1920 Summer Olympics

Last updated

Games of the VII Olympiad
1920 olympics poster.jpg
Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics
Host city Antwerp, Belgium
Nations29
Athletes2,626 (2,561 men, 65 women)
Events156 in 22 sports (29 disciplines)
Opening14 August [1]
Closing12 September
Opened by
Stadium Olympisch Stadion
Summer
Stockholm 1912
Berlin 1916
Paris 1924
Winter
Chamonix 1924

The 1920 Summer Olympics (French : Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1920; Dutch : Olympische Zomerspelen van de VIIe Olympiade; German : Olympische Sommerspiele 1920), officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium.

Contents

In March 1912, during the 13th session of the IOC, Belgium's bid to host the 1920 Summer Olympics was made by Baron Édouard de Laveleye, president of the Belgian Olympic Committee and of the Royal Belgian Football Association. No fixed host city was proposed at the time.

The 1916 Summer Olympics, to be held in Berlin, capital of the German Empire, were cancelled due to World War I. When the Olympic Games resumed after the war, Antwerp was awarded hosting the 1920 Summer Games as tribute to the Belgian people. The aftermath of the war and the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 affected the Olympic Games not only due to new states being created, but also by sanctions against the nations that lost the war and were blamed for starting it. Hungary, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire were banned from competing in the Games. The newly formed Soviet Union chose not to attend the Games. Germany did not return to Olympic competition until 1928 and instead hosted a series of games called Deutsche Kampfspiele, starting with the Winter edition of 1922 (which predated the first Winter Olympics).

The United States won the most gold and overall medals.

The sailing events were held in Ostend, Belgium, and two in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Host city selection

In March 1912, during the 13th session of the IOC, the bid on the behalf of Belgium to host the 1920 Summer Olympics. It was made by Baron Édouard de Laveleye, president of the Belgian Olympic Committee and of the Royal Belgian Football Association. No fixed host city was proposed at the time. [3]

The organizing committee was created on 9 August 1913. It had four presidents:

Among the 22 vice-presidents of the committee were people with a military or industrial background, and further people from sports organizations like Paul Havenith, president of the football and athletics club K. Beerschot V.A.C. and Nicolaas Jan Cupérus, president of the Belgian Gymnastics Federation. [4]

The first action of the committee was to send an official letter to the IOC in Paris, confirming Antwerp as the city for the Belgian Olympic bid. With Antwerp confirmed as the Olympic Games host, Belgium began reconstructing the Beerschot Stadium into the Olympisch Stadion. [5] Construction on the new Olympic stadium began in July 1919 and finished in May 1920. [6]

In 1914, a 109-page brochure was created to promote the idea of Antwerp as a host city for the Olympics: Aurons-nous la VIIème Olympiade à Anvers? (Will we have the 7th Olympiad at Antwerp?). It was sent to all IOC members and was used during the 6th Olympic Congress in Paris in 1914, where the candidacies of Amsterdam, Antwerp, Budapest, and Rome were discussed. Despite a slight preference at the time for Budapest, no final choice was made, and the outbreak of World War I soon afterwards prevented any further progress. [7]

In 1915, Lyon made a bid for the 1920 games, but after some discussion, they agreed to support Antwerp and postpone their bid until 1924 if Antwerp was liberated in time to organize the games. The support for Belgium by cousin country France, then the leading country of the IOC, also meant that Amsterdam, and Budapest, in an enemy state, made no chance for the 1920 games against Antwerp. New candidacies from American cities did not have that disadvantage and bids were received from Cleveland, Philadelphia, and Atlanta (which would eventually host the 1996 Summer Olympics), and Cuba also planned a bid for Havana. But shortly after the armistice in November 1918, the IOC decided to give Antwerp the first choice, if they still wanted to host the 1920 Games. In March 1919, the Belgian Olympic Committee decided to go ahead with the organization, and on 5 April 1919, in a meeting in Lausanne, Antwerp was officially declared the host city for the games of the VIIth Olympiad. [8]

Organization

The 1920 Summer Games organizers had very little time to prepare. The time between the IOC's decision of choosing Antwerp as the host city and the start of the Olympic Games was less than two years. [9]

An executive committee was established on 17 April 1919, with Henri de Baillet-Latour as chairman and Alfred Verdyck, the secretary of the Belgian Union of Football Clubs, as general secretary. Seven commissions were created, to deal with finances, accommodation, press relations, propaganda, schedules, transport, and festivities. Finances and scheduling proved to be the two hardest parts to tackle: the program of events only was published in February 1920, six months before the official start of the Games. [10]

