1870 Manitoba general election

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1870 Manitoba general election
Flag of Manitoba.svg
December 27, 1870 (1870-12-27)
 First partySecond party
  Adams George Archibald.jpg JohnChristianSchultz.jpg
LeaderAdams George ArchibaldJohn Christian Schultz
PartyConsensus GovernmentCanadian Party
Seats won175

The 1870 Manitoba general election held on December 27, 1870, resulted in a victory for Lieutenant Governor Adams George Archibald's governing coalition. Archibald had previously been appointed as the province's Lieutenant Governor by George-Étienne Cartier, and promoted a model of "consensus government," which included members of the province's different ethnic, religious, and linguistic groups.

Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba

The Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba is the viceregal representative in Manitoba of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, who operates distinctly within the province but is also shared equally with the ten other jurisdictions of Canada, as well as the other Commonwealth realms and any subdivisions thereof, and resides predominantly in her oldest realm, the United Kingdom. The Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba is appointed in the same manner as the other provincial viceroys in Canada and is similarly tasked with carrying out most of the monarch's constitutional and ceremonial duties. The present, and 25th, Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba is Janice Filmon, who has served in the role since 19 June 2015.

Adams George Archibald Canadian politician

Sir Adams George Archibald was a Canadian lawyer and politician, and a Father of Confederation. He was based in Nova Scotia for most of his career, though he also served as first Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba from 1870 to 1872.

George-Étienne Cartier Canadian politician

Sir George-Étienne Cartier, 1st Baronet, was a Canadian statesman and Father of Confederation. The English spelling of the name—George, instead of Georges, the usual French spelling—is explained by his having been named in honour of King George III.

The only organized opposition in the province was the Canadian Party of John Christian Schultz, which demanded swifter retribution against the leaders of Louis Riel's Red River Rebellion. Archibald's coalition won 17 seats, Schultz's party only 5. There were also two Independent MLAs: Thomas Bunn (who seems to have tacitly supported Archibald) and George Klyne (who does not appear to have played a major role in parliament). Edward Hay subsequently became Leader of the Opposition.

The Canadian Party was a group founded by John Christian Schultz in 1869, in the Red River Colony. It was not a political party in the modern sense but was rather a forum for local ultra-Protestant agitators.

John Christian Schultz Canadian administrator and politician

Sir John Christian Schultz, was a Manitoba politician and businessman. He was a member of the House of Commons of Canada from 1871 to 1882, a Senator from 1882 to 1888, and the fifth Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba from 1888 to 1895.

Louis Riel Canadian politician and Métis rebel leader

Louis David Riel was a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, and a political leader of the Métis people of the Canadian Prairies. He led two rebellions against the government of Canada and its first post-Confederation prime minister, John A. Macdonald. Riel sought to preserve Métis rights and culture as their homelands in the Northwest came progressively under the Canadian sphere of influence. Over the decades, he has been made a folk hero by Francophones, Catholic nationalists, native rights activists, and the New Left student movement. Arguably, Riel has received more scholarly attention than any other figure in Canadian history.

Formal party politics had not yet arrived in Manitoba, although some candidates were associated with the Liberal and Conservative parties at the national level.

Liberal Party of Canada oldest federal political party in Canada

The Liberal Party of Canada is the oldest and longest-serving political party in Canada. The party has dominated federal politics for much of Canada's history, holding power for almost 69 years in the 20th century—more than any other party in a developed country—and as a result, it is sometimes referred to as Canada's "natural governing party".

Riding results

Baie St. Paul:

Headingly:

John Taylor was a Metis farmer and political figure in Manitoba. He represented Headingly from 1875 to 1879 in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba.

James Cunningham was a political figure in Manitoba. He represented Headingly from 1870 to 1874 in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba.

High Bluff:

Kildonan:

John Sutherland was a farmer and political figure in Manitoba. He represented Kildonan from 1871 to 1874 and from 1875 to 1878 in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba.

Lake Manitoba:

Poplar Point:

David Spence was a political figure in Manitoba. He represented Poplar Point from 1870 to 1874 in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba.

Portage la Prairie:

Ste. Agathe:

St. Andrews North:

St. Andrews South:

Ste. Anne:

St. Boniface East:

St. Boniface West:

St. Charles:

St. Clements:

St. Francois Xavier East:

St. Francois Xavier West:

St. James:

St. Norbert North:

St. Norbert South:

St. Pauls:

St. Peters:

St. Vital:

[Note: Louis Riel had been requested to run here; he declined.]

Winnipeg and St. John:

post-election changes:

On March 30, 1871, John Taylor's victory in Headingly was overturned and James Cunningham was declared elected. One of Taylor's votes had been cast too late; the tie-breaking vote was also disqualified.

Winnipeg and St. John (res. Donald Alexander Smith, January 1874), April 1874:

The government was dominated by the Lieutenant Governors (Archibald and his successor, Alexander Morris) until July 1874, when Joseph Dubuc's francophone bloc joined forces with the Opposition members to bring down the government. Marc-Amable Girard then served as Premier from July to November 1874, at which time he was replaced by Robert A. Davis.

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