1896 Summer Olympics

Last updated

Games of the I Olympiad
Athens 1896 report cover.jpg
Cover of the official report for the 1896 Summer Olympics
Host city Athens, Greece
Nations14 [1]
Athletes241 (all men) [2]
Events43 in 9 sports
Opening6 April
Closing15 April
Opened by
Stadium Panathenaic Stadium
Paris 1900

The 1896 Summer Olympics (Greek: Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 1896, translit. Therinoí Olympiakoí Agónes 1896), officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, was the first international Olympic Games held in modern history. Organised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), which had been created by Pierre de Coubertin, it was held in Athens, Greece, from 6 to 15 April 1896.

Olympic Games major international sport event

The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating. The Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart.

Modern history Era from ca. 1500 until present

Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history. Modern history can be further broken down into periods:

International Olympic Committee ruling body of the Olympic movement

The International Olympic Committee is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland. Created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas in 1894, it is the authority responsible for organising the modern Summer and Winter Olympic Games.

Contents

Winners were given a silver medal, while runners-up received a copper medal. Retroactively, the IOC has converted these to gold and silver, and awarded bronze medals to third placed athletes. Ten of the 14 participating nations earned medals. The United States won the most gold medals, 11, host nation Greece won the most medals overall, 46. The highlight for the Greeks was the marathon victory by their compatriot Spyridon Louis. The most successful competitor was German wrestler and gymnast Carl Schuhmann, who won four events.

Marathon long-distance running event with an official distance of 42.195 kilometres

The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy. There are also wheelchair divisions. The marathon has an official distance of 42.195 kilometres, usually run as a road race. The event was instituted in commemoration of the fabled run of the Greek soldier Pheidippides, a messenger from the Battle of Marathon to Athens, who reported the victory.

Spyridon Louis Greek athlete

Spyridon Louis, commonly Spyros Louis, was a Greek water-carrier who won the first modern-day Olympic marathon at the 1896 Summer Olympics. Following his victory, he was celebrated as a national hero.

Gymnastics sport

Gymnastics is a sport that includes exercises requiring balance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination and endurance. The movements involved in gymnastics contribute to the development of the arms, legs, shoulders, back, chest and abdominal muscle groups. Alertness, precision, daring, self-confidence and self-discipline are mental traits that can also be developed through gymnastics. Gymnastics evolved from exercises used by the ancient Greeks that included skills for mounting and dismounting a horse, and from circus performance skills

Athens had been unanimously chosen to stage the inaugural modern Games during a congress organised by Coubertin in Paris on 23 June 1894, during which the IOC was also created, because Greece was the birthplace of the Ancient Olympic Games. The main venue was the Panathenaic Stadium, where athletics and wrestling took place; other venues included the Neo Phaliron Velodrome for cycling, and the Zappeion for fencing. The opening ceremony was held in the Panathenaic Stadium on 6 April, during which most of the competing athletes were aligned on the infield, grouped by nation. After a speech by the president of the organising committee, Crown Prince Constantine, his father officially opened the Games. Afterwards, nine bands and 150 choir singers performed an Olympic Hymn, composed by Spyridon Samaras, with words by poet Kostis Palamas.

Greece republic in Southeast Europe

Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, also known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2016. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki.

Ancient Olympic Games athletic competitions in Ancient Greece

The ancient Olympic Games were originally a festival, or celebration of and for Zeus; later, events such as a footrace, a javelin contest, and wrestling matches were added. The Olympic Games were a series of athletic competitions among representatives of city-states and one of the Panhellenic Games of ancient Greece. They were held in honor of Zeus, and the Greeks gave them a mythological origin. The first Olympics is traditionally dated to 776 BC. They continued to be celebrated when Greece came under Roman rule, until the emperor Theodosius I suppressed them in AD 393 as part of the campaign to impose Christianity as the State religion of Rome. The games were held every four years, or olympiad, which became a unit of time in historical chronologies.

Panathenaic Stadium stadium in Athens, Greece

The Panathenaic Stadium or Kallimarmaro is a multi-purpose stadium in Athens, Greece. One of the main historic attractions of Athens, it is the only stadium in the world built entirely of marble.

The 1896 Olympics were regarded as a great success. The Games had the largest international participation of any sporting event to that date. The Panathenaic Stadium overflowed with the largest crowd ever to watch a sporting event. [4] After the Games, Coubertin and the IOC were petitioned by several prominent figures, including Greece's King George and some of the American competitors in Athens, to hold all the following Games in Athens. However, the 1900 Summer Olympics were already planned for Paris and, except for the Intercalated Games of 1906, the Olympics did not return to Greece until the 2004 Summer Olympics, 108 years later.

George I of Greece King of Greece from 1863 to 1913

George I was King of Greece from 1863 until his assassination in 1913.

1900 Summer Olympics Games of the II Olympiad, celebrated in Paris (France) in 1900

The 1900 Summer Olympics, today officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that took place in Paris, France, in 1900. No opening or closing ceremonies were held; competitions began on 14 May and ended on 28 October.

