton, Illinois, in 1862 and eventually splits into a Swedish college in Rock Island, Illinois, in 1875, and a Norwegian college in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, in 1918.
  6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fish_and_chips