1920 United States Census

Last updated

Fourteenth Census
of the United States
  1910
1930  
Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
U.S. Census Bureau Seal
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenJanuary 5, 1920
Total population106,021,537
Percent changeIncrease2.svg 15.0%
Most populous state New York
10,385,227
Least populous state Nevada
77,407

The Fourteenth United States Census , conducted by the Census Bureau one month from January 5, 1920, determined the resident population of the United States to be 106,021,537, an increase of 15.0 percent over the 92,228,496 persons enumerated during the 1910 Census.

United States Census decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution

The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States ... according to their respective Numbers .... The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years." Section 2 of the 14th Amendment states: "Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed." The United States Census Bureau is responsible for the United States Census. The Bureau of the Census is part of the United States Department of Commerce.

United States Census Bureau bureau of the United States responsible for the census and related statistics

The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States.

An enumeration is a complete, ordered listing of all the items in a collection. The term is commonly used in mathematics and computer science to refer to a listing of all of the elements of a set. The precise requirements for an enumeration depend on the discipline of study and the context of a given problem.

Contents

Despite the constitutional requirement that House seats be reapportioned to the states respective of their population every ten years according to the census, members of Congress failed to agree on a reapportionment plan following this census, and the distribution of seats from the 1910 census remained in effect until 1933. In 1929, Congress passed the Reapportionment Act of 1929 which provided for a permanent method of reapportionment and fixed the number of Representatives at 435.

United States Constitution Supreme law of the United States of America

The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States. The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress ; the executive, consisting of the President ; and the judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts. Articles Four, Five and Six embody concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments, the states in relationship to the federal government, and the shared process of constitutional amendment. Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it. It is regarded as the oldest written and codified national constitution in force.

United States House of Representatives lower house of the United States Congress

The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they comprise the legislature of the United States.

The Reapportionment Act of 1929 was a combined census and apportionment bill passed by the United States Congress on June 18, 1929, that established a permanent method for apportioning a constant 435 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives according to each census.

This was the first census in which a state – New York – recorded a population of more than ten million.

New York (state) State of the United States of America

New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that formed the United States. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city in the state with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State.

Census questions

The 1920 census collected the following information: [1]

Full documentation for the 1920 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.

State rankings

RankStatePopulation
1 New York 10,385,227
2 Pennsylvania 8,720,017
3 Illinois 6,485,280
4 Ohio 5,759,394
5 Texas 4,663,228
6 Massachusetts 3,852,356
7 Michigan 3,668,412
8 California 3,426,861
9 Missouri 3,404,055
10 New Jersey 3,155,900
11 Indiana 2,930,390
12 Georgia 2,895,832
13 Wisconsin 2,632,067
14 North Carolina 2,559,123
15 Kentucky 2,416,630
16 Iowa 2,404,021
17 Minnesota 2,387,125
18 Alabama 2,348,174
19 Tennessee 2,337,885
20 Virginia 2,309,187
21 Oklahoma 2,028,283
22 Louisiana 1,798,509
23 Mississippi 1,790,618
24 Kansas 1,769,257
25 Arkansas 1,752,204
26 South Carolina 1,683,724
27 West Virginia 1,463,701
28 Maryland 1,449,661
29 Connecticut 1,380,631
30 Washington 1,356,621
31 Nebraska 1,296,372
32 Florida 968,470
33 Colorado 939,629
34 Oregon 783,389
35 Maine 768,014
36 North Dakota 646,872
37 South Dakota 636,547
38 Rhode Island 604,397
39 Montana 548,889
40 Utah 449,396
41 New Hampshire 443,083
x District of Columbia 437,571
42 Idaho 431,866
43 New Mexico 360,350
44 Vermont 352,428
45 Arizona 334,162
46 Delaware 223,003
47 Wyoming 194,402
48 Nevada 77,407

Territories

United States Territories
Year of conquest or purchaseTerritoryPopulation
1867 Alaska 55,036
1898 Hawaii 255,881
1898 Puerto Rico 1,299,809
1898 Guam 13,275
1898 Philippine Islands 10,314,310
1899 American Samoa N/A
1903 Panama Canal Zone N/A
1915 Haiti N/A
1916 Santo Domingo 894,652
1916 US Virgin Islands N/A