1906 Intercalated Games International multi-sport event celebrated in Athens (Greece) in 1906

The 1906 Intercalated Games or 1906 Olympic Games was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated in Athens, Greece. They were at the time considered to be Olympic Games and were referred to as the "Second International Olympic Games in Athens" by the International Olympic Committee. Whilst medals were distributed to the participants during these games, the medals are not officially recognized by the IOC today and are not displayed with the collection of Olympic medals at the Olympic Museum in Lausanne, Switzerland.

Reviving the Games

During the 19th century, several small-scale sports festivals across Europe were named after the Ancient Olympic Games. The 1870 Olympics at the Panathenaic stadium, which had been refurbished for the occasion, had an audience of 30,000 people. [5] Pierre de Coubertin, a French pedagogue and historian, adopted Dr William Penny Brookes' idea to establish a multi-national and multi-sport event—the ancient games only allowed male athletes of Greek origin to participate. [6] [7] In 1890, Coubertin wrote an article in La Revue Athletique, which espoused the importance of Much Wenlock a rural market town in the English county of Shropshire. It was here that, in October 1850, the local physician William Penny Brookes had founded the Wenlock Olympian Games, a festival of sports and recreations that included athletics and team sports, such as cricket, football and quoits. [8] Coubertin also took inspiration from the earlier Greek games organised under the name of Olympics by businessman and philanthropist Evangelis Zappas in 1859, 1870 and 1875. [9] The 1896 Athens Games were funded by the legacies of Evangelis Zappas and his cousin Konstantinos Zappas [10] [11] [12] and by George Averoff [13] who had been specifically requested by the Greek government, through crown prince Constantine, to sponsor the second refurbishment of the Panathenaic Stadium. This the Greek government did despite the fact that the cost of refurbishing the stadium in marble had already been funded in full by Evangelis Zappas forty years earlier. [14]

Zappas Olympics

The Zappas Olympics, simply called Olympics at the time, were a series of athletic events held in Athens, Greece, in 1859, 1870, and 1875 sponsored by Greek businessman Evangelis Zappas. These games were one of the first revivals of the ancient Olympic Games in the modern era. Their success provided further inspiration for William Penny Brookes in England, whose games had been running since 1850, and the International Olympic Committee series from 1896.

Pierre de Coubertin Founder of modern Olympic Games, pedagogue and historian

Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin was a French educator and historian, and founder of the International Olympic Committee, and its second President. He is considered one of the fathers of the modern Olympic Games. Born into a French aristocratic family, he became an academic and studied a broad range of topics, most notably education and history. He graduated with a degree in law and public affairs Paris Institute of Political Studies. It was at Sciences Po that he came up with the idea of the Summer Olympic Games.

Pedagogy the study of education

Pedagogy refers more broadly to the theory and practice of education, and how this influences the growth of learners. Pedagogy, taken as an academic discipline, is the study of how knowledge and skills are exchanged in an educational context, and it considers the interactions that take place during learning. Pedagogies vary greatly, as they reflect the different social, political, cultural contexts from which they emerge. Pedagogy is the act of teaching. Theories of pedagogy increasingly identify the student as an agent, and the teacher as a facilitator. Conventional western pedagogies, however, view the teacher as knowledge holder and student as the recipient of knowledge.

With deep feeling towards Baron de Coubertin's courteous petition, I send him and the members of the Congress, with my sincere thanks, my best wishes for the revival of the Olympic Games.

King George of Greece (21 June 1894) [15]

On 18 June 1894, Coubertin organised a congress at the Sorbonne, Paris, to present his plans to representatives of sports societies from 11 countries. Following his proposal's acceptance by the congress, a date for the first modern Olympic Games needed to be chosen. Coubertin suggested that the Games be held concurrently with the 1900 Universal Exposition of Paris. Concerned that a six-year waiting period might lessen public interest, congress members opted instead to hold the inaugural Games in 1896. With a date established, members of the congress turned their attention to the selection of a host city. It remains a mystery how Athens was finally chosen to host the inaugural Games. In the following years both Coubertin and Demetrius Vikelas would offer recollections of the selection process that contradicted the official minutes of the congress. Most accounts hold that several congressmen first proposed London as the location, but Coubertin dissented. After a brief discussion with Vikelas, who represented Greece, Coubertin suggested Athens. Vikelas made the Athens proposal official on 23 June, and since Greece had been the original home of the Olympics, the congress unanimously approved the decision. Vikelas was then elected the first president of the newly established International Olympic Committee (IOC). [16]

University of Paris former university in Paris, France

The University of Paris, metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a university in Paris, France, active 1150–1793, and 1806–1970.

Demetrius Vikelas Greek businessman and writer; president of the International Olympic Committee

Demetrios Vikelas was a Greek businessman and writer; he was the first President of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), from 1894 to 1896.

