1887 Atlantic hurricane season

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1887 Atlantic hurricane season
1887 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedMay 15, 1887
Last system dissipatedDecember 12, 1887
Strongest storm
NameSeven
  Maximum winds125 mph (205 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
  Lowest pressure946 mbar (hPa; 27.94 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions19
Total storms19
Hurricanes11
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
2
Total fatalities2+ total
Total damageUnknown
Atlantic hurricane seasons
1885, 1886, 1887, 1888, 1889

The 1887 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season on record at the time. However, it has been surpassed by the 1933 and 2005, now tying with the 1995, 2010, 2011, and the 2012 seasons for having the third most number of storms. 1887 also featured five off-season storms. The season ran through the summer and almost all of the fall in 1887, and was surpassed in total number of tropical cyclones only by the seasons of 1933 and the record-breaking 2005. The 1887 season saw tropical activity as early as May, and as late as December. Tropical cyclones that did not approach populated areas or shipping lanes, especially if they were relatively weak and of short duration, may have remained undetected. Because technologies such as satellite monitoring were not available until the 1960s, historical data on tropical cyclones from this period may not be comprehensive. An undercount bias of zero to six tropical cyclones per year between 1851 and 1885 and zero to four per year between 1886 and 1910 has been estimated. [1] Of the known 1887 cyclones, Tropical Storm One and Tropical Storm Three were first documented in 1996 by Jose Fernandez-Partagas and Henry Diaz. They also proposed large alterations to the known tracks of several of the other 1887 storms. [2] Later re-analysis led to the known duration of Hurricane Six, and also that of Hurricane Fifteen, being increased. [3]

Atlantic hurricane season tropical cyclone season

The Atlantic hurricane season is the period in a year when hurricanes usually form in the Atlantic Ocean. Tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic are called hurricanes, tropical storms, or tropical depressions. In addition, there have been several storms over the years that have not been fully tropical and are categorized as subtropical depressions and subtropical storms. Even though subtropical storms and subtropical depressions are not technically as strong as tropical cyclones, the damages can still be devastating.

1933 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1933 Atlantic hurricane season was the second-most active Atlantic hurricane season on record, behind only the 2005 season, with 20 storms forming in the northwest Atlantic Ocean, breaking the record set by 1887. The season also produced highest Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) on record in the Atlantic basin, with a total of 259. The season ran through the summer and the first half of fall in 1933, with activity as early as May and as late as November. A tropical cyclone was active for all but 13 days from June 28 to October 7. The year was surpassed in total number of tropical cyclones by the 2005 season, which broke the record with 28 storms. Tropical cyclones that did not approach populated areas or shipping lanes, especially if they were relatively weak and of short duration, may have remained undetected. Because technologies such as satellite monitoring were not available until the 1960s, historical data on tropical cyclones from this period are often not reliable. Compensating for the lack of comprehensive observation, one hurricane researcher estimates the season could have produced 24 tropical cyclones.

2005 Atlantic hurricane season Summary of the relevant tropical storms

The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history, shattering numerous records. The impact of the season was widespread and catastrophic. Its storms caused an estimated total of 3,960 deaths and approximately $180.7 billion in damage, making it the second costliest season on record, surpassed only by the 2017 season.

Contents

Ten of the season's nineteen known storms attained hurricane status. However, only two of these storms became major hurricanes, with sustained winds of over 111 mph (179 km/h); the strongest reached peak winds of 125 mph (205 km/h), with a minimum barometric pressure of 946 mbar (27.9 inHg) off the East Coast of the United States in late August. Only a few of the storms during the 1887 season did not impact land, but there was a low number of deaths.

East Coast of the United States Coastline in the United States

The East Coast of the United States, also known as the Eastern Seaboard, the Atlantic Coast, and the Atlantic Seaboard, is the coastline along which the Eastern United States meets the North Atlantic Ocean. The coastal states that have shoreline on the Atlantic Ocean are, from north to south, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida.

