1879 New Zealand general election

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1879 New Zealand general election
Flag of New Zealand.svg
  1875–76 28 August – 15 September 1879 1881  

All 88 seats in the New Zealand House of Representatives
Turnout66.5%
 First partySecond party
  Sir John Hall, ca 1880.jpg George Grey, c. 1875.jpg
Leader John Hall George Grey
Party Conservative Independents Greyite Independents
Leader since18791877
Leader's seat Selwyn Thames
Seats won4541

Premier before election

George Grey
Independent

Subsequent Premier

John Hall
Independent

The 1879 New Zealand general election was held between 28 August and 15 September 1879 to elect a total of 88 MPs to the 7th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Māori vote was held on 8 September. A total of 82,271 (66.5%) European voters turned out to vote, plus 14,553 Māori voters. Following the election, John Hall formed a new government.

Contents

Background

Formal political parties had not been established yet; this only happened after the 1890 election. [1] The same 73 electorates were used as for the last election, [2] which was held in 1875–76. In October 1875, Parliament passed the Representation Act 1875, which resolved to increase the size of Parliament to 88 representatives across the 73 electorates. [3] [4]

Two of the electorates were represented by three members each (Christchurch and Dunedin. [5] A further eleven electorates were represented by two members each (Auckland West, Franklin, Grey Valley, Hokitika, Napier, City of Nelson, Thames, Wairarapa, Waitaki, Wanganui and City of Wellington). [3] [6] The remaining 60 electorates were represented by a single member each. [3]

The election came about when George Grey's government was defeated in a no-confidence motion in July. He successfully requested a dissolution from the Governor of New Zealand, Sir Hercules Robinson. [7]

Male Māori received universal suffrage (two years before European males were granted universal suffrage). The parliamentary term was reduced from five to three years. [8]

Date

The election was held between 28 August and 15 September. [9] The date of election is defined here as the day on which the poll took place, or if there was no contest, the day of nomination. [10] The earliest date was the nomination meeting in the Avon electorate, where William Rolleston was declared elected unopposed. [11] [12] The last elections were held on 15 September, where John Studholme and Edward George Wright were elected in the Gladstone and Coleridge electorates, respectively. [13]

The election in the Maori electorates were held on 8 September. [14]

Candidates

At the nomination meeting in the Waimea electorate on 5 September 1879, Joseph Shephard, Albert Pitt, Oswald Curtis and Acton Adams were proposed, the latter three without their knowledge or consent, presumably by opponents of George Grey who had the support of Shephard. [15] With Pitt, Curtis and Adams all formally withdrawing from the contest, the returning officer declared Shephard elected unopposed. [16] In 14 seats there was only one candidate. [17]

Result

In the European electorates, the male population over 21 years of age was 116,008. [18] Of those, 82,271 were enrolled and the turnout was 66.5%. [9] The male Māori population was estimated at 14,553, of which 6,686 voted (turnout 46%). The Maori statistics are to be treated with caution, though, as not much emphasis was put into precise data gathering. When the first Maori roll was established for the 1949 election, for example, more votes were cast than were voters on the roll. [9]

The initial results showed a virtual deadlock with no clear winner. Inititially the opposition seemed to have won slightly more seats than the "Greyites" (supporters of Grey) but not enough to claim a majority outright. [19] However, after several days of negotiations a new ministry was formed by John Hall who had ensured support from 45 members, with 41 backing Grey and 2 Independent of either faction. [20] [21] Upon Grey's rejection, James Macandrew was unanimously elected leader of the liberals and sought to oust Hall and form a new ministry, but was denied after Hall induced four Auckland liberals (known as the "Auckland rats") to cross the floor. [22]

George Grey was elected in both the Thames and the City of Christchurch electorates. [23] Grey came first in the three-member Christchurch electorate (Samuel Paull Andrews and Edward Stevens came second with equal numbers of votes, and only 23 votes ahead of Edward Richardson). [24] Richardson petitioned against Grey's return on technical grounds, as Grey had already been elected in the Thames electorate. [25] [26] The electoral commission unseated Grey on 24 October, [27] with Richardson offered to fill this vacancy a few days later. Grey kept the Thames seat and remained a member of parliament through that constituency. [28]

Laws were passed to confirm the results in three electorates where there was some doubt about the legitimacy of the results to confirm the winner (1879; the electorates were Marsden, Northern Maori and Western Maori); [29] and to clarify the law about electoral petitions (1880): [30]