Organization

News that the Olympic Games would return to Greece was well received by the Greek public, media, and royal family. According to Coubertin, "the Crown Prince Constantine learned with great pleasure that the Games will be inaugurated in Athens." Coubertin went on to confirm that, "the King and the Crown Prince will confer their patronage on the holding of these games." Constantine later conferred more than that; he eagerly assumed the presidency of the 1896 organising committee. [17]

However, the country had financial troubles and was in political turmoil. The job of prime minister alternated between Charilaos Trikoupis and Theodoros Deligiannis frequently during the last years of the 19th century. Because of this financial and political instability, both prime minister Trikoupis and Stephanos Dragoumis, the president of the Zappas Olympic Committee, which had attempted to organise a series of national Olympiads, believed that Greece could not host the event. [18] In late 1894, the organising committee under Stephanos Skouloudis presented a report that the cost of the Games would be three times higher than originally estimated by Coubertin. They concluded the Games could not be held, and offered their resignation. The total cost of the Games was 3,740,000 gold drachmas. [19]

Demetrius Vikelas, the first president of the International Olympic Committee, was credited with the successful organisation of the 1896 Games Demetrius Vikelas.jpg
Demetrius Vikelas, the first president of the International Olympic Committee, was credited with the successful organisation of the 1896 Games

With the prospect of reviving the Olympic games very much in doubt, Coubertin and Vikelas commenced a campaign to keep the Olympic movement alive. Their efforts culminated on 7 January 1895 when Vikelas announced that crown prince Constantine would assume the presidency of the organising committee. His first responsibility was to raise the funds necessary to host the Games. He relied on the patriotism of the Greek people to motivate them to provide the required finances. [20] Constantine's enthusiasm sparked a wave of contributions from the Greek public. This grassroots effort raised 330,000 drachmas. A special set of postage stamps were commissioned; the sale of which raised 400,000 drachmas. Ticket sales added 200,000 drachmas. At the request of Constantine, businessman George Averoff agreed to pay for the restoration of the Panathenaic Stadium. Averoff would donate 920,000 drachmas [13] to this project. [21] As a tribute to his generosity, a statue of Averoff was constructed and unveiled on 5 April 1896 outside the stadium. It stands there to this day. [22]

Some of the athletes would take part in the Games because they happened to be in Athens at the time the Games were held, either on holiday or for work (e.g., some of the British competitors worked for the British embassy). A designated Olympic Village for the athletes did not appear until the 1932 Summer Olympics. Consequently, the athletes had to provide their own lodging.

The first regulation voted on by the new IOC in 1894 was to allow only amateur athletes to participate in the Olympic Games. [23] The various contests were thus held under amateur regulations with the exception of fencing matches. [24] The rules and regulations were not uniform, so the Organising Committee had to choose among the codes of the various national athletic associations. The jury, the referees and the game director bore the same names as in antiquity (Ephor, Helanodic and Alitarc). Prince George acted as final referee; according to Coubertin, "his presence gave weight and authority to the decisions of the ephors." [25]

Venues

Panorama of the Panathenaic Stadium Panathinaiko Stadium panorama.jpg
Panorama of the Panathenaic Stadium

Seven venues were used for the 1896 Summer Olympics. Panathenaic Stadium was the main venue, hosting four of the nine sports contested. The city of Marathon served as host to the marathon event and the individual road race events. Swimming was held in the Bay of Zea, fencing at the Zappeion, sport shooting at Kallithea, and tennis at the Athens Lawn Tennis Club. Tennis was a sport unfamiliar to Greeks at the time of the 1896 Games. [26]

The Bay of Zea is a seaport and marina in the Athens area; [27] it was used as the swimming venue because the organizers of the Games wanted to avoid spending money on constructing a special purpose swimming venue. [28]

Four of the 1896 venues were reused as competition venues for the 2004 Games. The velodrome would be renovated into a football stadium in 1964 and was known as Karaiskakis Stadium. [29] This venue was renovated in 2003 for use as a football venue for the 2004 Games. [30] During the 2004 Games, Panathinaiko Stadium served as host for archery competitions and was the finish line for the athletic marathon event. [31] The city of Marathon itself served as the starting point for both marathon events during the 2004 Games. [32] The Zappeion served as the first home of the organizing committee (ATHOC) for the 2004 Games from 1998 to 1999, and served as the main communications center during those Games. [33] [34]

VenueSportsCapacityRef.
Athens Lawn Tennis Club Tennis Not listed. [26]
Bay of Zea Swimming Not listed. [35]
Kallithea Shooting Not listed. [36]
Marathon (city) Athletics (Marathon (sport)), Cycling (Individual road race).Not listed. [37]
Neo Phaliron Velodrome Cycling (track)Not listed. [38]
Panathinaiko Stadium Athletics, Gymnastics, Weightlifting, and Wrestling 80,000 [39]
Zappeion Fencing Not listed. [40]

Calendar

 OC Opening ceremony  ● Event competitions 1 Event finals CC Closing ceremony
April6
Mon
7
Tue
8
Wed
9
Thu
10
Fri
11
Sat
12
Sun
13
Mon
14
Tue
15
Wed
Events
‡ CeremoniesOCCCN/A
Athletics pictogram.svg Athletics 341412
Cycling pictogram.svg Cycling 13116
Fencing pictogram.svg Fencing 213
Gymnastics pictogram.svg Gymnastics 527
Shooting pictogram.svg Shooting 11316
Swimming pictogram.svg Swimming 44
Tennis pictogram.svg Tennis    22
Weightlifting pictogram.svg Weightlifting 22
Wrestling pictogram.svg Wrestling  11
Daily medal events3818713210043
Cumulative total3111220274042434343
April6
Mon
7
Tue
8
Wed
9
Thu
10
Fri
11
Sat
12
Sun
13
Mon
14
Tue
15
Wed
Total events


‡ The iconic Olympic rings symbol was not designed by Baron Pierre de Coubertin until 1912.

