1881 New Zealand general election

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1881 general election
Flag of New Zealand.svg
  1879 8 (Māori) & 9 (general) December 1881 1884  

All 95 seats in the House of Representatives
Turnout66.5%
 First partySecond party
  Sir John Hall, ca 1880.jpg George Grey, c. 1875.jpg
Leader John Hall George Grey
Party Conservative Independents Greyite Independents
Leader since18791877
Leader's seat Selwyn Auckland East
Seats won4539
Seat changeSteady2.svg 0Decrease2.svg 2
Popular voteN/AN/A
PercentageN/AN/A
SwingN/AN/A

Premier before election

John Hall
Independent

Subsequent Premier

John Hall
Independent

The 1881 New Zealand general election was held on 8 and 9 December in the Māori and European electorates, respectively, to elect 95 MPs to the 8th session of the New Zealand Parliament.

Contents

1881 was the first time a general election was held under universal male suffrage; all MPs were elected in single-member electorates; and the country quota was introduced, allowing rural electorates to have 25% fewer voters than urban electorates. Beginning with the 1881 election, all elections in European electorates were to be held on the same day, a measure not introduced for Māori electorates until 1951. [1]

1881 electoral redistribution

The previous electoral redistribution was undertaken in 1875 for the 1875–1876 election. In the six years since, New Zealand's European population had increased by 65%. In the 1881 electoral redistribution, the House of Representatives increased the number of European representatives to 91 (up from 84 since the 1875–76 election). The number of Māori electorates was held at four. The House further decided that electorates should not have more than one representative, which led to 35 new electorates being formed: Ashburton, Auckland North, Awarua, Christchurch North, Christchurch South, Coromandel, Dunedin Central, Dunedin East, Dunedin South, Dunedin West, Foxton, Franklin North, Franklin South, Hawke's Bay, Hokonui, Inangahua, Kumara, Lincoln, Manukau, Moeraki, Peninsula, St Albans, Stanmore, Sydenham, Taranaki, Tauranga, Te Aro, Thorndon, Waimate, Waipawa, Wairarapa North, Wairarapa South, Waitotara, Wakanui, and Wellington South. In addition, two electorates that had previously been abolished were recreated: Bay of Islands and Oamaru. [2]

These changes necessitated a major disruption to existing boundaries. Only six electorates remained unchanged: Waikato, Waipa, Bruce, Lyttelton, Nelson, and Picton. [2]

The electoral distribution was the first that formally acknowledged the existence of a country quota, where country electorates contained 25% fewer voters than town electorates. [3]

The election

The 1881 election was held on Thursday, 8 December, in the Māori electorates and on Friday, 9 December, in the European electorates to elect a total of 95 MPs to the 8th Parliament. A total number of 120,972 (66.5%) voters turned out to vote. [4] In 11 seats there was only one candidate. [5] 36 and 55 seats were in the North Island and South Island, respectively, plus the 4 Māori electorates. [6]

The incumbent government led by John Hall retained office having support from 45 members with 39 "Greyites" (supporters of George Grey) and 11 Independents not affiliated with either faction. [7]

Results

The following table shows the successful candidate for each electorate. [8]