Between 23 and 30 April 1920, an ice hockey tournament marked the early start of the Games. Held in the "Palais de Glace" or Ice Palace in Antwerp, it was the first time that ice hockey was an Olympic sport. [11]

The first stone of the new Olympisch Stadion was laid on 4 July 1919 by Jan De Vos, mayor of Antwerp, and inaugurated less than a year later on 23 May 1920 with a gymnastics demonstration. [12]

When the Olympic Games began, the stadium was still unfinished with some events being built over fortifications and others using existing locations. The athletes quarters were crowded and athletes slept on folding cots. [13]

The nautical stadium or Stade Nautique d'Antwerp was built at the end of the Jan Van Rijswijcklaan, using the city ramparts there as a spectator's stand. Other events, like shooting, boxing, and equestrian sports, were held at pre-existing locations in and around Antwerp and as far away as Ostend. [14]

The amount of spectators were low throughout Antwerp's Summer Olympics since not many people could afford tickets. In the closing days of the Olympic Games, students were allowed to attend the event for free. [15] After the conclusion of the Olympic Games, Belgium recorded a loss of more than 600 million francs. [16]

Highlights

Sports/Events

France national football team. French national football team - Olympic games 1920.jpg
France national football team.

156 events [19] in 29 disciplines, comprising 22 sports, were part of the Olympic program in 1920. The Sailing program was open for a total of 16 sailing classes, but actually only 14 sailing events were contested. The number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

Demonstration sport

Venues

Seventeen sports venues were used in the 1920 Summer Olympics. This marked the first time that the football tournament was spread throughout the country, which has mostly been the case since. [20]

Photograph of the games at Antwerp, Belgium, 1920. Antwerp 1920 banner.jpg
Photograph of the games at Antwerp, Belgium, 1920.
VenueSportsCapacityRef.
Antwerp Cycling (road)Not listed. [21] [22]
Antwerp Zoo Boxing, Wrestling Not listed. [23] [24]
Beerschot Tennis Club Tennis Not listed. [25]
Beverloo Camp Shooting (pistol/rifle)Not listed. [26]
Brussels–Scheldt Maritime Canal Rowing Not listed. [27]
Buiten Y (Amsterdam) Sailing (12 foot dinghy)Not listed. [28]
Gardens of the Egmont Palace (Brussels) Fencing Not listed. [29]
Hoogboom Military Camp Shooting (trap shooting, running target)Not listed. [26]
Jules Ottenstadion (Ghent) Football (Italy-Egypt match).Not listed. [30]
Nachtegalen Park Archery Not listed. [31]
Olympisch Stadion Athletics, Equestrian, Field hockey, Football (final), Gymnastics, Modern pentathlon, Rugby union, Tug of war, Weightlifting 30,000 [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40]
Ostend Polo, SailingNot listed. [41] [42]
Palais de Glace d'Anvers Figure skating, Ice hockey Not listed. [43] [44]
Stade Joseph Marien (Brussels)FootballNot listed. [35]
Stade Nautique d'Antwerp Diving, Swimming, Water polo Not listed. [45] [46] [47]
Stadion Broodstraat FootballNot listed. [35]
Vélodrome d'Anvers Zuremborg Cycling (track)Not listed. [48]

Participating nations

Participants in the 1920 games, with the nations in blue participating for the first time. 1920 Summer Olympic games countries.png
Participants in the 1920 games, with the nations in blue participating for the first time.
Number of athletes 1920 Summer olympics team numbers.png
Number of athletes

A total of 29 nations participated in the Antwerp Games, only one more than in 1912, as Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire were not invited, having lost World War I. From the newly created European states, only Estonia took part, and Czechoslovakia, succeeding Bohemia which had sent athletes prior to World War I as part of the Austrian Empire. Poland was busy with the Polish-Soviet War and therefore was unable to form an Olympic team. Argentina, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Brazil, and Monaco competed as nations at the Olympic Games for the first time. New Zealand, which had competed as part of a combined team with Australia in 1908 and 1912, competed on its own for the first time.