Opening ceremony

The opening ceremony in the Panathenaic Stadium 1896 Olympic opening ceremony.jpg
The opening ceremony in the Panathenaic Stadium

On 6 April (25 March according to the Julian calendar then in use in Greece), the games of the First Olympiad were officially opened; it was Easter Monday for both the Western and Eastern Christian Churches and the anniversary of Greece's independence. [41] The Panathenaic Stadium was filled with an estimated 80,000 spectators, including King George I of Greece, his wife Olga, and their sons. Most of the competing athletes were aligned on the infield, grouped by nation. After a speech by the president of the organising committee, Crown Prince Constantine, his father officially opened the Games with the words (in Greek): [42]

"I declare the opening of the first international Olympic Games in Athens. Long live the Nation. Long live the Greek people."

Afterwards, nine bands and 150 choir singers performed an Olympic Hymn, composed by Spyridon Samaras, with words by poet Kostis Palamas. Thereafter, a variety of musical offerings provided the backgrounds to the Opening Ceremonies until 1960, since which time the Samaras/Palamas composition has become the official Olympic Anthem (decision taken by the IOC Session in 1958). Other elements of current Olympic opening ceremonies were initiated later: the Olympic flame was first lit in 1928, the first athletes' oath was sworn at the 1920 Summer Olympics, and the first officials' oath was taken at the 1972 Olympic Games. [42]

Events

At the 1894 Sorbonne congress, a large roster of sports were suggested for the program in Athens. The first official announcements regarding the sporting events to be held featured sports such as football and cricket, [43] but these plans were never finalised, and these sports did not make the final list for the Games. [44] Rowing and yachting were also scheduled, but were cancelled due to poor weather on the planned day of competition. [45] As a result, the 1896 Summer Olympics programme featured 9 sports encompassing 10 disciplines and 43 events. The number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

Athletics

The athletics events had the most international field of any of the sports. The major highlight was the marathon, held for the first time in international competition. Spyridon Louis, a previously unrecognised water carrier, won the event to become the only Greek athletics champion and a national hero. Although Greece had been favoured to win the discus and the shot put, the best Greek athletes finished just behind the American Robert Garrett in both events. [4]

No world records were set, as few top international competitors had elected to compete. In addition, the curves of the track were very tight, making fast times in the running events virtually impossible. Despite this, Thomas Burke, of the United States, won the 100-meter race in 12.0 seconds and the 400-meter race in 54.2 seconds. Burke was the only one who used the "crouch start" (putting his knee on soil), confusing the jury. Eventually, he was allowed to start from this "uncomfortable position". [46]

Australian competitor Juan Olivo came to Athens to watch the games, but decided to compete in the athletics events. He won two races—the 800-meter and the 1500-meter.

Frenchmen Leon Flameng (left) and Paul Masson won four cycling events Masson flameng.jpg
Frenchmen Léon Flameng (left) and Paul Masson won four cycling events
Fencer Leonidas Pyrgos became the first Greek modern Olympic champion by winning the masters foil competition Leonidas Pyrgos.jpg
Fencer Leonidas Pyrgos became the first Greek modern Olympic champion by winning the masters foil competition
The German individual gymnastics champions: Schuhmann, Flatow, and Weingartner Schuhmann flatow weingartner.jpg
The German individual gymnastics champions: Schuhmann, Flatow, and Weingärtner

Chile claims one athlete, Luis Subercaseaux, competed for the nation at the 1896 Summer Olympics. This makes Chile one of the 14 nations to appear at the inaugural Summer Olympic Games. Subercaseaux's results are not listed in the official report, though that report typically includes only winners and Subercaseaux won no medals. [47] [47] A study conducted by Chilean forensic police decided (by use of facial recognition), that Subercaseaux was the participant in a famous photo of 100 meters second series. [48]

Cycling

The rules of the International Cycling Association were used for the cycling competitions. [49] The track cycling events were held at the newly built Neo Phaliron Velodrome. Only one road event was held, a race from Athens to Marathon and back (87 kilometres).

In the track events, the best cyclist was Frenchman Paul Masson, who won the one lap time trial, the sprint event, and the 10,000 meters. In the 100 kilometres event, Masson entered as a pacemaker for his compatriot Léon Flameng. Flameng won the event, after a fall, and after stopping to wait for his Greek opponent Georgios Kolettis to fix a mechanical problem. The Austrian fencer Adolf Schmal won the 12-hour race, which was completed by only two cyclists, while the road race event was won by Aristidis Konstantinidis. [50]

Fencing

The fencing events were held in the Zappeion, which, built with money Evangelis Zappas had given to revive the ancient Olympic Games, had never seen any athletic contests before. [51] Unlike other sports (in which only amateurs were allowed to take part at the Olympics), professionals were authorised to compete in fencing, though in a separate event. These professionals were considered gentlemen athletes, just as the amateurs. [25]

Four events were scheduled, but the épée event was cancelled for unknown reasons. The foil event was won by a Frenchman, Eugène-Henri Gravelotte, who beat his countryman, Henri Callot, in the final. [51] The other two events, the sabre and the masters foil, were won by Greek fencers. Leonidas Pyrgos, who won the latter event, became the first Greek Olympic champion in the modern era.