MemberElectorateAffiliation [31] MP's termElection date
William Montgomery Akaroa Greyite1 September [32]
William Sefton Moorhouse Ashley Conservative11 September [32]
William Speight Auckland East Greyite10 September [33]
William John Hurst Auckland West Greyite6 September [34]
James Wallis Auckland West Greyite6 September [35]
William Rolleston Avon Conservative28 August [36]
William Murray Bruce Conservative9 September [37]
James Bickerton Fisher Buller Greyite9 September [38]
William Barron Caversham Greyite9 September [39]
Alfred Saunders Cheviot Conservative6 September [40]
Samuel Paull Andrews Christchurch Greyite10 September [41]
George Grey a Christchurch Greyite10 September [42]
Edward Cephas John Stevens Christchurch Conservative10 September [33]
John Davies Ormond Clive Conservative10 September [43]
James William Thomson Clutha Greyite11 September [44]
Edward George Wright Coleridge Conservative15 September [45]
William Gibbs Collingwood Conservative11 September [46]
Thomas Dick City of Dunedin Conservative2 September [47]
Richard Oliver City of Dunedin Conservative2 September [43]
William Downie Stewart City of Dunedin Conservative2 September [48]
Vincent Pyke Dunstan Greyite3 September [49]
Allan McDonald East Coast Greyite5 September [50]
Joseph Tole Eden Greyite5 September [51]
Harry Atkinson Egmont Conservative5 September [41]
Benjamin Harris Franklin Greyite11 September [52]
Ebenezer Hamlin Franklin Conservative11 September [53]
Edward Wakefield Geraldine Conservative9 September [35]
John Studholme Gladstone Conservative15 September [48]
Robert Trimble Grey and Bell Conservative8 September [51]
Richard Reeves Grey Valley Greyite5 September [54]
Edward Masters Grey Valley Greyite5 September [55]
James Fisher Heathcote Greyite8 September [38]
Richard Seddon Hokitika Greyite5 September [56]
Robert Reid Hokitika Greyite5 September [54]
Thomas Mason Hutt Conservative9 September [57]
James Walker Bain Invercargill Conservative1 September [39]
Charles Christopher Bowen Kaiapoi Conservative5 September [58]
Harry Allwright Lyttelton Greyite4 September [10]
Walter Woods Johnston Manawatu Conservative6 September [59]
William Henry Colbeck Marsden Greyite11 September [60]
James Shanks Mataura Greyite29 August [56]
John Lundon Mongonui and Bay of Islands Greyite10 September [61]
Richmond Hursthouse Motueka Conservative2 September [62]
Cecil de Lautour Mount Ida Greyite30 August [47]
Fred Sutton Napier Conservative8 September [48]
William Russell Napier Conservative8 September [40]
Albert Pitt City of Nelson Conservative6 September [63]
Acton Adams City of Nelson Conservative6 September [10]
Andrew Richmond Suburbs of Nelson Conservative8 September [36]
Thomas Kelly New Plymouth Conservative6 September [64]
William Swanson Newton Greyite2 September [48]
Maurice O'Rorke Onehunga Greyite9 September [43]
Frederick Moss Parnell Greyite4 September [37]
Courtney Kenny Picton Conservative30 August [64]
James Macandrew Port Chalmers Greyite5 September [65]
William Jarvis Willis Rangitikei Conservative3 September [66]
Patrick McCaughan Riverton Independent6 September [65]
Seymour Thorne George Rodney Greyite8 September [46]
Henry Driver Roslyn Conservative5 September [67]
John Hall Selwyn Conservative29 August [53]
James Fulton Taieri Conservative9 September [46]
George Grey a Thames Greyite2 September [42]
John Sheehan Thames Greyite2 September [56]
Richard Turnbull Timaru Conservative6 September [51]
William Gisborne Totara Greyite29 August [46]
James Clark Brown Tuapeka Greyite6 September [68]
George Ireland Waikaia Independent8 September [62]
John Blair Whyte Waikato Conservative8 September [69]
George McLean Waikouaiti Conservative6 September [70]
Joseph Shephard Waimea Conservative5 September [15] [16]
Frederick Alexander Whitaker Waipa Conservative10 September [69]
Henry Bunny Wairarapa Greyite4 September [71]
George Beetham Wairarapa Conservative4 September [72]
Arthur Seymour Wairau Conservative8 September [56]
Samuel Shrimski Waitaki Greyite5 September [73]
Thomas William Hislop Waitaki Conservative5 September [74]
Reader Wood Waitemata Greyite9 September [45]
Hugh Finn Wakatipu Greyite12 September [38]
Henry Hirst Wallace Conservative4 September [74]
John Bryce Wanganui Conservative5 September [68]
John Ballance Wanganui Greyite5 September [39]
William Hutchison City of Wellington Greyite5 September [62]
William Levin City of Wellington Conservative5 September [61]
Alfred Brandon Wellington Country Conservative11 September [68]
Henare Tomoana Eastern Maori Conservative8 September [51]
Hone Tawhai Northern Maori Greyite8 September [75]
Ihaia Tainui Southern Maori Greyite8 September [75]
Wiremu Te Wheoro Western Maori Greyite8 September [69]

a George Grey was unseated on petition in Christchurch, as he had already been elected in the Thames electorate [76]

Government formation

Following the election, John Hall formed a new government on 8 October 1879, and Hall thus became the 12th Premier of New Zealand. [77] [78] The Hall Ministry stayed in power until 21 April 1882, i.e. some months after the next general election. [78]