Timeline

Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale1887 Atlantic hurricane season

Systems

Tropical Storm One

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic tropical storm 1 track.png  
DurationMay 15 – May 18
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  ≤997  mbar  (hPa)

The first storm of the season formed south of Bermuda on May 15, outside of the season boundaries and moved to the northwest, staying out to sea. After peaking at 70 mph (110 km/h) late the next day, it turned northward, and became extratropical on May 18 over Newfoundland.

Bermuda British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean

Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. It is approximately 1,070 km (665 mi) east-southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina; 1,236 km (768 mi) south of Cape Sable Island, Nova Scotia; and 1,759 km (1,093 mi) northeast of Cuba. The capital city is Hamilton. Bermuda is self-governing, with its own constitution and its own government, which enacts local laws, while the United Kingdom retains responsibility for defence and foreign relations. As of July 2018, its population is 71,176, the highest of the British overseas territories.

Newfoundland (island) island portion of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

Newfoundland is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It has 29 percent of the province's land area. The island is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle and from Cape Breton Island by the Cabot Strait. It blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, creating the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world's largest estuary. Newfoundland's nearest neighbour is the French overseas community of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.

Tropical Storm Two

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic tropical storm 2 track.png  
DurationMay 17 – May 21
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  ≤1002  mbar  (hPa)

Another May storm formed south of Jamaica on May 17, way outside of the season and moved generally northward. It crossed Cuba on May 19 as a tropical storm, and moved out to sea. Two peaked at 60 mph (95 km/h) twice, once on May 18 and May 20. Two dissipated on May 21 in the Atlantic Ocean. When this storm and the first storm were active simultaneously from May 17 to May 18, it became the earliest for two storms to be active at one time.

Jamaica Country in the Caribbean

Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola.

Cuba Country in the Caribbean

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet. It is east of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. The area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometres (42,800 sq mi). The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometres (40,543 sq mi), and the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants.

Atlantic Ocean Ocean between Europe, Africa and the Americas

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World".

Tropical Storm Three

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic tropical storm 3 track.png  
DurationJune 12 – June 14
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  1004  mbar  (hPa)

A weak tropical storm, which began its life in the northwest Caribbean Sea on June 12. Three peaked at 40 mph (65 km/h) and moved northward through the Gulf of Mexico, and dissipated on June 14 after making landfall in Mississippi.

Mississippi State of the United States of America

Mississippi is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd most extensive and 34th most populous of the 50 United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Alabama to the east, the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana to the south, and Arkansas and Louisiana to the west. The state's western boundary is largely defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson, with a population of approximately 167,000 people, is both the state's capital and largest city.

Hurricane Four

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Pcpn1887072731isohyet.png   1887 Atlantic hurricane 4 track.png
DurationJuly 20 – July 28
Peak intensity100 mph (155 km/h) (1-min)  981  mbar  (hPa)

On July 20 a tropical storm formed 150 miles southeast of Barbados. [4] The next day it passed south of the island as a Category 1 hurricane and caused several vessels to be wrecked or to be run aground there. The hurricane continued westward into the Caribbean Sea, becoming a strong Category 2 hurricane with winds of 100 mph (160 km/h) on July 22. Although the hurricane passed far to the south of Cuba, it caused several vessels to sink at Batabanó and brought heavy rain and flooding to the islands interior. Continuing westward, the hurricane passed over the eastern tip of the Yucatán Peninsula before first turning northward and then northeasterly. It made landfall on the Florida panhandle on the morning of July 27 as a Category 1 hurricane, with a wind speed of 85 mph (140 km/h). The storm continued northward, as a tropical storm, before dissipating late on July 28 near Augusta, Georgia. The storm and its remnants brought heavy rain to the Southeast, up to 8 inches in Cedar Keys and a maximum of 16.5 inches (420 mm) at Union Point, Georgia. [5] The cyclone caused extensive damage to the cotton crop throughout Georgia and Alabama. [2]

