All 95 seats in the House of Representatives
The 1881 New Zealand general election was held on 8 and 9 December in the Māori and European electorates, respectively, to elect 95 MPs to the 8th session of the New Zealand Parliament.
1881 was the first time a general election was held under universal male suffrage; all MPs were elected in single-member electorates; and the country quota was introduced, allowing rural electorates to have 25% fewer voters than urban electorates. Beginning with the 1881 election, all elections in European electorates were to be held on the same day, a measure not introduced for Māori electorates until 1951.
The previous electoral redistribution was undertaken in 1875 for the 1875–1876 election. In the six years since, New Zealand's European population had increased by 65%. In the 1881 electoral redistribution, the House of Representatives increased the number of European representatives to 91 (up from 84 since the 1875–76 election). The number of Māori electorates was held at four. The House further decided that electorates should not have more than one representative, which led to 35 new electorates being formed: Ashburton, Auckland North, Awarua, Christchurch North, Christchurch South, Coromandel, Dunedin Central, Dunedin East, Dunedin South, Dunedin West, Foxton, Franklin North, Franklin South, Hawke's Bay, Hokonui, Inangahua, Kumara, Lincoln, Manukau, Moeraki, Peninsula, St Albans, Stanmore, Sydenham, Taranaki, Tauranga, Te Aro, Thorndon, Waimate, Waipawa, Wairarapa North, Wairarapa South, Waitotara, Wakanui, and Wellington South. In addition, two electorates that had previously been abolished were recreated: Bay of Islands and Oamaru.
These changes necessitated a major disruption to existing boundaries. Only six electorates remained unchanged: Waikato, Waipa, Bruce, Lyttelton, Nelson, and Picton.
The electoral distribution was the first that formally acknowledged the existence of a country quota, where country electorates contained 25% fewer voters than town electorates.
The 1881 election was held on Thursday, 8 December, in the Māori electorates and on Friday, 9 December, in the European electorates to elect a total of 95 MPs to the 8th Parliament. A total number of 120,972 (66.5%) voters turned out to vote.In 11 seats there was only one candidate. 36 and 55 seats were in the North Island and South Island, respectively, plus the 4 Māori electorates.
The incumbent government led by John Hall retained office having support from 45 members with 39 "Greyites" (supporters of George Grey) and 11 Independents not affiliated with either faction.
The following table shows the successful candidate for each electorate.
|Edward George Wright||Ashburton||Greyite||Second|
|William Fisher Pearson||Ashley||Greyite||First|
|George Grey||Auckland East||Greyite||Fourth|
|Thomas Peacock||Auckland North||Independent||First|
|Joseph Dargaville||Auckland West||Independent||First|
|James Parker Joyce||Awarua||Greyite||Second|
|Richard Hobbs||Bay of Islands||Conservative||Second|
|John Munro||Buller||Independent Liberal||First|
|Henry Thomson||Christchurch North||Conservative||First|
|John Holmes||Christchurch South||Greyite||First|
|James William Thomson||Clutha||Conservative||Fourth|
|Thomas Bracken||Dunedin Central||Greyite||First|
|Matthew Green||Dunedin East||Independent||First|
|Henry Fish||Dunedin South||Independent||First|
|Thomas Dick||Dunedin West||Conservative||Fourth|
|Allan McDonald||East Coast||Greyite||Second|
|Benjamin Harris||Franklin North||Greyite||Second|
|Ebenezer Hamlin||Franklin South||Greyite||Third|
|Fred Sutton||Hawkes Bay||Conservative||Third|
|Gerard George Fitzgerald||Hokitika||Conservative||First|
|Thomas S. Weston||Inangahua||Conservative||Second|
|Walter Woods Johnston||Manawatu||Conservative||Fourth|
|Francis Wallace Mackenzie||Mataura||Greyite||First|
|Cecil de Lautour||Mount Ida||Greyite||Third|
|Thomas Kelly||New Plymouth||Conservative||Fifth|
|James Macandrew||Port Chalmers||Greyite||Eighth|
|John Stevens||Rangitikei||Independent Liberal||First|
|Seymour Thorne George||Rodney||Greyite||Third|
|John Evans Brown||St Albans||Greyite||Third|
|Charles John Johnston||Te Aro||Conservative||First|
|James Clark Brown||Tuapeka||Greyite||Fifth|
|John Blair Whyte||Waikato||Conservative||Second|
|Frederick Alexander Whitaker||Waipa||Conservative||Second|
|William Cowper Smith||Waipawa||Independent Liberal||First|
|George Beetham||Wairarapa North||Conservative||Third|
|Walter Clarke Buchanan||Wairarapa South||Conservative||First|
