1861

Last updated

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1861 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1861
MDCCCLXI
Ab urbe condita 2614
Armenian calendar 1310
ԹՎ ՌՅԺ
Assyrian calendar 6611
Bahá'í calendar 17–18
Balinese saka calendar 1782–1783
Bengali calendar 1268
Berber calendar 2811
British Regnal year 24  Vict. 1   25  Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar 2405
Burmese calendar 1223
Byzantine calendar 7369–7370
Chinese calendar 庚申(Metal  Monkey)
4557 or 4497
     to 
辛酉年 (Metal  Rooster)
4558 or 4498
Coptic calendar 1577–1578
Discordian calendar 3027
Ethiopian calendar 1853–1854
Hebrew calendar 5621–5622
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1917–1918
 - Shaka Samvat 1782–1783
 - Kali Yuga 4961–4962
Holocene calendar 11861
Igbo calendar 861–862
Iranian calendar 1239–1240
Islamic calendar 1277–1278
Japanese calendar Man'en 2 / Bunkyū 1
(文久元年)
Javanese calendar 1789–1790
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar 4194
Minguo calendar 51 before ROC
民前51年
Nanakshahi calendar 393
Thai solar calendar 2403–2404
Tibetan calendar 阳金猴年
(male Iron-Monkey)
1987 or 1606 or 834
     to 
阴金鸡年
(female Iron-Rooster)
1988 or 1607 or 835

1861 ( MDCCCLXI ) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar  and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar , the 1861st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 861st year of the 2nd millennium , the 61st year of the 19th century , and the 2nd year of the 1860s decade. As of the start of 1861, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year is a calendar year with 365 days, as distinguished from a leap year, which has 366. More generally, a common year is one without intercalation. The Gregorian calendar,, employs both common years and leap years to keep the calendar aligned with the tropical year, which does not contain an exact number of days.

A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is F. The current year, 2019, is a common year starting on Tuesday in the Gregorian calendar. The last such year was 2013 and the next such year will be 2030, or, likewise, 2014 and 2025 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year contains two Friday the 13ths in September and December. Leap years starting on Monday share this characteristic. From July of the year that precedes this year until September in this type of year is the longest period that occurs without a Friday the 13th. Leap years starting on Saturday share this characteristic, from August of the common year that precedes it to October in that type of year.

Contents

Events

JanuaryMarch

January 1 is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year. This day is known as New Year's Day since the day marks the beginning of the year. It is also the first day of the first quarter of the year and the first half of the year.

Benito Juárez President of Mexico during XIX century

Benito Pablo Juárez García was a Mexican lawyer and president of Mexico, of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca.

Mexico City Capital in Mexico

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.

March 4: Lincoln inaugurated Abraham Lincoln inauguration 1861.jpg
March 4: Lincoln inaugurated
March 4: Confederate flag CSA FLAG 4.3.1861-21.5.1861.svg
March 4: Confederate flag
American Civil War: in 1861 Map of American Civil War in 1861.svg
American Civil War: in 1861

AprilJune

JulySeptember

June 25: Abdulaziz Abdul-aziz.jpg
June 25: Abdülaziz
Battle of Santa Rosa Island Fort-pickens.jpg
Battle of Santa Rosa Island

OctoberDecember

Date unknown

Births

JanuaryJune

Helen Herron Taft Htaft.jpeg
Helen Herron Taft

JulyDecember

Kate M. Gordon Kate M. Gordon.png
Kate M. Gordon
Edith Roosevelt Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt by Frances Benjamin Johnston.jpg
Edith Roosevelt
Myra Belle Martin Myra Belle Martin.png
Myra Belle Martin
James Naismith James Naismith with a basketball.jpg
James Naismith

Date unknown

Deaths

JanuaryJune

Frederick William IV of Prussia FWIV.jpg
Frederick William IV of Prussia
Abdulmecid I Sultan Abdulmecid - Google Art Project.jpg
Abdülmecid I

JulyDecember

Xianfeng Emperor <<Xian Feng Huang Di Zhao Fu Xiang >> .jpg
Xianfeng Emperor
Ernst Anschutz 248 anschuetz ernst.jpg
Ernst Anschütz

Related Research Articles

1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1863rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 863rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 63rd year of the 19th century, and the 4th year of the 1860s decade. As of the start of 1863, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1862 (MDCCCLXII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1862nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 862nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 62nd year of the 19th century, and the 3rd year of the 1860s decade. As of the start of 1862, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. This year was named by Mitchell Stephens as the greatest year to read newspapers.