Barbados country in the Caribbean

Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America. It is 34 kilometres in length and up to 23 km (14 mi) in width, covering an area of 432 km2 (167 sq mi). It is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 km (62 mi) east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea; therein, Barbados is east of the Windwards, part of the Lesser Antilles, roughly at 13°N of the equator. It is about 168 km (104 mi) east of both the countries of Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and 400 km (250 mi) north-east of Trinidad and Tobago. Barbados is outside the principal Atlantic hurricane belt. Its capital and largest city is Bridgetown.

Caribbean Sea A sea of the Atlantic Ocean bounded by North, Central, and South America

The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico and Central America to the west and south west, to the north by the Greater Antilles starting with Cuba, to the east by the Lesser Antilles, and to the south by the north coast of South America.

Batabanó, Cuba Municipality in Mayabeque, Cuba

Batabanó is a municipality and town in the Mayabeque Province of Cuba. It was founded in 1688.

Tropical Storm Five

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic tropical storm 5 track.png  
DurationJuly 30 – August 8
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  1001  mbar  (hPa)

Tropical Depression Five formed east of the Windward Islands on July 30 and moved northwestward across the Caribbean Sea, strengthening into a storm and reaching peak winds of 60 mph (97 km/h) on August 2 near St. Vincent before dissipating near Cuba six days later.

Hurricane Six

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic hurricane 6 track.png  
DurationAugust 14 – August 22
Peak intensity120 mph (195 km/h) (1-min)  ≤967  mbar  (hPa)

The season's first of two major hurricanes, both following a very similar Cape Verde-type hurricane path in mid-August, but remained offshore. Six formed on August 14 in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. Six started moving toward the Carolina coast and moved far north and peaked as a 120 mph (190 km/h) & 967 mbar major hurricane on August 20, when rapid weakening began. Six was declared extratropical two days later.

Hurricane Seven

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic hurricane 7 track.png  
DurationAugust 18 – August 27
Peak intensity125 mph (205 km/h) (1-min)  946  mbar  (hPa)

The season's second of two major hurricanes, both following a very similar Cape Verde-type hurricane path in mid-August, but remained offshore. Seven formed from a depression on August 18 into Tropical Storm Seven and followed the same track as Six. Seven peaked at 125 mph (205 km/h) winds for three straight days as a major hurricane and rapid weakening began. Seven was declared extratropical on August 27.

Hurricane Eight

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic hurricane 8 track.png  
DurationSeptember 1 – September 4
Peak intensity105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min)  963  mbar  (hPa)

On September 1, a tropical storm formed in the central Atlantic Ocean. It moved northwestward, becoming a hurricane on September 2. The hurricane turned to the northeast, and peaked at 105 mph (169 km/h) as a Category 2 hurricane before becoming extratropical on September 4. The extratropical storm remained until September 6, when it dissipated off the coast of Ireland.

Hurricane Nine

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic hurricane 9 track.png  
DurationSeptember 11 – September 22
Peak intensity100 mph (155 km/h) (1-min)  973  mbar  (hPa)

A hurricane, which was first observed on September 11 to the east of the Lesser Antilles, traversed the Caribbean Sea, remaining away from land until hitting extreme northeast Yucatán Peninsula on September 17. It moved across the Gulf of Mexico, and weakened slightly before landfall as it hit near Brownsville, Texas on September 21 as an 85 mph (140 km/h) hurricane. The storm rapidly weakened over Texas and northeast Mexico, and dissipated on the 22nd.