Gymnastics

The gymnastics competition was carried out on the infield of the Panathinaiko Stadium. Germany had sent an 11-man team, which won five of the eight events, including both team events. In the team event on the horizontal bar, the German team was unopposed. Three Germans added individual titles: Hermann Weingärtner won the horizontal bar event, Alfred Flatow won the parallel bars; and Carl Schuhmann, who also competed successfully in wrestling, won the vault. Louis Zutter, a Swiss gymnast, won the pommel horse, while Greeks Ioannis Mitropoulos and Nikolaos Andriakopoulos were victorious in the rings and rope climbing events, respectively. [52]

Sailing/Rowing

German team at the 1896 Summer Olympics BASA-3K-7-422-21-1896 Summer Olympics.jpg
German team at the 1896 Summer Olympics

A regatta of sailing boats was on the program of the Games of the First Olympiad for 31 March 1896. However this event had to be given up.

The Official English report states:

The Regatta could not take place because some special boats embarkation had not been provided for.

Charalambos Annino

The German version gives a bit more clues:

Die Wettkämpfe im Segeln wurden vereitelt, da man weder bei uns die besonderen Boote dafür besass, noch fremde Bewerber sich gemeldet hatten.

same source.

Shooting

Held at a range at Kallithea, the shooting competition consisted of five events—two using a rifle and three with the pistol. The first event, the military rifle, was won by Pantelis Karasevdas, the only competitor to hit the target with all of his shots. The second event, for military pistols, was dominated by two American brothers: John and Sumner Paine became the first siblings to finish first and second in the same event. To avoid embarrassing their hosts, the brothers decided that only one of them would compete in the next pistol event, the free pistol. Sumner Paine won that event, thereby becoming the first relative of an Olympic champion to become Olympic champion himself. [53]

The Paine brothers did not compete in the 25-meter pistol event, as the event judges determined that their weapons were not of the required calibre. In their absence, Ioannis Phrangoudis won. The final event, the free rifle, began on the same day. However, the event could not be completed due to darkness and was finalised the next morning, when Georgios Orphanidis was crowned the champion. [53]

Swimming

Alfred Hajos, the first Olympic champion in swimming, is one of only two Olympians to have won medals in both sport and art competitions Hajos.jpg
Alfréd Hajós, the first Olympic champion in swimming, is one of only two Olympians to have won medals in both sport and art competitions

The swimming competition was held in the open sea because the organizers had refused to spend the money necessary for a specially constructed stadium. Nearly 20,000 spectators lined the Bay of Zea off the Piraeus coast to watch the events. The water in the bay was cold, and the competitors suffered during their races. There were three open events (men's 100-metre freestyle, men's 500-metre freestyle, and men's 1200 metre freestyle), in addition to a special event open only to Greek sailors, all of which were held on the same day (11 April). [50]

For Alfréd Hajós of Hungary, this meant he could only compete in two of the events, as they were held too close together, which made it impossible for him to adequately recuperate. Nevertheless, he won the two events in which he swam, the 100 and 1200 meter freestyle. Hajós later became one of only two Olympians to win a medal in both the athletic and artistic competitions, when he won a silver medal for architecture in 1924. The 500-meter freestyle was won by Austrian swimmer Paul Neumann, who defeated his opponents by more than a minute and a half.

Tennis

Although tennis was already a major sport by the end of the 19th century, none of the top players turned up for the tournament in Athens. The competition was held at the courts of the Athens Lawn Tennis Club, and the infield of the velodrome used for the cycling events. John Pius Boland, who won the event, had been entered in the competition by a fellow-student of his at Oxford; the Greek, Konstantinos Manos. As a member of the Athens Lawn Tennis sub-committee, Manos had been trying, with the assistance of Boland, to recruit competitors for the Athens Games from among the sporting circles of Oxford University. In the first round, Boland defeated Friedrich Traun, a promising tennis player from Hamburg, who had been eliminated in the 100-meter sprint competition. Boland and Traun decided to team up for the doubles event, in which they reached the final and defeated their Greek and Egyptian opponents after losing the first set. [54]

Weightlifting

Launceston Elliot, winner of the one-armed weightlifting event, was popular with the Greek audience, who found him very handsome Launceston Elliot.jpg
Launceston Elliot, winner of the one-armed weightlifting event, was popular with the Greek audience, who found him very handsome