City rankings

RankCityStatePopulation [2] Region (2016) [3]
01 New York New York 5,620,048 Northeast
02 Chicago Illinois 2,701,705 Midwest
03 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 1,823,779 Northeast
04 Detroit Michigan 993,078 Midwest
05 Cleveland Ohio 796,841 Midwest
06 St. Louis Missouri 772,897 Midwest
07 Boston Massachusetts 748,060 Northeast
08 Baltimore Maryland 733,826 South
09 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 588,343 Northeast
10 Los Angeles California 576,673 West
11 Buffalo New York 506,775 Northeast
12 San Francisco California 506,676 West
13 Milwaukee Wisconsin 457,147 Midwest
14 Washington District of Columbia 437,571 South
15 Newark New Jersey 414,524 Northeast
16 Cincinnati Ohio 401,247 Midwest
17 New Orleans Louisiana 387,219 South
18 Minneapolis Minnesota 380,582 Midwest
19 Kansas City Missouri 324,410 Midwest
20 Seattle Washington 315,312 West
21 Indianapolis Indiana 314,194 Midwest
22 Jersey City New Jersey 298,103 Northeast
23 Rochester New York 295,750 Northeast
24 Portland Oregon 258,288 West
25 Denver Colorado 256,491 West
26 Toledo Ohio 243,164 Midwest
27 Providence Rhode Island 237,595 Northeast
28 Columbus Ohio 237,031 Midwest
29 Louisville Kentucky 234,891 South
30 Saint Paul Minnesota 234,698 Midwest
31 Oakland California 216,261 West
32 Akron Ohio 208,435 Midwest
33 Atlanta Georgia 200,616 South
34 Omaha Nebraska 191,601 Midwest
35 Worcester Massachusetts 179,754 Northeast
36 Birmingham Alabama 178,806 South
37 Syracuse New York 171,717 Northeast
38 Richmond Virginia 171,667 South
39 New Haven Connecticut 162,537 Northeast
40 Memphis Tennessee 162,351 South
41 San Antonio Texas 161,379 South
42 Dallas Texas 158,976 South
43 Dayton Ohio 152,559 Midwest
44 Bridgeport Connecticut 143,555 Northeast
45 Houston Texas 138,276 South
46 Hartford Connecticut 138,036 Northeast
47 Scranton Pennsylvania 137,783 Northeast
48 Grand Rapids Michigan 137,634 Midwest
49 Paterson New Jersey 135,875 Northeast
50 Youngstown Ohio 132,358 Midwest
51 Springfield Massachusetts 129,614 Northeast
52 Des Moines Iowa 126,468 Midwest
53 New Bedford Massachusetts 121,217 Northeast
54 Fall River Massachusetts 120,485 Northeast
55 Trenton New Jersey 119,289 Northeast
56 Nashville Tennessee 118,342 South
57 Salt Lake City Utah 118,110 West
58 Camden New Jersey 116,309 Northeast
59 Norfolk Virginia 115,777 South
60 Albany New York 113,344 Northeast
61 Lowell Massachusetts 112,759 Northeast
62 Wilmington Delaware 110,168 South
63 Cambridge Massachusetts 109,694 Northeast
64 Reading Pennsylvania 107,784 Northeast
65 Fort Worth Texas 106,482 South
66 Spokane Washington 104,437 West
67 Kansas City Kansas 101,177 Midwest
68 Yonkers New York 100,176 Northeast
69 Lynn Massachusetts 99,148 Northeast
70 Duluth Minnesota 98,917 Midwest
71 Tacoma Washington 96,965 West
72 Elizabeth New Jersey 95,783 Northeast
73 Lawrence Massachusetts 94,270 Northeast
74 Utica New York 94,156 Northeast
75 Erie Pennsylvania 93,372 Northeast
76 Somerville Massachusetts 93,091 Northeast
77 Waterbury Connecticut 91,715 Northeast
78 Flint Michigan 91,599 Midwest
79 Jacksonville Florida 91,558 South
80 Oklahoma City Oklahoma 91,295 South
81 Schenectady New York 88,723 Northeast
82 Canton Ohio 87,091 Midwest
83 Fort Wayne Indiana 86,549 Midwest
84 Evansville Indiana 85,264 Midwest
85 Savannah Georgia 83,252 South
86 Manchester New Hampshire 78,384 Northeast
87 St. Joseph Missouri 77,939 Midwest
88 Knoxville Tennessee 77,818 South
89 El Paso Texas 77,560 South
90 Bayonne New Jersey 76,754 Northeast
91 Peoria Illinois 76,121 Midwest
92 Harrisburg Pennsylvania 75,917 Northeast
93 San Diego California 74,683 West
94 Wilkes-Barre Pennsylvania 73,833 Northeast
95 Allentown Pennsylvania 73,502 Northeast
96 Wichita Kansas 72,217 Midwest
97 Tulsa Oklahoma 72,075 South
98 Troy New York 71,996 Northeast
99 Sioux City Iowa 71,227 Midwest
100 South Bend Indiana 70,983 Midwest

Data availability

The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s; after which the original sheets were destroyed. [4] (dead link). The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations also host images of the microfilmed census online, and digital indices.

Microform any forms, either films or paper, containing microreproductions of documents

Microforms are scaled-down reproductions of documents, typically either films or paper, made for the purposes of transmission, storage, reading, and printing. Microform images are commonly reduced to about one twenty-fifth of the original document size. For special purposes, greater optical reductions may be used.