Rainfall was reported at 8 inches at Brownsville, Texas and on September 21 and 2.26 inches (57 mm) on September 22. [4] [6] Thirty-six hours of rainfall flooded low-lying areas and fourteen sailors were lost at sea. [7]

Hurricane Ten

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic hurricane 10 track.png  
DurationSeptember 14 – September 18
Peak intensity80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  983  mbar  (hPa)

On September 14, the tenth storm formed in the central Atlantic Ocean and moved northward. The storm peaked at 80 mph (130 km/h) with pressure of 983 mbar on September 16. It started losing its tropical characteristics while northeast of Newfoundland on September 18 and was soon declared as an extratropical storm.

Tropical Storm Eleven

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic tropical storm 11 track.png  
DurationOctober 6 – October 9
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 

The eleventh tropical storm of the season developed in the western Caribbean Sea on October 6. The storm peaked at 60 mph (95 km/h), then started moving westward through the Yucatán Peninsula and Bay of Campeche. Eleven dissipated on October 9 after making its second landfall in Mexico.

Tropical Storm Twelve

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic tropical storm 12 track.png  
DurationOctober 8 – October 9
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  ≤994  mbar  (hPa)

A depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Twelve on October 8 and peaked at 70 mph (110 km/h) winds later that day. After passing over Bermuda, Twelve dissipated the next day. Twelve was the shortest lived storm in the 1887 season lasting only two days (October 8 & 9th).

Hurricane Thirteen

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic hurricane 13 track.png  
DurationOctober 9 – October 20
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  981  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical storm was first seen on October 9 to the northeast of the Lesser Antilles. It moved westward to cross Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, before strengthening into a hurricane while south of Cuba on October 12. The hurricane maintained a peak wind speed of 85 mph (137 km/h) for four days, from October 15 to October 19, whilst crossing the Gulf of Mexico. It struck the Louisiana coast near New Orleans on October 19 as a tropical storm. Considerable damage and some flooding were seen in New Orleans, trees were blown down in Algiers and there were significant amounts of crop damage in Abbeville and Iberville Parish. [8] The storm swept across Georgia and the Carolinas before becoming dissipating at sea early on October 20. [9]

Around October 14, a storm moved over Belize, causing moderate crop damage and disruption in the southern part of the country. Because the 13th storm of the season existed at the same time to its northeast, this system was not included, though further research is under way to determine if it was a new storm or a variation of the 13th storm of the season.

Hurricane Fourteen

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic hurricane 14 track.png  
DurationOctober 10 – October 12
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  ≤989  mbar  (hPa)

On October 10, a depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Fourteen and moved across the ocean. Fourteen peaked with 85 mph (140 km/h) winds as a Category 1 hurricane on October 11. On October 12, Fourteen weakened and was declared extratropical.

Hurricane Fifteen

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic hurricane 15 track.png  
DurationOctober 15 – October 19
Peak intensity105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min)  ≤975  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical storm was discovered on late afternoon of October 15 and was named Tropical Storm Fifteen on that day with 80 mph (130 km/h) winds. From October 15 to 16th, Fifteen peaked at 105 mph (169 km/h) winds making it a Category 2 hurricane. Fifteen stayed out to sea and dissipated on October 19.

Tropical Storm Sixteen

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic tropical storm 16 track.png  
DurationOctober 29 – October 31
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  993  mbar  (hPa)

A tropical storm formed on October 27 and took a long, erratic track across the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Sixteen made landfall and moved across Florida as a tropical storm on October 30. Sixteen paralleled the Carolina coastline and peaked at a 70 mph (110 km/h) storm with a tropical pressure of 993 mbar on October 31. Sixteen was declared extratropical a day later and hit an extratropical peak of 80 mph (130 km/h) and a 990 mbar extratropical pressure. The storm was dissipated on November 6. Sixteen caused a ship to capsize, killing two sailors, and resulted in the loss of four other ships.

Hurricane Seventeen

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic hurricane 17 track.png  
DurationNovember 27 – December 4
Peak intensity80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min) 

On November 27, a tropical storm formed north of Puerto Rico. It moved to the west-northwest, and looped to the northeast. While looping, it peaked at 80 mph (130 km/h), but rapid weakening began while the storm was moving to the northeast. The storm was last seen on December 4 in the open Atlantic Ocean.