The sport of weightlifting was still young in 1896, and the rules differed from those in use today. Competitions were held outdoors, in the infield of the main stadium, and there were no weight limits. The first event was held in a style now known as the "clean and jerk". Two competitors stood out: Scotsman Launceston Elliot and Viggo Jensen of Denmark. Both of them lifted the same weight; but the jury, with Prince George as the chairman, ruled that Jensen had done so in a better style. The British delegation, unfamiliar with this tie-breaking rule, lodged a protest. The lifters were eventually allowed to make further attempts, but neither lifter improved, and Jensen was declared the champion. [55]

Elliot got his revenge in the one hand lift event, which was held immediately after the two-handed one. Jensen had been slightly injured during his last two-handed attempt, and was no match for Elliot, who won the competition easily. The Greek audience was charmed by the Scottish victor, whom they considered very attractive. A curious incident occurred during the weightlifting event: a servant was ordered to remove the weights, which appeared to be a difficult task for him. Prince George came to his assistance; he picked up the weight and threw it a considerable distance with ease, to the delight of the crowd. [55]

Wrestling

Carl Schuhmann (left) and Georgios Tsitas shake hands before the final match of the wrestling competition Schuhmann lotta atene 1896.jpg
Carl Schuhmann (left) and Georgios Tsitas shake hands before the final match of the wrestling competition

No weight classes existed for the wrestling competition, held in the Panathenaic Stadium, which meant that there would only be one winner among competitors of all sizes. The rules used were similar to modern Greco-Roman wrestling, although there was no time limit, and not all leg holds were forbidden (in contrast to current rules).

Apart from the two Greek contestants, all the competitors had previously been active in other sports. Weightlifting champion Launceston Elliot faced gymnastics champion Carl Schuhmann. The latter won and advanced into the final, where he met Georgios Tsitas, who had previously defeated Stephanos Christopoulos. Darkness forced the final match to be suspended after 40 minutes; it was continued the following day, when Schuhmann needed only fifteen minutes to finish the bout. [56]

Closing ceremony

A silver medal was awarded to the winner of each event. The current system of gold, silver, and bronze medals was not implemented until the 1906 Olympic Games. 1896 Olympic medal.jpg
A silver medal was awarded to the winner of each event. The current system of gold, silver, and bronze medals was not implemented until the 1906 Olympic Games.

On the morning of Sunday 12 April (or 3 April, according to the Julian calendar then used in Greece), King George the Great organised a banquet for officials and athletes (even though some competitions had not yet been held). During his speech, he made clear that, as far as he was concerned, the Olympics should be held in Athens permanently. The official closing ceremony was held the following Wednesday, after being postponed from Tuesday due to rain. Again the royal family attended the ceremony, which was opened by the national anthem of Greece and an ode composed in ancient Greek by George S. Robertson, a British athlete and scholar. [57]

Afterwards, the king awarded prizes to the winners. Unlike today, the first-place winners received a silver medal, an olive branch and a diploma, while runners-up received a copper medal, a laurel branch, and diploma. [58] [59] Third place winners did not receive a prize.

Some winners also received additional prizes, such as Spyridon Louis, who received a cup from Michel Bréal, a friend of Coubertin, who had conceived the marathon event. Louis then led the medalists on a lap of honour around the stadium, while the Olympic Hymn was played again. The King then formally announced that the first Olympiad was at an end, and left the Stadium, while the band played the Greek national hymn and the crowd cheered. [57]

Like the Greek king, many others supported the idea of holding the next Games in Athens; most of the American competitors signed a letter to the Crown Prince expressing this wish. Coubertin, however, was heavily opposed to this idea, as he envisioned international rotation as one of the cornerstones of the modern Olympics. According to his wish, the next Games were held in Paris, although they would be somewhat overshadowed by the concurrently held Universal Exposition. [60]

Participating nations

Participating countries 1896 Olympic games countries.PNG
Participating countries

The concept of national teams was not a major part of the Olympic movement until the Intercalated Games 10 years later, though many sources list the nationality of competitors in 1896 and give medal counts. There are significant conflicts with regard to which nations competed. The International Olympic Committee gives a figure of 14, but does not list them. [42] The following 14 are most likely the ones recognised by the IOC. Some sources list 12, excluding Chile and Bulgaria; others list 13, including those two but excluding Italy. Egypt is also sometimes included because of Dionysios Kasdaglis' participation. Belgium and Russia had entered the names of competitors, but withdrew.