Timeline of United States history (1860–1899)

This section of the Timeline of United States history concerns events from 1860 to 1899.

Border states (American Civil War) slave states that had not declared a secession from the Union during the American Civil War

In the context of the American Civil War (1861–65), the border states were slave states that did not declare a secession from the Union and did not join the Confederacy. To their north they bordered free states of the Union and to their south they bordered Confederate slave states. Of the 34 U.S. states in 1861, nineteen were free states and fifteen were slave states. Two slave states never declared a secession or adopted an ordinance: Delaware and Maryland. Four others did not declare secession until after the Battle of Fort Sumter and were briefly considered to be border states: Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia—after this, they were less frequently called "border states". Also included as a border state during the war is West Virginia, which was formed from 50 counties of Virginia and became a new state in the Union in 1863.

Florida in the American Civil War

Florida had joined the Confederate States of America in advance of the Civil War, as the third of the original seven states to secede from the Union, following Lincoln's 1860 election. With the smallest population, nearly half of them slaves, Florida only sent 15,000 troops to the Confederate States Army. Its chief importance was in food-supply to the south and support for blockade-runners along its long coastline full of inlets that were hard to patrol.

Maryland in the American Civil War The states participation as a Union slave state; a border state

During the American Civil War (1861-1865), Maryland, a slave state, was one of the border states, straddling the South and North. Because of its strategic location, bordering the national capital city of Washington D.C. with its District of Columbia since 1790, and the strong desire of the opposing factions within the state to sway public opinion towards their respective causes, Maryland played an important role in the American Civil War (1861-1865). Newly elected 16th President Abraham Lincoln, suspended the constitutional right of habeas corpus in Maryland; and he dismissed the U.S. Supreme Court's "Ex parte Merryman" decision concerning freeing John Merryman, a prominent Southern sympathizer from Baltimore County arrested by the military and held in Fort McHenry. The Chief Justice, but not in a decision with the other justices, had held that the suspension was unconstitutional and would leave lasting civil and legal scars. The decision was filed in the U.S. Circuit Court for Maryland by Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney, a Marylander from Frederick and sometimes in Baltimore and former protege of seventh President Andrew Jackson who had appointed him two decades earlier.

Alabama in the American Civil War

The State of Alabama was central to the Civil War, with the secession convention at Montgomery, birthplace of the Confederacy, inviting other states to form a Southern Republic, during January–March 1861, and develop constitutions to legally run their own affairs. The 1861 Alabama Constitution granted citizenship to current U.S. residents, but prohibited import duties (tariffs) on foreign goods, limited a standing military, and as a final issue, opposed emancipation by any nation, but urged protection of African slaves, with trial by jury, and reserved the power to regulate or prohibit the African slave trade. The secession convention invited all slaveholding states to secede, but only 7 Cotton States of the Lower South formed the Confederacy with Alabama, while the majority of slave states were in the Union and voted to make U.S. slavery permanent by passing the Corwin Amendment, signed by President Buchanan and backed by President Lincoln on March 4, 1861.

South Carolina in the American Civil War The first state in the Confederate States of America

South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union in December 1860, and was one of the founding member states of the Confederacy in February 1861. The bombardment of the beleaguered U.S. garrison at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor on April 12, 1861 is generally recognized as the first military engagement of the war.