Participating National Olympic Committees

As the local Olympic Organizing Committee went bankrupt during the Antwerp 1920 Games, no official report of the Games was ever produced. The documents of the Games were archived at the Belgium Olympic Committee headquarters in Brussels. [50]

Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees

Medal count

One of the 154 (identical) gold medals awarded at the Games of the VII Olympiad 2000-158-19 Medal, Olympics, 1920, Antwerp, Gold, Obverse (7268561188) (cropped).jpg
One of the 154 (identical) gold medals awarded at the Games of the VII Olympiad

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1920 Games. These were the first Olympics where the host nation did not win the most medals overall.

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1US flag 48 stars.svg  United States 41272795
2Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 19202564
3 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Great Britain 15151343
4Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 1510934
5Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium*14111136
6Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 139931
7Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Italy 135523
8Flag of France.svg  France 9191341
9Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 42511
10Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 39113
Totals (10 nations)146127118391

See also

Notes

  1. Findling, John E. (2004). Encyclopedia of the Modern Olympic Movement. Greenwood. p. 74. ISBN   9780313322785.
  2. "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games f the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 13 September 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  3. Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. p. 11. ISBN   90-5325-051-4.
  4. Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. p. 12. ISBN   90-5325-051-4.
  5. "Olympisch Stadion - Olympic News". International Olympic Committee. 28 April 2021. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  6. Home, John; Whannel, Garry (2012). Understanding the Olympics. Taylor & Francis. p. 160. ISBN   9781317495208.
  7. Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. p. 13. ISBN   90-5325-051-4.
  8. Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. p. 14. ISBN   90-5325-051-4.
  9. "Antwerp 1920: a symbol of peace and unity 100 years after the Games". Olympic Channel. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  10. "1920 Olympics". Unbalanced. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  11. Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. pp. 15–17. ISBN   90-5325-051-4.
  12. Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. pp. 18–19. ISBN   90-5325-051-4.
  13. "Antwerp 1920 Olympic Games". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  14. Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. pp. 20–21. ISBN   90-5325-051-4.
  15. "Antwerp 1920 Olympic Games". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  16. B. A., History. "What Was Interesting About the 1920 Olympics in Antwerp?". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  17. IOC (25 April 2018). "Antwerp 1920 Summer Olympics - Athletes, Medals & Results". Olympic Channel. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  18. "Antwerp 1920". Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  19. The IOC site for the 1920 Olympic Games gives erroneous figure of 154 events, while the IOC database lists 156 ones.
  20. "Football at the 1920 Antwerpen Summer Games | Olympics at Sports-Reference.com". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  21. "1920 Summer Olympics cycling individual road race". Sports-reference.com. 12 August 1920. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  22. "1920 Summer Olympics cycling team road race". Sports-reference.com. 12 August 1920. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  23. "1920 Summer Olympics boxing". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  24. "1920 Summer Olympics wrestling". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  25. "profile of Tennis at the 1920 Summer Olympics". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  26. 1 2 "Shooting overview of the 1920 Summer Olympics". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  27. "1920 Summer Olympics rowing website". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  28. Sports-Reference.com 1920 Summer Olympics sailing mixed 12-foot results..
  29. "profile of the 1920 Summer Olympics fencing events". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  30. FIFA.com 1920 Summer Olympics ITA-EGY results. Archived 1 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine – accessed 6 October 2010.
  31. "1920 Summer Olympics archery profile". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  32. "1920 Summer Olympics athletics". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  33. "1920 Summer Olympics equestrian". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  34. "1920 Summer Olympics men's field hockey". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  35. 1 2 3 "1920 Summer Olympics football". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  36. "1920 Summer Olympics gymnastics". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  37. "1920 Summer Olympics modern pentathlon". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  38. "1920 Summer Olympics rugby union". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  39. "1920 Summer Olympics tug of war". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  40. "1920 Summer Olympics weightlifting". Sports-reference.com. 29 August 1920. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  41. "1920 Summer Olympics polo". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  42. "1920 Summer Olympics sailing". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  43. "profile of Figure skating at the 1920 Summer Olympics". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  44. "profile of the men's Ice Hockey at the 1920 Summer Olympics". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  45. "profile of Diving at the 1920 Summer Olympics". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  46. "profile of Swimming at the 1920 Summer Olympics". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  47. "profile of Men's water polo at the 1920 Summer Olympics". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  48. "profile of Cycling at the 1920 Summer Olympics". Sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  49. Dohey, Larry. "Newfoundlanders and Olympic Connections". Archivalmoments.ca. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  50. "Olympic Games Official Report 1920" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
Preceded by
Berlin
cancelled due to World War I
Summer Olympic Games
Antwerp

VII Olympiad (1920)
Succeeded by
Paris

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