|Thomas Young Duncan||Waitaki||Greyite||First|
|William John Hurst||Waitemata||Conservative||Second|
|William Hogg Watt||Wanganui||Conservative||Second|
|William Hutchison||Wellington South||Greyite||Second|
|Henare Tomoana||Eastern Maori||Conservative||Third|
|Hone Tawhai||Northern Maori||Greyite||Second|
|Hori Kerei Taiaroa||Southern Maori||Greyite||Fourth|
|Wiremu Te Wheoro||Western Maori||Greyite||Second|
The 1996 New Zealand general election was held on 12 October 1996 to determine the composition of the 45th New Zealand Parliament. It was notable for being the first election to be held under the new mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system, and produced a parliament considerably more diverse than previous elections. It saw the National Party, led by Jim Bolger, retain its position in government, but only after protracted negotiations with the smaller New Zealand First party to form a coalition. New Zealand First's position as "kingmaker", able to place either of the two major parties into government, was a significant election outcome.
The 1887 New Zealand general election was held on 26 September to elect 95 MPs to the tenth session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Māori vote was held on 7 September. 175,410 votes were cast. In 5 seats there was only one candidate.
The 1905 New Zealand general election was held on Wednesday, 6 December in the general electorates, and on Wednesday, 20 December in the Māori electorates to elect a total of 80 MPs to the 16th session of the New Zealand Parliament. A total number of 412,702 voters turned out, with 396,657 voting in the European electorates.
An electorate or electoral district is a geographical constituency used for electing a member (MP) to the New Zealand Parliament. The size of electorates is determined such that all electorates have approximately the same population.
Taranaki was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate that existed for three periods between 1881 and 1996. It was represented by nine Members of Parliament.
Manukau is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate in the south Auckland Region. It existed from 1881 to 1978, with a break from 1938 to 1954. It was represented by nine Members of Parliament. Two by-elections were held in the electorate.
Christchurch North is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate. The electorate comprised the northern half of what is now considered the Christchurch Central City.
Wairarapa North is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate, from 1881 to 1887.
Wairarapa South was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate from 1881 to 1887.
Dunedin West was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, in the city of Dunedin. It existed for three periods between 1881 and 1996 and was represented by seven Members of Parliament.
Waitotara was a New Zealand parliamentary electorate in South Taranaki. It existed from 1881 to 1893, and again from 1978 to 1996. It was represented by four Members of Parliament.
Moeraki was a parliamentary electorate in the Otago region of New Zealand, from 1881 to 1887.
Te Aro was a parliamentary electorate in Wellington, New Zealand from 1881 to 1890. It covered the southern area of the central business district. During the three parliamentary terms of its existence, the electorate was represented by three Members of Parliament.
St Albans was a parliamentary electorate in Christchurch, New Zealand from 1881 to 1890, then from 1946 to 1996.
Dunedin East was a parliamentary electorate in the city of Dunedin in the Otago region of New Zealand from 1881 to 1890.
Roslyn was a parliamentary electorate in the city of Dunedin in the Otago region of New Zealand from 1866 to 1890.
Waimate was a parliamentary electorate in the Canterbury region of New Zealand from 1881 to 1893 and from 1946 to 1957. It was represented by three Members of Parliament.
Franklin South was a parliamentary electorate in the southern part of the Auckland Region of New Zealand from 1881 to 1890. During the three parliamentary terms of its existence, the electorate was represented by Ebenezer Hamlin.
The 8th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament.
The 10th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Elections for this term were held in 4 Māori electorates and 91 European electorates on 7 and 26 September 1887, respectively. A total of 95 MPs were elected. Parliament was prorogued in October 1890. During the term of this Parliament, two Ministries were in power.