Notes

  1. Wilson 1985, p. 177.
  2. McRobie 1989, p. 43.
  3. 1 2 3 "Representation Act 1875 (39 Victoriae 1875 No 77)". Parliamentary Counsel Office. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
  4. "Special Parliamentary Telegram". Otago Daily Times . No. 4267. 21 October 1875. p. 3. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  5. Scholefield 1950, p. 156.
  6. Scholefield 1950, pp. 154–167.
  7. Martin, John E. (2004). The House: New Zealand's House of Representatives, 1854–2004. Palmerston North: Dunmore Publishing Limited. p. 80. ISBN   9780864694638.
  8. "Key dates in New Zealand electoral reform". Elections New Zealand. Archived from the original on 9 November 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
  9. 1 2 3 "General elections 1853–2005 – dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Archived from the original on 14 November 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
  10. 1 2 3 Scholefield 1950, p. 92.
  11. "The General Election". The Star . No. 3551. 28 August 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
  12. "The First Election". Auckland Star . Vol. X, no. 2924. 28 August 1879. p. 3. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
  13. Scholefield 1950, pp. 142, 149.
  14. Scholefield 1950, pp. 142, 144, 147.
  15. 1 2 "Waimea Nomination". Nelson Evening Mail. Vol. XIV, no. 201. 5 September 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  16. 1 2 "Electoral District of Waimea". Colonist. Vol. XXII, no. 2598. 9 September 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  17. Wilson (1985) page 285
  18. "The Electors of New Zealand". The Star . No. 3596. 20 October 1879. p. 3. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
  19. "The New Parliament". Patea Mail. Vol. V, no. 460. 20 September 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
  20. "The Political Situation". The Evening Post . Vol. XVIII, no. 79. 30 September 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 9 September 2016.
  21. "The Elections Decided". Wanganui Herald . Vol. XII, no. 9508. 8 September 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  22. Hall, David Oswald William (1966), "Macandrew, James", An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, edited by A. H. McLintock, retrieved 25 September 2016
  23. "General Election News". Vol. XII, no. 9511. Wanganui Herald. 11 September 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
  24. "The Christchurch Election". The Star . No. 3563. 11 September 1879. p. 3. Retrieved 19 March 2010.
  25. "The Timaru Herald : Thursday, October 30, 1879". The Timaru Herald . Vol. XXXI, no. 1594. 30 October 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 20 March 2010.
  26. "The Christchurch Election". The Star . No. 3608. 3 November 1879. p. 3. Retrieved 20 March 2010.
  27. "Sir George Grey unseated for Christchurch". The Timaru Herald . Vol. XXXI, no. 1590. 25 October 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 20 March 2010.
  28. "Parliamentary". Vol. VI, no. 934. Poverty Bay Herald. 27 October 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 20 March 2010.
  29. "Elections Validation Act, 1879". New Zealand Law online.
  30. "Electoral Petitions Act, 1880". New Zealand Law online.
  31. "The New Parliament". Wanganui Chronicle . Vol. XXI, no. 4143. 18 September 1879. p. 2. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  32. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 127.
  33. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 140.
  34. Scholefield 1950, p. 115.
  35. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 145.
  36. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 136.
  37. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 128.
  38. 1 2 3 Scholefield 1950, p. 106.
  39. 1 2 3 Scholefield 1950, p. 94.
  40. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 137.
  41. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 93.
  42. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 110.
  43. 1 2 3 Scholefield 1950, p. 130.
  44. Scholefield 1950, p. 143.
  45. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 149.
  46. 1 2 3 4 Scholefield 1950, p. 108.
  47. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 103.
  48. 1 2 3 4 Scholefield 1950, p. 141.
  49. Scholefield 1950, p. 133.
  50. Scholefield 1950, p. 122.
  51. 1 2 3 4 Scholefield 1950, p. 144.
  52. Scholefield 1950, p. 112.
  53. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 111.
  54. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 134.
  55. Scholefield 1950, p. 126.
  56. 1 2 3 4 Scholefield 1950, p. 138.
  57. Scholefield 1950, p. 125.
  58. Scholefield 1950, p. 96.
  59. Scholefield 1950, p. 117.
  60. Scholefield 1950, p. 101.
  61. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 120.
  62. 1 2 3 Scholefield 1950, p. 116.
  63. Scholefield 1950, p. 132.
  64. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 118.
  65. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 121.
  66. Scholefield 1950, p. 148.
  67. Scholefield 1950, p. 104.
  68. 1 2 3 Scholefield 1950, p. 97.
  69. 1 2 3 Scholefield 1950, p. 147.
  70. Scholefield 1950, p. 124.
  71. Scholefield 1950, p. 98.
  72. Scholefield 1950, p. 95.
  73. Scholefield 1950, p. 139.
  74. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 114.
  75. 1 2 Scholefield 1950, p. 142.
  76. Wilson 1985, p. 201.
  77. Scholefield 1950, p. 37.
  78. 1 2 Wilson 1985, p. 57.

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