Hurricane Eighteen

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic hurricane 18 track.png  
DurationDecember 4 – December 8
Peak intensity80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min) 

The 18th storm was first seen to the northeast of the Lesser Antilles on December 4. It moved northwestward at first, then turned to the northeast, strengthening into a hurricane on December 7 before rapid weakening began and Eighteen was declared an extratropical storm on December 9.

Tropical Storm Nineteen

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
1887 Atlantic tropical storm 19 track.png  
DurationDecember 7 – December 12
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 

The 19th and final tropical storm formed on December 7 and moved westward through the Caribbean Sea. Nineteen peaked in intensity on December 10 with 60 mph (95 km/h) winds. Nineteen passed by St. Vincent and continued westward until dissipating near the coast of Costa Rica on December 12. When Tropical Storm Nineteen formed on December 7, it made 1887 the year with the most off-season storms (five).

At the time, Nineteen was the only tropical storm to pass over Costa Rica on record. In 2016, Hurricane Otto passed over Costa Rica as a minimal hurricane. However, prior to doing this Otto made landfall in extreme southern Nicaragua. [10] Therefore, Nineteen remains the only tropical storm recorded to make landfall in Costa Rica.

See also

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The 1900 Atlantic hurricane season featured seven known tropical cyclones, three of which made landfall in the United States. The first system, Hurricane One, was initially observed on August 27. The final storm, Tropical Storm Seven, transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 29. These dates fall within the period with the most tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic. Every storm of the season except Tropical Storm Seven existed simultaneously with another tropical cyclone.

1890 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1890 Atlantic hurricane season is tied for the third least active hurricane season on record, behind 1914 and 1930. The first system was initially observed on May 27 and the last storm, Hurricane Four, dissipated over Central America on November 1. These dates fall within the period with the most tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic. The first storm moved slowly north-northwestward, bringing heavy rains and extensive flooding to Cuba, which caused at least three fatalities and at least $1 million (1890 USD) in damage. It dissipated in the Gulf of Mexico on May 29. Tropical cyclogenesis went dormant for nearly two and a half months, until another system was observed near the Windward Islands on August 18. It traversed the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, grazing the Yucatan Peninsula and making landfall in Louisiana before dissipating on August 28. Impact from the storm was minimal.

1884 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1884 Atlantic hurricane season was one of only three Atlantic hurricane seasons, along with 1852 and 1858, in which every known tropical cyclone attained hurricane status. Overall, four tropical cyclones developed, three of which made landfall. The first system was initially observed over the northwestern Atlantic Ocean on September 1. It struck Newfoundland the following day, but impact there is unknown. On September 3, the next hurricane developed, though it did not affect land in its duration. The third hurricane struck Georgia, accompanied by damaging waves in north Florida.

1875 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1875 Atlantic hurricane season featured three landfalling tropical cyclones. However, in the absence of modern satellite and other remote-sensing technologies, only storms that affected populated land areas or encountered ships at sea were recorded, so the actual total could be higher. An undercount bias of zero to six tropical cyclones per year between 1851 and 1885 has been estimated. There were five recorded hurricanes and one major hurricane – Category 3 or higher on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson scale.

References

  1. Landsea, C. W. (2004). "The Atlantic hurricane database re-analysis project: Documentation for the 1851–1910 alterations and additions to the HURDAT database". In Murname, R. J.; Liu, K.-B. Hurricanes and Typhoons: Past, Present and Future. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 177–221. ISBN   0-231-12388-4.
  2. 1 2 Partagas, J.F. and H.F. Diaz, 1996a "A reconstruction of historical Tropical Cyclone frequency in the Atlantic from documentary and other historical sources Part III: 1881-1890" Climate Diagnostics Center, NOAA, Boulder, CO
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