Participating Nations
  1. Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Australia  – Prior to 1901 Australia was not a unified nation but six separately administered British colonies, but the results of Edwin Flack are typically given with him listed as Australian. (1)
  2. Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg  Austria  Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg Austria-Hungary– Austria was part of Austria–Hungary at the time, though the results of Austrian athletes are typically reported separately. (3)
  3. Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria  – The Bulgarian Olympic Committee claims that gymnast Charles Champaud was competing as a Bulgarian. [61] Champaud was a Swiss national living in Bulgaria. Mallon and de Wael both list Champaud as Swiss. [62] (1)
  4. Flag of Chile.svg  Chile  – The Chilean Olympic Committee claims to have had one athlete, Luis Subercaseaux, compete in the 100, 400, and 800-meter races in the athletics programme. [63] [64] [65] [66] No further details are given, and no mention is made of Subercaseaux in de Wael, or the Official Report. (1)
  5. Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark (3)
  6. Flag of France.svg  France (12)
  7. Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany (19)
  8. Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain  – The United Kingdom (of Great Britain and Ireland) maintains separate athletic organisations for each of its constituent countries. In the Olympic Games, the UK participates as a single entity, but conventionally under the name "Great Britain" rather than the more accurate "United Kingdom". (10)
  9. Flag of Greece (1828-1978).svg  Greece  – Greek results typically include the results of competitors from Cyprus, Smyrna and Egypt. [67] Some sources give Cypriot results separately, though most count Anastasios Andreou, a Greek-Cypriot and the only athlete from Cyprus, as Greek (Cyprus was a protectorate of the United Kingdom at the time). Kasdaglis, an athlete of Greek origins living in Alexandria, Egypt, is listed by the IOC as Greek during his competition in the singles tennis competition but Kasdaglis and his doubles tennis teammate, Greek athlete Demetrios Petrokokkinos, are listed as a mixed team. [68] (169)
  10. Flag of Hungary (1867-1918).svg  Hungary  Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg Austria-Hungary- Hungary is usually listed separately from Austria, despite the two being formally joined as Austria–Hungary at the time. (7)
  11. Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Italy  – The most prominent Italian involved with the games, Carlo Airoldi, was deemed a professional and excluded from competition. However, the shooter Giuseppe Rivabella was also Italian and did compete. [69] [70] (1)
  12. Swedish civil ensign (1844-1905).svg  Sweden (1) – Although Sweden was in state union with Norway at the time, Norway did not send any athletes.
  13. Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland (3)
  14. US flag 44 stars.svg  United States (14)
  • Olympic flag.svg  Mixed team – Tennis doubles teams could consist of players from different countries; the IOC labels these Mixed Teams.

Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees

Over 65% of all athletes were Greek.

Medal count

Ten of the 14 participating nations earned medals, in addition to three medals won by mixed teams, i.e. teams made up of athletes from multiple nations. The IOC has retroactively assigned gold, silver and bronze medals to the three best placed athletes in each event to comport with more recent traditions. [68] The United States won the most gold medals* (11), while host nation Greece won the most medals overall (46) as well as the most silver* (17) and bronze* (19) medals, finishing with one fewer gold medal than the United States, having 155 athletes more than the US. [68]

To sort this table by nation, total medal count, or any other column, click on the Sort both.gif icon next to the column title.

Key  Host nation (Greece)

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1US flag 44 stars.svg  United States  (USA)117220
2Flag of Greece (1828-1978).svg  Greece  (GRE)*10171946
3Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany  (GER)65213
4Flag of France.svg  France  (FRA)54211
5Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain  (GBR)2327
6Flag of Hungary (1867-1918).svg  Hungary  (HUN)2136
7Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg  Austria  (AUT)2125
8Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Australia  (AUS)2002
9Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark  (DEN)1236
10Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland  (SUI)1203
11Olympic flag.svg  Mixed team  (ZZX)1113
Totals (11 nations)434336122

Female competitors

Women were not entitled to compete at the 1896 Summer Olympics, because de Coubertin felt that their inclusion would be "impractical, uninteresting, unaesthetic and incorrect". [72]