MemberElectorateAffiliationMP's term
William Montgomery Akaroa Greyite
Edward George Wright Ashburton Greyite
William Fisher Pearson Ashley Greyite
George Grey Auckland East Greyite
Thomas Peacock Auckland North Independent
Joseph Dargaville Auckland West Independent
William Rolleston Avon Conservative
James Parker Joyce Awarua Greyite
Richard Hobbs Bay of Islands Conservative
James Rutherford Bruce Independent
John Munro Buller Independent Liberal
William Barron Caversham Greyite
Hugh McIlraith Cheviot Conservative
Henry Thomson Christchurch North Conservative
John Holmes Christchurch South Greyite
James William Thomson Clutha Conservative
David McMillan Coleridge Conservative
Alfred Cadman Coromandel Greyite
Thomas Bracken Dunedin Central Greyite
Matthew Green Dunedin East Independent
Henry Fish Dunedin South Independent
Thomas Dick Dunedin West Conservative
Vincent Pyke Dunstan Greyite
Allan McDonald East Coast Greyite
Joseph Tole Eden Greyite
Harry Atkinson Egmont Conservative
James Wilson Foxton Conservative
Benjamin Harris Franklin North Greyite
Ebenezer Hamlin Franklin South Greyite
William Postlethwaite Geraldine Conservative
James Sutter Gladstone Independent
Joseph Petrie Greymouth Conservative
Fred Sutton Hawkes Bay Conservative
Henry Wynn-Williams Heathcote Conservative
Gerard George Fitzgerald Hokitika Conservative
Henry Driver Hokonui Conservative
Thomas Mason Hutt Conservative
Thomas S. Weston Inangahua Conservative
Henry Feldwick Invercargill Greyite
Isaac Wilson Kaiapoi Conservative
Richard Seddon Kumara Greyite
Arthur O'Callaghan Lincoln Conservative
Harry Allwright Lyttelton Conservative
Walter Woods Johnston Manawatu Conservative
Maurice O'Rorke Manukau Independent
Edwin Mitchelson Marsden Conservative
Francis Wallace Mackenzie Mataura Greyite
John McKenzie Moeraki Greyite
Richmond Hursthouse Motueka Conservative
Cecil de Lautour Mount Ida Greyite
John Buchanan Napier Greyite
Henry Levestam Nelson Greyite
Thomas Kelly New Plymouth Conservative
William Swanson Newton Conservative
Samuel Shrimski Oamaru Greyite
Frederick Moss Parnell Greyite
James Seaton Peninsula Greyite
Edward Connoly Picton Conservative
James Macandrew Port Chalmers Greyite
John Stevens Rangitikei Independent Liberal
Seymour Thorne George Rodney Greyite
John Bathgate Roslyn Greyite
John Hall Selwyn Conservative
John Evans Brown St Albans Greyite
Walter Pilliet Stanmore Conservative
William White Sydenham Greyite
James Fulton Taieri Conservative
Robert Trimble Taranaki Conservative
George Morris Tauranga Conservative
Charles John Johnston Te Aro Conservative
John Sheehan Thames Independent
William Levin Thorndon Conservative
Richard Turnbull Timaru Greyite
James Clark Brown Tuapeka Greyite
John Blair Whyte Waikato Conservative
James Green Waikouaiti Conservative
William Steward Waimate Conservative
Joseph Shephard Waimea Greyite
Frederick Alexander Whitaker Waipa Conservative
William Cowper Smith Waipawa Independent Liberal
George Beetham Wairarapa North Conservative
Walter Clarke Buchanan Wairarapa South Conservative
Henry Dodson Wairau Greyite
Thomas Young Duncan Waitaki Greyite
William John Hurst Waitemata Conservative
John Bryce Waitotara Conservative
Cathcart Wason Wakanui Conservative
Thomas Fergus Wakatipu Conservative
Theophilus Daniel Wallace Greyite
William Hogg Watt Wanganui Conservative
William Hutchison Wellington South Greyite
Henare Tomoana Eastern Maori Conservative
Hone Tawhai Northern Maori Greyite
Hori Kerei Taiaroa Southern Maori Greyite
Wiremu Te Wheoro Western Maori Greyite

Notes

  1. "The Origins of the Māori Seats". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
  2. 1 2 McRobie 1989, pp. 43–48.
  3. McRobie 1989, p. 47.
  4. "General elections 1853-2005 - dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Archived from the original on 14 November 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
  5. Wilson 1985, p. 286.
  6. Wilson 1985, p. 173.
  7. "New Elections". Thames Star. Vol. XII, no. 4042. 12 December 1881. p. 2. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  8. Cooper 1882, pp. 1–3.

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