National Archives and Records Administration independent agency of the United States government which preserves and provides access to federal records

The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives. NARA is officially responsible for maintaining and publishing the legally authentic and authoritative copies of acts of Congress, presidential directives, and federal regulations. The NARA also transmits votes of the Electoral College to Congress.

Microdata from the 1920 census are freely available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.

Notes

  1. "Library Bibliography Bulletin 88, New York State Census Records, 1790-1925". New York State Library. October 1981. pp. 45 (p. 51 of PDF). Archived from the original on January 30, 2009. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
  2. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  3. "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  4. Algonquin Area Public Library District. "Census Secrets" (PDF). Retrieved May 17, 2012.[ permanent dead link ]

Related Research Articles

2000 United States Census 22nd determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000

The Twenty-second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.2% over the 248,709,873 people enumerated during the 1990 Census. This was the twenty-second federal census and was at the time the largest civilly administered peacetime effort in the United States.

1990 United States Census determined the resident population of the United States on 1 April 1990

The Twenty-first United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, was the first census to be directed by a woman, Barbara Everitt Bryant. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9.8 percent over the 226,545,805 persons enumerated during the 1980 Census.

1890 United States Census

The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time. The data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, South Dakota, and Texas, and the District of Columbia.

1850 United States Census

The United States Census of 1850 was the seventh census of the United States. Conducted by the Census Office on June 1, 1850, it determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876—an increase of 35.9 percent over the 17,069,453 persons enumerated during the 1840 Census. The total population included 3,204,313 slaves.

1980 United States Census

The Twentieth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,545,805, an increase of 11.4 percent over the 203,184,772 persons enumerated during the 1970 Census. It was the first census in which a state – California – recorded a population of 20 million people, as well as the first in which all states recorded populations of over 400,000.

1790 United States Census

The United States Census of 1790 was the first census of the whole United States. It recorded the population of the United States as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws. In the first census, the population of the United States was enumerated to be 3,929,214.

1800 United States Census

The United States Census of 1800 was the second Census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on August 4, 1800.

1830 United States Census

The United States Census of 1830, the fifth census undertaken in the United States, was conducted on June 1, 1830. The only loss of census records for 1830 involved some countywide losses in Massachusetts, Maryland, and Mississippi.

1860 United States Census

The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States starting June 1, 1860, and lasting five months. It determined the population of the United States to be 31,443,321, an increase of 35.4 percent over the 23,191,875 persons enumerated during the 1850 Census. The total population included 3,953,761 slaves.

1880 United States Census

The United States Census of 1880 conducted by the Census Bureau during June 1880 was the tenth United States Census. It was the first time that women were permitted to be enumerators. The Superintendent of the Census was Francis Amasa Walker. This was the first census in which a city – New York – recorded a population of over one million.

1870 United States Census

The United States Census of 1870 was the ninth United States Census. Conducted by the Census Bureau in June 1870, the 1870 Census was the first census to provide detailed information on the black population, only years after the culmination of the Civil War when slaves were granted freedom. The population was said to be 38,555,983 individuals, a 22.62% increase since 1860. The 1870 Census' population estimate is controversial, as many believed it underestimated the true population numbers, especially in New York and Pennsylvania.

1900 United States Census

The Twelfth United States Census, conducted by the Census Office on June 1, 1900, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 62,979,766 persons enumerated during the 1890 Census.

1910 United States Census

The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation.

1930 United States Census

The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census.

1940 United States Census

The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, and information about wages. This census introduced sampling techniques; one in 20 people were asked additional questions on the census form. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939. This was the first census in which every state (48) had a population greater than 100,000.

1950 United States Census

The Seventeenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 150,697,361, an increase of 14.5 percent over the 131,669,275 persons enumerated during the 1940 Census. This was the first census in which:

1960 United States Census

The Eighteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 179,323,175, an increase of 18.5 percent over the 151,325,798 persons enumerated during the 1950 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over 200,000.

1970 United States Census

The Nineteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 203,392,031, an increase of 13.4 percent over the 179,323,175 persons enumerated during the 1960 Census. This was the first census since 1800 in which New York was not the most populous state – California overtook it in population in November of 1962. This was also the first census in which all states recorded a population of over 300,000, and the first in which a city in the geographic South recorded a population of over 1 million (Houston).

Marion Bernice Yazdi, born October 9, 1902 at Marcellus, Cass County, Michigan, died February 2, 1996 at Natick, Middlesex County, Massachusetts or at Wellesley, Norfolk County, Massachusetts, was the first Bahá'í student at the University of California at Berkeley, and at Stanford University. She was a daughter of Crowell E. and Elizabeth Carpenter, natives of Michigan and Ohio, respectively, who moved from Schoolcraft, Kalamazoo County, Michigan to Santa Paula, Ventura County, California between the 1910 and 1920 censuses.