Tennessee in the American Civil War

To a large extent, the American Civil War was fought in cities and farms of Tennessee, as only Virginia saw more battles. However, Tennessee is the only state to have major battles or skirmishes fought in every single county. Tennessee was the last of the Southern states to declare secession from the Union as a substantial portion of the population were against secession, but saw more than its share of the devastation resulting from years of warring armies criss-crossing the state. Its rivers were key arteries to the Deep South, and, from the early days of the war, Union efforts focused on securing control of those transportation routes, as well as major roads and mountain passes such as the Cumberland Gap. Tennessee was also considered "the Bread Basket" of the Confederacy, for its rich farmland that fed both armies during the war.

Virginia in the American Civil War

The Commonwealth of Virginia became a prominent part of the Confederate States of America when it joined the Confederacy during the American Civil War. As a Southern slave-holding state, Virginia held a state convention to deal with the secession crisis, and voted against secession on April 4, 1861. Opinion shifted after April 15, when U.S. President Abraham Lincoln called for troops from all states still in the Union to put down the rebellion, following the capture of Fort Sumter, and the Virginia convention voted to declare secession from the Union. A Unionist government was established in Wheeling and the new state of West Virginia was created by an act of Congress from 50 counties of western Virginia, making it the only state to lose territory as a consequence of the war.

Richmond in the American Civil War

Richmond, Virginia, served as the capital of the Confederate States of America for almost the whole of the American Civil War. It was a vital source of weapons and supplies for the war effort, and the terminus of five railroads.

Arkansas in the American Civil War historical state of the (de facto) Confederate States of America between 1861 and 1865

During the American Civil War, Arkansas was a Confederate state, though it had initially voted to remain in the Union. Following the capture of Fort Sumter in April 1861, Abraham Lincoln called for troops from every Union state to put down the rebellion, and Arkansas and several other states seceded. For the rest of the war, Arkansas played a major role in controlling the vital Mississippi River and neighboring states, including Tennessee and Missouri.

1861 in the United States USA-related events during the year of 1861

Events from the year 1861 in the United States. This year marked the beginning of the American Civil War.

1862 in the United States USA-related events during the year of 1862

Events from the year 1862 in the United States.

1863 in the United States USA-related events during the year of 1863

Events from the year 1863 in the United States.

1864 in the United States USA-related events during the year of 1864

Events from the year 1864 in the United States.

1865 in the United States USA-related events during the year of 1865

Events from the year 1865 in the United States. The American Civil War ends with the surrender of the Confederate States, beginning the Reconstruction era of U.S. history.

Battle of Pensacola (1861)

The Battle of Pensacola was a battle between the Confederate States of America troops occupying Pensacola Bay and the Union fleet under Harvey Brown. The Confederates retained control of the city and its forts after months of siege.

1865 (MDCCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1865th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 865th year of the 2nd millennium, the 65th year of the 19th century, and the 6th year of the 1860s decade. As of the start of 1865, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1864th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 864th year of the 2nd millennium, the 64th year of the 19th century, and the 5th year of the 1860s decade. As of the start of 1864, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

References

  1. "Fairground Rides - A Chronological Development". National Fairground Archive. University of Sheffield. 2007. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-24.
  2. BBC History Magazine (February 2011) p. 11.
  3. Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN   0-14-102715-0.
  4. Weider History Group: 1861 French Conquest of Saigon: Battle of the Ky Hoa Forts. Accessed 11 March 2013
  5. "The Lincoln Bible". World Digital Library . 1853. Retrieved 2013-09-02.
  6. http://education.cambridge.org/media/577146 "Imperial Russia, revolutions_and_the_emergence_of_the_Soviet_state". Accessed 11 March 2013
  7. Sellick, Douglas R. G. (2010). Pirate Outrages: True Stories of Terror on the China Seas. Fremantle Press. ISBN   1-921696-07-9.
  8. Michael R. Auslin (2009). Negotiating with Imperialism: The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy. Harvard University Press. p. 77. ISBN   978-0-674-02031-3.
  9. "Establishing a National Body, 1860". National Museum Wales.
  10. US Department of State - Office of the Historian: Milestones: 1861-1865 Archived October 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine . Accessed 11 March 2013

Further reading