Notes

  1. The number, given by the International Olympic Committee, is open to interpretation and could be as few as 10 and as many as 15. There are numerous reasons for the disparity: National teams hardly existed at the time, and most athletes represented themselves or their clubs. In addition, countries were not always as well-defined as they are today. The number of countries here reflects the number used by most modern sources. See the relevant section for further details.
  2. This number of competitors is according to the International Olympic Committee. The identities of 179 competitors are known. Mallon & Widlund calculate 245 athletes, while De Wael finds 246.
  3. "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games f the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. September 13, 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  4. 1 2 Young (1996), 153
  5. The Modern Olympics, A Struggle for Revival by David C. Young, Chapter 4
  6. Bijkerk (2004), 457
  7. Toohey (2007), 20
  8. Mullins, "Pierre de Coubertin and the Wenlock Olympian Games"
  9. Matthews (2005), 66; Young (1996), 81
  10. Young (1996), p.117
  11. Memoire sure le conflit entre la Grece et la Roumanie concernant l'affaire Zappa – Athens 1893, by F. Martens
  12. L'affaire Zappa – Paris 1894, by G. Streit
  13. 1 2 Young (1996), p.128
  14. Young (1996), p.14
  15. Young (1996), 102
  16. Young (1996), 100–105
  17. Young (1996), 108
  18. Young (1996), 111–118
  19. Zarnowski (1992), 16–32
  20. Young (1996), 118. According to Young (2004), 153, "Vikelas and the other Greeks did most of the work. Coubertin did very little."
  21. Darling (2004), 135
  22. George Averoff Dead, New York Times
  23. Some scholars allege that during the Sorbonne congress Coubertin was led by tactical considerations, and used the amateur requirement only as a bait in order to realize his actual aim—namely the reintroduction of the Olympic Games—more quickly (Lennartz–Wassong [2004]), 20.
  24. Professionalism vs amateurism was one of the dominant themes of the 19th century regarding athletics. In Greece the amateurism of athletes debate was taken a step further to encompass the question of the participation of the lower classes in the Games. In 1870, during the Zappian Olympic Games, Philippos Ioannou, a classical scholar and professor, criticised the games, and attacked the ideal of amateurism. His contention was that they were a parody, because people from the working class had taken part in the games. Ioannou suggested that only young people from the upper class should be accepted in the following Olympiad (Professionals and Amateurs, Foundation of the Hellenic World).
  25. 1 2 Coubertin (1896), 46–47
  26. 1 2 History of the Athens Lawn Tennis Club. Archived 29 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine (in English) & (in Greek) - accessed 3 October 2010.
  27. Worldportsource.com profile of the Zea, Greece marina. - accessed 4 July 2010.
  28. Lennartz, Karl; Wassong, Stephen (2004). "Athens 1896". In John E. Findling, Kimberly D. Pelle. Encyclopedia of the Modern Olympic Movement. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN   0-313-32278-3. OCLC   52418065.. p. 23.
  29. Stadia.gr profile of Karaiskakoid Stadium in 1895, 1964, and 2003. - accessed 3 October 2010.
  30. 2004 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 19 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. p. 324. Accessed 3 October 2010.
  31. 2004 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 19 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. pp. 237, 242, 244. Accessed 3 October 2010.
  32. 2004 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 19 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. p. 242. Accessed 3 October 2010.
  33. 2004 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 1. pp. 116-7.. Accessed 3 October 2010.
  34. 2004 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 19 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine Volume 2. p. 20. (Listed as Zappeio). Accessed 3 October 2010.
  35. Wallechinsky, David and Jaime Loucky (2008). "Swimming (Men): 100-Meter Freestyle". In The Complete Book of the Olympics: 2008 Edition. London: Aurum Press Limited. pp. 897-8.
  36. 1896 Summer Olympic official report. Volume 2. pp. 83-4. Accessed 3 October 2010.
  37. 1896 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. pp. 86-90, 100-2. Accessed 3 October 2010.
  38. 1896 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. pp. 74-75, 97-99. Accessed 3 October 2010.
  39. 1896 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. pp. 31-49. Accessed 3 October 2010.
  40. Zappeion history. - accessed 3 October 2010.
  41. Coubertin (1896), 42
    *Martin–Gynn (2000), 7–8
  42. 1 2 3 Athens 1896 – Games of the I Olympiad, International Olympic Committee
  43. "The ignorant Olympians".
  44. "No spot the Olympics? It's not cricket".
  45. Coubertin–Philemon–Politis–Anninos (1897), 98–99, 108–109
  46. Sears (2001), 159
  47. 1 2 Fernando Arrechea Rivas. "Olimpismo". olimpismo2007.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
  48. LUN. "www.lun.com". lun.com. Retrieved 2016-04-09.
  49. Coubertin (1896), 46–47; Lennartz–Wassong (2004), 23
  50. 1 2 Lennartz-Wassong (2004), 23
  51. 1 2 Young (1996), 148
  52. Young (1996), 151
  53. 1 2 Coubertin–Philemon–Politis–Anninos (1897), 76, 83–84
  54. Gillmeister (1995), 23–24
  55. 1 2 Coubertin–Philemon–Politis–Anninos (1897), 70–71
  56. Coubertin–Philemon–Politis–Anninos (1897), 93–94
  57. 1 2 Coubertin (1896), 50
  58. Coubertin–Philemon–Politis–Anninos (1897), 232–234
  59. IOC Olympic Museum exhibition panel, 2010
  60. Young (1996), 156
  61. "Athens 1896". Bulgarian Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on 2007-03-12.
  62. De Wael, KONRAD Gymnastics 1896
  63. Guttmann (1994), 128; "La Presencia de Chile en los Juegos Olimpicos". Archived from the original on 2 July 2008. Retrieved 2006-12-28., Olympic Committee of Chile; McGehee (2000), 107
  64. aboutolympics.co.uk. "1896 Athens Olympics" . Retrieved 21 February 2011. Fourteen nations were represented – Australia, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Chile, Denmark, Egypt, USA, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Sweden and Switzerland
  65. Mallon, Bill, and Ture Widlund (1988). The 1896 Olympic Games. Results for All Competitors in All Events, with Commentary (PDF). Jefferson: McFarland. p. 39. ISBN   0-7864-0379-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2011. Across the field, in answer to the Herald's trumpet, come two Hungarians, a Chilian, a Frenchman, a German, an Englishman and an American, to run the 100-meters race
  66. Olympic Games Museum (2011). "Participating Countries – Olympic Games Athens 1896". olympic-museum.de. Archived from the original on 2011-11-27. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
  67. Gillmeister (1998), 364
  68. 1 2 3 Athens 1896–Medal Table, International Olympic Committee
  69. De Wael, Shooting 1896
  70. "Giuseppe Rivabella". Sports-Reference. Retrieved 24 February 2009.
  71. Charles Champaud can be considered an athlete for either Switzerland or Bulgaria.
  72. "Women at the Olympic Games". topendsports.com. Retrieved 9 April 2016.

Further reading

Preceded by
Ancient Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
Athens

I Olympiad (1896)
Succeeded by
Paris

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